Doctor of Pharmacy


Doctor of Pharmacy

A Doctor of Pharmacy is a professional doctorate degree in pharmacy. In some countries, it is a first professional degree, and a prerequisite for licensing to exercise the profession of pharmacist.

Contents

Africa

Morocco

Presently, two Moroccan Universities offer a Pharm.D degree (Mohamed V University in Rabat and Hassan II University in Casablanca). The admission at the Pharm.D program is based on excellency of results at the General University Diploma in Biology [2 years] and a very competitive examination. The duration of program is for 4 years (with clinical practice). these two Universities offer two residency programs: in Clinical Biology and Industrial Pharmacy. Graduate programs are also available in Clinical Pharmacy (DUS= Diplôme d'Université Supérieur) [Graduate University Diploma], in Dermatology and Cosmetics (DU= Diplôme d'Université)[ University Diploma], in Pharmaceutical QA and QC (Master program) and in Medicines Sciences (PhD program).

Kenya

The University of Nairobi offers an 6 year Pharmacy program. During the first 4 years, students focus on studying Pharmaceutical science. The last two years are considered clinical residency in which students practice clinical pharmacy at various hospital and community pharmacies before they graduate.

Nigeria

Presently, The University of Benin, Edo State is the only institution offering the Pharm D degree. It is a six (6) year undergraduate program. Students are giving clinical training in Pharmaceutical Care (PC) in various hospitals in the City

Tunisia

A Pharm.D program is available in Tunisia since 2005.

Asia

Bangladesh

The degree is offered in numerous universities. The study material is taught in English. The text books and exams are in English, thesis is provided in English. The universities are the University of Dhaka since 1964, Jahangirnagar University since 1982, Rajshahi University, Khulna University, and Noakhali Science & Technology University. All of these are government universities. There are also 20 private universities in Bangladesh offering pharmacy education.Among them "The University of Asia Pacific (http://www.uap-bd.edu0, International Islamic University Chittagong[1], East West University are top rated private universities. It is the best for home and abroad students. The B.Pharm is completed in 4 years and the M.Pharm in one year. University Of Development Alternative is also one of the best universities in Bangladesh for Pharmacy Study.

India

Pharm.D (6 year integrated doctorate in pharmacy course), was introduced by Govt. of India and The Pharmacy Council of India in 2008. The first batch of post bacularate Pharm.D students will graduate by 2011. The government has taken new innovative steps for increasing the interest of the students. By 2014 there will be more colleges offering Pharm.D courses in India.Many college of pharmacy offering 6 year integrated doctor of pharmacy course and the first batch will come out in 2014.it is five years theory and practical in hospital and pharmaceutical field and student should submitted thesis work at the end of the 5th year and in the final year(6th) student should practice 12 months as a residency/internship in minimum 300 bedded hospital. Intake :

 Six years Pharm D program    - 30 students
Three years (post Baccalaureate) Pharm D program  - 10 students 

Course Content :

 Theory and practical subjects .

o Internship or residency for one year in multi speciality teaching hospital

Includes postings in speciality hospital units
Six months in general medicine department

Two months each in three other speciality departments

Pakistan

In the Pakistan all leading universities are offering 5 years Doctor of pharmacy course.In this regard [Baqai Medical university] is ahead of other universities for its well established six months regular Clinical Pharmacy in the main GOVT hospitals of Peshawar.There are also many privately owned universities in Pakistan offering five years Pharm-D course. Zahoor Medical university also offers the 5 year program of Doctor of Pharmacy in Pakistan.[2] There is also a council that controls all the activities in this study and its applications. It is called the pharmacy council pakistan. The top raking professional of PharmD degrees in Pakistan Uiversity of Peshawar, Punjab University, Karachi University, Quaid e Azam University Islamabadpakistan instute of professional studies

Philippines

In the Philippines, only the Centro Escolar University offers the degree Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD). The degree requires the completion of 52 units of formal course work and 36 units of clinical rotation done at the Makati Medical Center. It is a 2-year postbaccalaureate degree open to licensed pharmacists in the Philippines. [3]

Thailand

In Thailand, Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD)program first established at Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences [4] Naresuan University [5] in 1992.and Faculty of Pharmacy [6] Siam University [7] in 2007.

Europe

Czech Republic and Slovakia

In both countries, the Pharm. D. (Pharmaciae doctor) diploma can be obtained by pharmacists who have previously graduated in pharmacy (Magister, Mgr.) (the undergraduate study of pharmacy takes 5 years). Applicants must defend a research or experimental thesis, and pass a rigorous examination. The PharmDr. title is highly prestigious and written in front of the name. It is different from the postgraduate Ph.D. diploma.

France

In France, pharmacy studies can only be accessed through a competitive examination ("concours", with numerus clausus) happening at the end of the first year of health studies. Most candidates hold a Scientific Baccalaureate from the equivalent to high schools (lycée). In case of failure, it is possible to retry once. Yearly success rate depends on the university's current numerus clausus and the number or registered students, ranging from 10 to 30% bearing in mind that second-time participants are three to four times more likely to succeed than students trying for the first time.
The studies last a minimum of 6 years, or 9 years for students choosing residency (hospital pharmacy or medical biology). It is accessible through another competitive exam, even more selective. It lasts four years and gives another diploma of specialist like in medicine (DES for "diplôme d'études spécialisées" ) . Students must specialise when entering the 5th year, and choose between dispensing pharmacy, pharmaceutical industry or hospital residency. In any case, a 12-month part-time hospital externship is mandatory during the 5th year, although some flexibility is possible for students choosing industry.
6th year for industry is generally dedicated to further specialisation with a former Professional Master's degree or a former Research Master's degree including internship.
State diploma for the Doctorate of Pharmacy, Pharm D., is granted to pharmacists after they have completed a thesis.

In France, since the harmonization of European Union in September 2005, the student who chooses the industry/research orientation have a 6 month period of part time hospital externship, and 3 to 6 month of full time training in a pharmaceutical industry or a research lab.

It is also possible to defend a research thesis for preparing a Ph.D.

Hungary

In Hungary, pharmacists obtain their Master's degree, after 5 years of study. On the fifth year, students must undergo a professional training, that lasts for six months in a public pharmacy or a hospital. At the end of this period, the student must pass a nationwide exam to be legally entitled for practicing the profession of pharmacy, after acquiring the pharmacist work license. According to the new law in 2008, all pharmacists, who have acquired the Masters degree of Pharmacy, are entitled to the Pharm D (Doctor of Pharmacy).

Italy

In Italy the Master's degree in Pharmacy last 5 years, which includes a 6-months professional training in a public pharmacy or hospital. At the end of this period, the student must pass a nationwide exam to be legally entitled for practising the profession of pharmacist. The subscription to "Pharmacists Order", or in Italian "Ordine dei Farmacisti", is required for working in public pharmacies or hospitals. It is not required if the pharmacist is working in a private entity (e.g. a pharmaceutical company).

After having obtained the Master degree in Pharmacy, the student may also choose to become a specialist in Hospital Pharmacy, with an additional 4 year professional study program and respective final exam.

Netherlands

The education of pharmacists in the Netherlands requires a minimum of six years of university study. EU-harmonisation has led to division into three bachelor and three master years. A bachelor title is, however, not used at all professionally. The Dutch consider the educational level of their current (M.Sc.) Degree in Pharmacy to be comparable to the PharmD title in use in the United States. Before the harmonization a four year Master of Science was superseded by two more years of university education preparing for pharmacy practice. To become a hospital pharmacist a 4-year residency program has to completed after that.

Portugal

In Portugal, Pharmacy studies consists in 4 years of basic school, 5 years of preparatory school, and three years of high school where afterward the student is submitted to nationwide exams. The process is the same for every degree the student chooses, from medicine to engineering. The student takes the Master's degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences (equivalent to the PharmD program) in one of the 9 Pharmacy faculties with their own respective numerous clausus which comprises a 6 year rigorous study (5 with the uniformities in EU teaching). Finished the degree, the academic title of Doctor of Pharmacy is issued. The graduate can then enroll in the regulatory institution for the Pharmacist profession in Portugal called, "Portuguese Pharmaceutical Society" or in Portuguese "Ordem dos Farmacêuticos". After the enrollment the title of Pharmacist is issued. Afterward, Pharmacists can start their career in a limitless number of professional areas that range from community pharmacies, drug development, fundamental or applied research, biotechnology to areas such as forensic sciences, toxicology, regulatory affairs, clinical analysis, law enforcement (scientific police), bromatology, drug marketing, regulatory authorities, university teachers, etc. The Pharmacists can also choose to become a specialist in one of following areas of activity: Pharmaceutical Industry, Regulatory Affairs, Hospital Pharmacy, and Clinical Analysis. Each specialization requires an additional 5 year professional study program guided by a tutor in the respective area of knowledge. This training includes regular evaluations by the professional order, which also requires an exam at the end of the 5 year training. After the success at the exam, the Pharmacist then becomes a specialist in its area of expertise.

Spain

In Spain, Pharmacy studies can be accessed after completing five and a half years of University College (with at least 6 months of initiation to Pharmacy Practice). The Licenciado en Farmacia or Grado en Farmacia (equivalent to the PharmD program) Spanish degree is the only title that allows to practice the profession of Pharmacy in Spain. To become a Hospital Pharmacist a person with a degree in Pharmacy must enter a selection process (national selection process called FIR) to initiate a Pharmacy Residency period of professional training during 4 additional years (including one full year of advanced clinical practice in different medical wards). Apart from the professional degrees, like with any other university studies, Pharmacy degree allows to pursue an academic career by enrolling masters and doctorates programs (MSc and PhD) in several scientific fields (pharmaceutical technology, pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutics, biomedical sciences, cosmetics & pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical and organic chemistry, physical chemistry, food sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, public health, etc.). Masters usually lasts 1–2 years and PhD's no less than 4 years.

In summary, in Spain an entry-level pharmacy degree lasts 5 years and a Hospital Pharmacy Specialist needs 9.5 years of education and/or training. Hospital Pharmacy Residents are paid during their residency period. There are other residencies avalailable to pharmacists such as Medical Biology, Clinical Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Analysis, and Industrial Pharmacy lasting from 2 to 4 years. Pharmacists usually work as retail pharmacists (private practice), hospital pharmacists, primary care pharmacists, medical biologists, scientists (private and public biomedical research institutions), as university professors (Pharmacy, Medicine, Biology, Food Sciences, Biochemistry, Veterinary, Nursing, etc.), and as technicians and exceutive managers (pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and governmental institutions).

Middle East

Egypt

There is a new program in many Egyptian universities called clinical pharmacy program which give bachelor degree of pharmaceutical sciences (clinical pharmacy) like Alexandria University, Helwan University and recently Cairo University , Tanta ,zagazig ,bani swif University ,ismalia University ,al mansoura University and Misr International University

Iran

In 1930 Tehran University changed the Pharmacy degree from Masters to doctorate (Pharm.D. or Doctor of Pharmacy) and the duration of the study was increased to 5 years. Graduates need to present and defend their theses in different fields of pharmacy and this adds another year to their studies and generally after 6 years students can graduate as Doctor in Pharmacy. The Masters degree in Pharmacy was available in Tehran University since 1926.

Jordan

In Jordan, this program was first offered in 2000. This program is not to be confused with Pharmacy Program. When the program was first offered, students shared their first 3 years with medicine student, the last two with pharmacy students and one year of clinical work. After 2006, the program's nature had changed; a new curricula was developed specifically for this program. Students now complete 5 years of academical work and 1 year of clinical practice to earn their Doctor of Pharmacy(B.Sc.) degree. This program is offered at some public universities in Jordan, such as Jordan University of Science and Technology and University of Jordan.

Lebanon

In Lebanon, the first Doctor of Pharmacy degree was awarded by the Lebanese University Faculty of Pharmacy (upon a decree by the Lebanese government) to its graduating class of 19 students in 1992. The program was first established by Dr. Anwar Bikhazi, a Pharmacy graduate of the American University of Beirut with a PhD from the University of Michigan. The 6-year entry level PharmD program at the Lebanese University adopted the US PharmD curriculum and training. Enrollment into the program is highly competitive with an average admission rate of 20% of applicants. This was the leading PharmD program in the Middle East, which was followed by other mirror copies of similar programs in Lebanon and neighboring countries, such as the one provided by the Lebanese American University (LAU).

Qatar

In Qatar, pharmacy degrees are offered by the new College of Pharmacy at the Qatar University. Students were accepted into the 5-year BSc (Pharm) program commencing in 2007. Students will be accepted into the final year of the 6-year PharmD program in 2011. Accordingly, the first graduates of the PharmD program are expected in 2012. The program adopts a Canadian curriculum and received early accreditation by the Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP) in February 2009. This is the first international program to undergo review and receive accreditation by this sole Canadian accreditation agency.

Saudi Arabia

Started in 2001 at KAU, then in 2005 at Ibn-Sina University, then 2006 at KFU, then 2007 at Qassim University. In 2008, KSU College of Pharmacy at Riyadh, College of Pharmacy at Kharj, and Taif University started their PharmD programs. The degree duration in Saudi Arabia is six years in total, including one academic year of clinical rotations.

According to the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS), if a student graduates with a (minimum six years) PharmD degree, then the graduate has the chance to further develop himself. This can be achieved by taking an Accredited Residency Training Program that is at least one year long (for a total of seven years, minimum). Upon successfully completing both the Residency program and the PharmD, the graduate can apply for Professional Equivalent (only equivalent in practice) to the Master degree in Pharmacy.It is also available in cnaq

North America

Canada

In Canada the PharmD program is offered in both English and French. Currently in Canada BScPharm (and not PharmD) is the minimum level to practice pharmacy. Students enrolled in the program must have graduated from a CCAPP (Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs) or an ACPE (Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education) school with an accredited teaching program or must have passed the PEBC (Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada) Evaluating and Qualifying examinations. As of fall 2007, the PharmD program is offered at the Université de Montréal (in French) and at the Université Laval (in French). The Université de Montréal was the first Canadian university to give this program instead of the baccalaureate program in pharmacy. A PharmD degree may also be obtained upon completion of a post-graduate program through the University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto.

United States

In the United States, the PharmD. (Doctor of Pharmacy) degree is a professional degree that prepares the graduate for pharmacy practice. It is awarded after four years of pharmacy school, which include one year of practical experience. Most schools require students to take an entrance test[1] (PCAT) and complete 60-90 credit hours (2–3 years) of university coursework in the sciences, mathematics, composition and humanities before entry into a professional program. Many pharmacy students complete a bachelors degree before entry to pharmacy school.

Total time: 2–4 years undergraduate (Associate or Bachelor degree), 4 years professional (PharmD), optional 1–3 years of specialization (residency/fellowship).

Previously, in the United States, the bachelor's degree in pharmacy was the first-professional degree for pharmacy practice. Some schools and colleges of pharmacy offered a post-baccalaureate graduate PharmD degree. These graduate level degrees became prevalent in US programs in the late 1960s.

In 1990, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mandated that a doctor of pharmacy degree would be the new first-professional degree. Currently all accredited schools and colleges of pharmacy in the US offer the PharmD degree. Many also offer post-PharmD graduate programs in specialized areas of the profession.

The current PharmD degree curriculum is very different than that of the prior BS in pharmacy and now includes extensive didactic clinical preparation and a full year of hands-on practice experience.

In the USA, legal requirements to becoming a pharmacist include graduating with a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree from an accredited college of pharmacy, serving an internship under a licensed pharmacist, and passing a state (NAPLEX) and law exam. The designation PharmD is sometimes erroneously likened to a PhD degree which is an advanced scientific degree in this field (ie. Phd. in Pharmacology or Pharmaceutics). PharmD holders can also earn another advanced degree in this field such as the MS in Pharmarcy offered at many US institutions. The former degree was a Bachelor of Pharmacy and required slightly less schooling and different curriculum. Due to the changes to health care in today's society and the increasing need for counseling and medication maintenance, pharmacists have taken on a larger role as clinicians. This increase in the need for accessible health care information for consumers has led to great strides in the field of pharmacy. One result of this has been a change in the way pharmacy schools structure their curriculum as well as an advanced doctorate degree, which further sets the pharmacist apart as a trusted ally in a patient's health care treatment regimen. In fact, pharmacists consistently rank as one of the most trusted professionals in today's society. This degree requires the completion of at least five years of post-secondary schooling but usually requires at least 6-8 years at present time, depending on which state you live in and the pharmacy school which you attend. The former degree obtained upon completion of pharmacy school was a Bachelors in Pharmacy or BS and pharmacists with this designation were given the title RPh. In the USA, pharmacist who acquire a PharmD degree are legally allowed to add the prefix "Dr." before his / her name.[citation needed] Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.

References


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