- Timeline of classical mechanics
:Timeline ofclassical mechanics **Early history***

260 BC -Archimedes mathematically works out the principle of thelever and discovers the principle ofbuoyancy

*60 AD -Hero of Alexandria writes "Metrica, Mechanics," and "Pneumatics"

*1000 -1030 -Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī introducesexperiment alscientific method s instatics anddynamics , and unifies them into thescience ofmechanics ; he also combines the fields ofhydrostatics with dynamics to create the field ofhydrodynamics , [*Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., "*] and realizes thatEncyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science ", Vol. 2, p. 614-642 [642] ,Routledge , London and New Yorkacceleration is connected with non-uniform motionMacTutor|id=Al-Biruni|title=Al-Biruni]

*1000 -1030 - Alhazen [] [Abdus Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987), "Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam", 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, p. 179-213.*Seyyed*] andHossein Nasr , "The achievements of Ibn Sina in the field of science and his contributions to its philosophy", "Islam & Science", December 2003.Avicenna Fernando Espinoza (2005). "An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching", "Physics Education"**40**(2), p. 141.] [*Seyyed*] develop the concepts ofHossein Nasr , "Islamic Conception Of Intellectual Life", in Philip P. Wiener (ed.), "Dictionary of the History of Ideas", Vol. 2, p. 65, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973-1974.inertia andmomentum

*1100 -1138 - Avempace develops the concept of a reaction force []Shlomo Pines (1964), "La dynamique d’Ibn Bajja", in "Mélanges Alexandre Koyré", I, 442-468 [462, 468] , Paris.

(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", "Journal of the History of Ideas"**64**(4), p. 521-546 [543] .)

*1100 -1165 -Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi discovers thatforce is proportional to acceleration rather than velocity, a fundamental law in classical mechanics [*cite encyclopedia | last = Pines | first = Shlomo | title = Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī , Hibat Allah | encyclopedia =*]Dictionary of Scientific Biography | volume = 1 | pages = 26-28 | publisher = Charles Scribner's Sons | location = New York | date = 1970 | isbn = 0684101149

(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", "Journal of the History of Ideas"**64**(4), p. 521-546 [528] .)

*1121 -Al-Khazini publishes "The Book of the Balance of Wisdom", in which he develops the concepts ofgravitational potential energy and gravity at-a-distance [*Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., "*]Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science ", Vol. 2, p. 614-642 [621] ,Routledge , London and New York

*1201 -1274 -Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī described an early yet incomplete theory of theconservation of mass , noting that a body ofmatter is able to change, but is not able to disappear [*Farid Alakbarov (Summer 2001). [*]*http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/92_folder/92_articles/92_tusi.html A 13th-Century Darwin? Tusi's Views on Evolution*] , "Azerbaijan International "**9**(2).

*1340 -1358 -Jean Buridan develops thetheory of impetus

*1490 -Leonardo da Vinci describescapillary action

*1500 -1528 -Al-Birjandi develops the theory of "circularinertia " to explainEarth's rotation F. Jamil Ragep (2001), "Tusi and Copernicus: The Earth's Motion in Context", "Science in Context"**14**(1-2), p. 145–163.Cambridge University Press .]

*1581 -Galileo Galilei notices the timekeeping property of thependulum

*1589 - Galileo Galilei uses balls rolling on inclined planes to show that different weights fall with the same acceleration

*1638 - Galileo Galilei publishes "Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences"

*1658 -Christian Huygens experimentally discovers that balls placed anywhere inside an invertedcycloid reach the lowest point of the cycloid in the same time and thereby experimentally shows that the cycloid is theisochrone

*1668 -John Wallis suggests the law ofconservation of momentum

*1676 -1689 -Gottfried Leibniz develops the concept of "vis viva", a limited theory ofconservation of energy **Newtonian mechanics***

1687 -Isaac Newton publishes his "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ", in which he formulatesNewton's laws of motion andNewton's law of universal gravitation

*1690 -James Bernoulli shows that thecycloid is the solution to the isochrone problem

*1691 -Johann Bernoulli shows that a chain freely suspended from two points will form acatenary

*1691 - James Bernoulli shows that the catenary curve has the lowestcenter of gravity that any chain hung from two fixed points can have

*1696 - Johann Bernoulli shows that the cycloid is the solution to thebrachistochrone problem

*1714 -Brook Taylor derives thefundamental frequency of a stretched vibrating string in terms of its tension and mass per unit length by solving an ordinarydifferential equation

*1733 -Daniel Bernoulli derives the fundamental frequency andharmonic s of a hanging chain by solving an ordinary differential equation

*1734 - Daniel Bernoulli solves the ordinary differental equation for the vibrations of an elastic bar clamped at one end

*1738 - Daniel Bernoulli examinesfluid flow in Hydrodynamica

*1739 -Leonhard Euler solves the ordinary differential equation for a forced harmonic oscillator and notices theresonance phenomenon

*1742 -Colin Maclaurin discovers his uniformly rotating self-gravitating spheroids

*1747 -Pierre Louis Maupertuis applies minimum principles to mechanics

*1759 -Leonhard Euler solves the partial differential equation for the vibration of a rectangulardrum

*1764 - Leonhard Euler examines the partial differential equation for the vibration of a circular drum and finds one of theBessel function solutions

*1776 -John Smeaton publishes a paper on experiments relating power, work,momentum andkinetic energy , and supporting the conservation of energy.

*1788 -Joseph Louis Lagrange presents Lagrange's equations of motion in "Mécanique Analytique"

*1789 -Antoine Lavoisier states the law ofconservation of mass

*1813 -Peter Ewart supports the idea of the conservation of energy in his paper "On the measure of moving force".

*1821 - William Hamilton begins his analysis of Hamilton's characteristic function

*1834 - Carl Jacobi discovers his uniformly rotating self-gravitatingellipsoid s

*1834 - John Russell observes a nondecaying solitary water wave (soliton ) in the Union Canal nearEdinburgh and uses a water tank to study the dependence of solitary water wave velocities on wave amplitude and water depth

*1835 - William Hamilton states Hamilton's canonical equations of motion

*1835 - Gaspard Coriolis examines theoretically the mechanical efficiency of waterwheels, and deduces theCoriolis effect .

*1841 -Julius Robert von Mayer , anamateur scientist, writes a paper on the conservation of energy but his lack of academic training leads to its rejection.

*1842 -Christian Doppler proposes theDoppler effect

*1847 -Hermann von Helmholtz formally states the law of conservation of energy

*1851 - Léon Foucault shows the Earth's rotation with a hugependulum (Foucault pendulum )

*1902 -James Jeans finds the length scale required for gravitational perturbations to grow in a static nearly homogeneous medium**References**

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