Fiber reinforced concrete


Fiber reinforced concrete

Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete containing fibrous material which increases its structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers that are uniformly distributed and randomly oriented. Fibers include steel fibers, glass fibers, synthetic fibers and natural fibers. Within these different fibers that character of fiber reinforced concrete changes with varying concretes, fiber materials, geometries, distribution, orientation and densities.

Historical perspective

The concept of using fibers as reinforcement is not new. Fibers have been used as reinforcement since ancient times. Historically, horsehair was used in mortar and straw in mud bricks. In the early 1900s, asbestos fibers were used in concrete, and in the 1950s the concept of composite materials came into being and fiber reinforced concrete was one of the topics of interest. There was a need to find a replacement for the asbestos used in concrete and other building materials once the health risks associated with the substance were discovered. By the 1960s, steel, glass (GFRC), and synthetic fibers such as polypropylene fibers were used in concrete, and research into new fiber reinforced concretes continues today.

Effect of fibers in concrete

Fibers are usually used in concrete to control plastic shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage cracking. They also lower the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water. Some types of fibers produce greater impact, abrasion and shatter resistance in concrete. Generally fibers do not increase the flexural strength of concrete, so it can not replace moment resisting or structural steel reinforcement. Some fibers reduce the strength of concrete.

The amount of fibres added to a concrete mix is measured as a percentage of the total volume of the composite (concrete and fibres) termed volume fraction (Vf). Vf typically ranges from 0.1 to 3%. Aspect ratio (l/d) is calculated by dividing fibre length (l) by its diameter (d). Fibres with a non-circular cross section use an equivalent diameter for the calculation of aspect ratio. If the modulus of elasticity of the fibre is higher than the matrix (concrete or mortar binder), they help to carry the load by increasing the tensile strength of the material. Increase in the aspect ratio of the fibre usually segments the flexural strength and toughness of the matrix. However, fibres which are too long tend to "ball" in the mix and create workability problems.

Some recent research indicated that using fibers in concrete has limited effect on the impact resistance of concrete materials [1 & 2] . This finding is very important since traditionally people think the ductility increases when concrete reinforced with fibers. The results also pointed out that the micro fibers is better in impact resistance compared with the longer fibers. [http://www.adfil.co.uk/docs/templates/news.asp?monthid=6&yearid=2004]

The High Speed 1 tunnel linings incorporated concrete containing 1 kg/m³ of polypropylene fibres, of diameter 18 & 32 μm, giving the benefits noted below. [http://www.adfil.co.uk/docs/templates/news.asp?monthid=6&yearid=2004]

Benefits

Polypropylene fibres can:
*Improve mix cohesion, improving pumpability over long distances
*Improve freeze-thaw resistance
*Improve resistance to explosive spalling in case of a severe fire
*Improve impact resistance
*Increase resistance to plastic

ome developments in fiber reinforced concrete

The newly developed FRC named Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) is 500 times more resistant to cracking and 40 percent lighter than traditional concrete. ECC can sustain strain-hardening up to several percent strain, resulting in a material ductility of at least two orders of magnitude higher when compared to normal concrete or standard fiber reinforced concrete. ECC also has unique cracking behavior. When loaded to beyond the elastic range, ECC maintains crack width to below 100 µm, even when deformed to several percent tensile strains.

Recent studies performed on a high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete in a bridge deck found that adding fibers provided residual strength and controlled cracking. There were fewer and narrower cracks in the FRC even though the FRC had more shrinkage than the control. Residual strength is directly proportional to the fiber content.

A new kind of natural fiber reinforced concrete (NFRC) made of cellulose fibers processed from genetically modified slash pine trees is giving good results. The cellulose fibers are longer and greater in diameter than other timber sources.Some studies were performed using waste carpet fibers in concrete as an environmentally friendly use of recycled carpet waste. A carpet typically consists of two layers of backing (usually fabric from polypropylene tape yarns), joined by CaCO3 filled styrene-butadiene latex rubber (SBR), and face fibers (majority being nylon 6 and nylon 66 textured yarns). Such nylon and polypropylene fibers can be used for concrete reinforcement.

ee also

*Reinforced concrete
*Glass-reinforced plastic
*Fibre-reinforced plastic


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Glass fiber reinforced concrete — (GFRC) is a type of fiber reinforced concrete. Glass fiber concretes are mainly used in exterior building façade panels and as architectural precast concrete. This material is very good in making shapes on the front of any building and it is less …   Wikipedia

  • Reinforced concrete — is concrete in which reinforcement bars ( rebars ), reinforcement grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. It was invented by French gardener Joseph Monier in 1849 and patented in 1867.[1] The term… …   Wikipedia

  • Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer — For fibers of carbon, see carbon (fiber). Tail of an RC helicopter, made of CFRP Carbon fiber reinforced polymer or carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP or often simply carbon fiber), is a very strong and light fiber reinforced polymer… …   Wikipedia

  • High performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites — (HPFRCCs) are a group of fiber reinforced cement based composites which possess the unique ability to flex and self strengthen before fracturing. This particular class of concrete was developed with the goal of solving the structural problems… …   Wikipedia

  • Carbon fiber reinforced plastic — (CFRP or CRP), is a very strong, light and expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. Similar to glass reinforced plastic, sometimes known by the genericised trademark fiberglass, the composite material is commonly referred to by… …   Wikipedia

  • Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic — ██████████ …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Concrete — This article is about the construction material. For other uses, see Concrete (disambiguation). Outer view of the Roman Pantheon, still the largest unreinforced solid concrete dome.[1] …   Wikipedia

  • Properties of concrete — Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength, and as such is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension (often steel). The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low… …   Wikipedia

  • Optical fiber — A bundle of optical fibers A TOSLINK fiber optic audio c …   Wikipedia

  • Synthetic fiber — ‹ The template below (Fibre sidebar) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.› Part of a series on …   Wikipedia