Teff


Teff

Taxobox
name = Teff



image_width = 300px
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Liliopsida
ordo = Poales
familia = Poaceae
subfamilia = Chloridoideae
genus = "Eragrostis"
species = "E. tef"
binomial = "Eragrostis tef"
binomial_authority = (Zucc.) Trotter

Teff or taf ("Eragrostis tef", Amharic ጤፍ "ṭēff", Tigrinya ጣፍ "ṭaff") is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to the northern Ethiopian Highlands of northeastern Africa. It has an attractive nutrition profile, being high in dietary fiber and iron and providing protein and calcium.cite book |authorlink= |author=National Research Council |editor= |others= |title=Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains |origdate= |url=http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=2305&page=222 |format= |accessdate=2008-07-18 |edition= |series=Lost Crops of Africa |volume=1 |date=1996-02-14 |publisher=National Academies Press |location= |isbn=978-0-309-04990-0 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=222 |chapter=Tef |chapterurl=http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=2305&page=215 |quote= |ref= ] It has a sour taste. It is similar to millet and quinoa in cooking, but the seed is much smaller.

Teff is an important food grain in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it is used to make injera, and less so in India and Australia. (It is now raised in the USA, in Idaho in particular.) Because of its small seeds (less than 1 mm diameter), one can hold enough to sow a large area in one hand. This property makes teff particularly suited to a seminomadic lifestyle.

Common names include teff, lovegrass, annual bunch grass (English); Ṭeff/Ṭéff (Amharic, both representing the same sound, an ejective consonant); Ṭaffi/xaffi (oromo, both representing the same sound); Ṭaff (Tigrinya); and mil éthiopien (French). It is also written as ttheff, tteff, thaff, tcheff, and thaft. [Anon. 1887specify|date=August 2008] The word "tef" is connected by folk etymology to the EthioSemitic root "ṭff", which means "lost" (because of the small size of the grain).

Teff is believed to have originated in Ethiopia between 4000 BC and 1000 BC. Genetic evidence points to "E. pilosa" as the most likely wild ancestor. [ Ingram AL, Doyle JJ, The origin and evolution of "Eragrostis tef" (Poaceae) and related polyploids: Evidence from nuclear waxy and plastid rps16. "American Journal of Botany" 90 (1): 116-122, 2003] A 19th century identification of teff seeds from an ancient Egyptian site is now considered doubtful; the seeds in question (no longer available for study) are more likely of "E. aegyptiaca", a common wild grass in Egypt.cite book | first=Renate | last=Germer | year=1985 | title=Flora des pharaonischen Ägypten | publisher=von Zabern | location=Mainz | id=ISBN 3-8053-0620-2]

It is adapted to environments ranging from drought stress to waterlogged soil conditions. Maximum teff production occurs at altitudes of 1800 to 2100 m, growing season rainfall of 450 to 550 mm, and a temperature range of 10 to 27 °C. Teff is day length sensitive and flowers best with 12 hours of daylight.

Cultivation and uses

A traditional food plant in Africa, this little-known grain has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.

Teff has been widely cultivated and used in the countries of Eritrea, Ethiopia, India and its colonies, and Australia. Teff accounts for about a quarter of total cereal production in Ethiopia. [Eleni Zaude Gabre-Madhin, Market Institutions, Transaction Costs, and Social Capital in the Ethiopian Grain Market. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2001] The grain has a high concentration of different nutrients, a very high calcium content, and high levels of phosphorus, iron, copper, aluminum, barium, and thiamin. A big advantage, the iron from teff is easily absorbed by the body. Teff is high in protein. It is considered to have an excellent amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) and has lysine levels higher than wheat or barley. Because of this variety, it stimulates the flora of the large intestine. Teff is high in carbohydrates and fiber. It contains no gluten, so it is appropriate for those with gluten intolerance or celiac disease. Consumers greatly prefer white teff to darker colored varieties.G. BELAY, H. TEFERA, B. TADESSE, G. METAFERIA, D. JARRA and T. TADESSE. 2006. Participatory Variety Selection in the Ethiopian Cereal Tef (Eragrostis Tef). "Experimental Agriculture" 42:91-101.]

Teff is a particularly nutritious grain. Its nutritional properties, per 100g of cooked teff are:

It is also a rich source of other minerals including magnesium, boron, copper, phosphorous and zinc. [cite web
url=http://foodlorists.blogspot.com/2007/11/teff-and-gluten-intolerance.html
title=Teff and Gluten Intolerance
publisher= [http://foodlorists.blogspot.com/ Food Lorists]
accessdate=2008-09-18
]

References

External links

* [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/nexus/Eragrostis_tef_nex.html Purdue University Center for New Crops & Plant Products]
* [http://www.ethiopianrestaurant.com/injera.html Teff page at EthiopianRestaurant.com]
* [http://www.teffseed.com Dessie Summer Lovegrass Forage variety]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Teff — (Eragrostis tef) Systematik Commeliniden Ordnung: Süßgrasartige (Poales) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Teff — Eragrostis …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Teff —   Teff …   Wikipedia Español

  • teff — abisininė posmilgė statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Miglinių šeimos grūdinis, maistinis, pašarinis augalas (Eragrostis tef), paplitęs šiaurės Afrikoje, kitur – auginamas. Jo grūdai naudojami maistui. atitikmenys: lot. Eragrostis abyssinica;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • teff — /tɛf/ (say tef) noun a cereal crop, Eragrostis abyssinica, grown especially in Ethiopia, where the fine grain is ground into flour, fermented for three days, and then made into a sourdough flatbread. Also, teff grass. {Amharic teffa lost, with… …   Australian English dictionary

  • teff — noun Etymology: Amharic ṭef Date: 1790 an economically important Ethiopian annual cereal grass (Eragrostis tef syn. E. abyssinica) grown for its small grain which yields a white flour and as a forage and hay crop …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • teff — /tef/, n. a grass, Eragrostis tef, native to northern Africa, where it is cultivated for its edible seeds. [1780 90; < Amharic t ef; cf. Geez t ah af, t ayaf] * * * …   Universalium

  • teff — noun a) A love grass, Eragrostis tef, with small seeds, grown as a cereal and for forage in Ethiopia and parts of Arabia b) The fine grain of this plant …   Wiktionary

  • Teff — effective half life …   Medical dictionary

  • Teff — Tef, Tẹff, der; [s] [afrik.]: nordafrikanische Getreidepflanze …   Universal-Lexikon


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