- Black middle class
The black middle class, sometimes referred to as Buppie,David Ansen and Spike Lee, [http://www.newsweek.com/id/122433/output/print The Battle For Malcolm X] , "Newsweek", Accessed May 15, 2008.] refers to
African Americanswho occupy a middle class status within the American class structure. It is predominately a development that arose after the 1960s. African Americans had a limited opportunity structure prior to 1960 because of racial discrimination, segregation, and the fact that most lived in the rural South. In 1960, forty-three percent of the white population completed high school, while only twenty percent of the black population did the same. African Americans had little to no access to higher education and only three percent graduated from college. Those blacks who were professionals were mainly confined to serving the African American population. Outside of the black community, they worked in unskilled industrial jobs. Black women who worked were almost all domestic servants.
Economic growth, public policy, black skill development, and the civil rights movement all contributed to the surfacing of a larger black middle class. The civil rights movement helped to desegregate the military and removed barriers to higher education. As opportunity for African Americans expanded, blacks began to take advantage of the new possibilities. By 1980, over 50% of the African American population had graduated high school and eight percent graduated college. Today, approximately 86% of blacks have graduated from high school and 13% graduate college.
* Bart Landry, The New Black Middle Class,
University of California Press, Berkeley, 1987.
* Melvin Oliver and Thomas Shapiro, Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality,
Routledge, New York, 1995.
* Susan Tolliver, Black Families in Corporate America, Sage Publications,
Thousand Oaks, California, 1998.
Michael Dyson, Is Bill Cosby Right?: Or Has the Black Middle Class Lost Its Minds?, New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2005. | ISBN 0-465-01719-3
* Landry, Bart. "The New Black Middle Class". 1987.
* Harris Jr., Robert. "The Rise of the Black Middle Class". The World and I Magazine. Feb. 1999. Vol. 14, pg. 40.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Capital of the Black Middle Class — Durham, North Carolina … Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games
Middle class — Sociology … Wikipedia
Middle Class (band) — Middle Class Origin Santa Ana, California, USA Genres Punk rock Hardcore punk Years active 1977–1982, 2010 Present Past members … Wikipedia
Middle Class — Datos generales Origen Santa Ana, California, USA Información artística Género(s) Punk rock, hardcore punk … Wikipedia Español
American middle class — The American middle class is a social class in the United States. While the concept is typically ambiguous in popular opinion and common language use, contemporary social scientists have put forward several, more or less congruent,… … Wikipedia
American Black Upper Class — The American Black Upper Class consists of African American professionals in fields such as law, medicine, business and entertainment that have incomes that amount to $100,000 or more. [ Lacy, K. (2007). Blue chip Black: race, class, and status… … Wikipedia
Black flight — is a term recently applied to the movement of African Americans from predominately black or mixed inner city areas to suburban areas and outlying edge cities of newer home construction. While more attention has been paid recently, from 1960 2000… … Wikipedia
Black. White. — Black. White. was a reality television show on FX. It premiered on Wednesday March 8, 2006 at 10 p.m. Eastern. The series followed two families of three, one white, and the other black. Through studio quality make up, the two families mdash;the… … Wikipedia
Black in America — is a multi part series of documentaries hosted by reporter Soledad O Brien on CNN. The series is about various issues regarding African Americans, and includes a study on the life and times of Martin Luther King Jr., panel discussions on issues… … Wikipedia
Black Power and the American Myth — is a 1970 book by Reverend C. T. Vivian that analyzes the Civil Rights movement. Before writing Black Power and the American Myth , Vivian had been an activist, a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and a member of the… … Wikipedia