Judy Garland


Judy Garland

Infobox actor
name = Judy Garland


imagesize = 175px
caption = from the trailer for "A Star Is Born" fy|1954
birthname = Frances Ethel Gumm
birthdate = birth date|mf=yes|1922|6|10
birthplace = Grand Rapids, Minnesota, USA
deathdate = Death date and age|mf=yes|1969|6|22|1922|6|10
deathplace = Chelsea, London, England
yearsactive = 1925–1969 (singer)
1929–1963 (actress)
voice_type = Contralto
spouse = David Rose (1941–1944)
Vincente Minnelli (1945–1951)
Sidney Luft (1952–1965)
Mark Herron (1965–1967)
Mickey Deans (1969)
academyawards = Academy Juvenile Award
1940 Outstanding Performance in 1939
goldenglobeawards = Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical/Comedy
1955 "A Star Is Born"
Cecil B. DeMille Award
1962 Lifetime Achievement
grammyawards = Album of the Year
1962 "Judy at Carnegie Hall"
Best Vocal Performance, Female
1962 "Judy at Carnegie Hall"
Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
1997 Lifetime Archievement
tonyawards = Special Tony Award
1952 for her contributions to the revival of vaudeville

Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American actress and singer. Through a career that spanned 45 of her 47 years, Garland attained international stardom as an actress in musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist and on the concert stage. Respected for her versatility, she received a Juvenile Academy Award, won a Golden Globe Award, received the Cecil B. DeMille Award for her work in films, as well as Grammy Awards and a Tony Award. She had a contralto singing range.cite web |url=http://users.deltacomm.com/rainbowz/con070951.html |title=Judy Garland at the Hippodrome |accessdate=2008-09-05 |publisher=Judy Garland - The Live Performances!]

After appearing in vaudeville with her sisters, Garland was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. There she made more than two dozen films, including nine with Mickey Rooney, and the film with which she would be most identified, "The Wizard of Oz" (1939). After 15 years, Garland was released from the studio but gained renewed success through record-breaking concert appearances, including a critically acclaimed Carnegie Hall concert, a well-regarded but short-lived television series and a return to film acting beginning with "A Star Is Born" (1954).

Despite her professional triumphs, Garland battled personal problems throughout her life. Insecure about her appearance, her feelings were compounded by film executives who told her she was unattractive and overweight. Plied with drugs to control her weight and increase her productivity, Garland endured a decades-long struggle with addiction. Garland was plagued by financial instability, often owing hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes, and her first four of five marriages ended in divorce. She attempted suicide on a number of occasions. Garland died of an accidental drug overdose at the age of forty-seven, leaving children Liza Minnelli, Lorna Luft and Joey Luft.

In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the ten greatest female stars in the history of American cinema. [cite web|title=AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars|url=http://www.afi.com/tvevents/100years/stars.aspx|publisher=American Film Institute|date=1999-06-16|accessdate=2008-06-12]

Childhood and early life

Born in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, Garland was the youngest child of former vaudevillians Frank Gumm and Ethel Marion Milne. Her ancestry on both sides of the family can be traced back to the early colonial days of the United States. Her father was descended from the Marable family of Virginia and her mother from Patrick Fitzpatrick, who arrived in America from Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland, in the 1770s. [cite web
last =McClure
first =Rhonda
title = Ancestry of Liza Minnelli
publisher =Genealogy.com
date =2002-06-13
url =http://www.genealogy.com/famousfolks/liza-minnelli/
accessdate = 2007-12-22
]

Named after both her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church, "Baby" (as Frances was affectionately called) shared the family's flair for song and dance. "Baby" Gumm's first appearance came at the age of two-and-a-half, when she joined her two older sisters, Mary Jane ("Suzy") and Dorothy Virginia ("Jimmie") on stage for a chorus of "Jingle Bells" in a Christmas show at her father's movie theater. [Shipman p. 12]

The Gumm girls performed at their father's theater, accompanied by their mother on piano, for the next few years. In June 1926, following rumors that Frank had made sexual advances toward male ushers at his theater, the family relocated to Lancaster, California. [Clarke, Gerald. "Get Happy: The Life of Judy Garland". Random House. New York, 2001. p. 23] Frank purchased and operated another theater there and Ethel, acting as their manager, began working to get her daughters into pictures.

The Gumm Sisters

In 1928, The Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe. The sisters appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show. [Clarke . 29–30] It was through the Meglin Kiddies that Garland and her sisters would make their film debut, in a 1929 short subject called "The Big Revue". This was followed by appearances in two Vitaphone shorts the following year, "A Holiday in Storyland" (featuring Garland's first on-screen solo) and "The Wedding of Jack and Jill". They next appeared together in "Bubbles". The final on-screen appearance of The Gumm Sisters came in 1935, in another short entitled "La Fiesta de Santa Barbara". [Finch p. 43–7, 76]

In 1934, the sisters, who had been touring the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters" for many years, performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel. He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after the name "Gumm" was met with laughter from the audience. "The Garland Sisters" was chosen, and Frances changed her name to "Judy" soon after, inspired by a popular Hoagy Carmichael song. [Edwards p. 27]

Several stories persist regarding the origin of the name "Garland." One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard's character Lily Garland in the film "Twentieth Century" which was then playing at the Oriental; another is that the trio chose the surname after drama critic Robert Garland. [cite episode
title = Judy: Beyond the Rainbow
episodelink =
series = Biography
serieslink = Biography (television program)|Biography
airdate = 1999-01-01
season =
number =
] Garland's daughter Lorna Luft stated that her mother selected the name when Jessel announced that the trio of singers "looked prettier than a garland of flowers." [Luft p. 26] Another variation surfaced when Jessel was a guest on Garland's television show in 1963. He claimed that he had sent actress Judith Anderson a telegram containing the word "garland" and it stuck in his mind. [cite episode
title = Episode 12
episodelink =
series = The Judy Garland Show
serieslink =
airdate = 1963-11-01
season = 1
number = 12
]

igned at MGM

In 1935 Garland was signed to a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, supposedly without a screen test, although she had made a test for the studio several months earlier. The studio did not know what to do with Garland, as at age thirteen she was older than the traditional child star but too young for adult roles. Garland's physical appearance created a dilemma for MGM. At only convert|4|ft|11.5|in|cm, Garland's "cute" or "girl-next-door" looks did not exemplify the more glamorous persona required by leading ladies of the time. She was self-conscious and anxious about her appearance. "Judy went to school at Metro with Ava Gardner, Lana Turner, Elizabeth Taylor, real beauties," said Charles Walters, who directed Garland in a number of films. "Judy was the big money-maker at the time, a big success, but she was the ugly duckling...I think it had a very damaging effect on her emotionally for a long time. I think it lasted forever, really." [cite episode
title = Judy: Impressions of Garland
url = http://imdb.com/title/tt0813809/
series = Omnibus
serieslink =
airdate = 1972
] Her insecurity was exacerbated by the attitude of studio chief Louis B. Mayer, who referred to her as his "little hunchback." [cite book
last =Wayne
first =Jane Ellen
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =The Golden Girls of MGM
publisher =Carroll and Graf
year =2003
location =New York
pages =204
url =
doi =
id =
isbn = 0786713038
] During her early years at the studio, she was photographed and dressed in plain garments or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match the "girl-next-door" image that was created for her. She was made to wear portable caps on her teeth and rubberized disks to reshape her nose. [Frank p. 73] She performed at various studio functions and was eventually cast opposite Deanna Durbin in the musical short "Every Sunday". The film served as an extended screen test for the pair as studio executives were wondering at the wisdom of having two girl singers on the roster. [Clarke p. 73] Mayer finally decided to keep both girls, but by that time Durbin's option had lapsed and she was signed by Universal Studios.

On November 16, 1935, in the midst of preparing for a radio performance on the "Shell Chateau Hour," Garland learned that her father—who had been hospitalized with spinal meningitis—had taken a turn for the worse. Frank Gumm died the following morning, on November 17. Garland's song for the "Shell Chateau Hour" was her first professional rendition of "Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart", a song which would become a standard in many of her concerts. [Clarke p. 58]

Garland next came to the attention of studio executives by singing a special arrangement of "You Made Me Love You" to Clark Gable at a birthday party held by the studio for the actor; her rendition was so well regarded that Garland performed the song in their all-star extravaganza "Broadway Melody of 1938" (1937), in which she sang the song to a photograph of Gable. [Edwards p. 47]

MGM hit on a winning formula when it paired Garland with Mickey Rooney in a string of "backyard musicals." The duo first appeared together in the 1937 B movie "Thoroughbreds Don't Cry". They became a sensation, and teamed up again in "Love Finds Andy Hardy". Garland would eventually star with Rooney in nine films.

To keep up with the frantic pace of making one film after another, Garland, Rooney, and other young performers were constantly given amphetamines, as well as barbiturates to take before bed. [cite episode
title = Judy Garland: By Myself
episodelink =
series = American Masters
serieslink =
airdate = 2004-02-25
season =
number =
] For Garland, this regular dose of drugs led to addiction and a lifelong struggle, and contributed to her eventual demise. She later resented the hectic schedule and felt that her youth had been stolen from her by MGM. Despite successful film and recording careers, several awards, critical praise, and her ability to fill concert halls worldwide, Garland was plagued throughout her life with self-doubt and required constant reassurance that she was talented and attractive. [Clarke p. 135–6] Oscar Levant later remarked that "at parties, Judy could sing all night, endlessly... but when it came time to appear on a movie set, she just wouldn't show up." [cite book
last =Levant
first =Oscar
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =The Unimportance of Being Oscar
publisher =Pocket Books
year =1969
location =New York
pages =35
url =
doi =
id =
isbn = 00-671-77104-3
]

"The Wizard of Oz"

Garland soon landed the lead role of Dorothy Gale in "The Wizard of Oz" (1939) at the age of sixteen, in which she introduced the song with which she would forever be identified, "Over the Rainbow". Although producers Arthur Freed and Mervyn LeRoy had wanted Garland from the start, studio chief Mayer tried first to borrow Shirley Temple from 20th Century Fox. Temple's services were denied and Garland was cast. [Juneau p. 37] Garland was initially outfitted in a blonde wig for the part but Freed and LeRoy decided against it shortly into filming. Her breasts were bound with tape and she was made to wear a special corset to flatten out her curves and make her appear younger; her blue gingham dress (her only costume) was also chosen for its blurring effect on her figure. [Finch p. 134–5]

Shooting commenced on October 13, 1938, [Clarke p. 95] and was completed on March 16, 1939, [Clarke p. 100] with a final cost of over $2,000,000. [Edwards p. 61] From the conclusion of filming, MGM kept Garland busy with promotional tours and the shooting of "Babes in Arms". Garland and Mickey Rooney were sent on a cross-country promotional tour, culminating in the August 17 New York City premiere at the Capitol Theatre, which included a five-show-a-week appearance schedule for the two stars. [Clarke p. 102–3]

"The Wizard of Oz" was a tremendous critical success, although its high budget and promotions costs of an estimated $4,000,000, coupled with the lower revenue generated by children's tickets, meant that the film did not make a profit until it was re-released in the 1940s. [Clarke p. 104] At the 1940 Academy Awards ceremony, Garland received an Academy Juvenile Award for her performances in 1939, including "The Wizard of Oz" and "Babes in Arms". [Clarke p. 105] Following this recognition, Garland became one of MGM's most bankable stars.

Adult stardom

In 1940, she starred in three films: "Andy Hardy Meets Debutante", "Strike Up the Band", and "Little Nellie Kelly". In the latter film, Garland played her first adult role, a dual role of both mother and daughter. "Little Nellie Kelly" was purchased from George M. Cohan as a vehicle for Garland to assess both her audience appeal and her physical appearance. The role was a challenge for her, requiring the use of an accent, her first adult kiss and the only death scene of her career. [Juneau p. 55–6] The success of these three films, and a further three films in 1941, secured her position at MGM as a major property.

During this time Garland experienced her first serious adult romances. The first was with the band leader Artie Shaw. Garland was deeply devoted to Shaw and was devastated in early 1940 when Shaw eloped with Lana Turner. [Frank p. 148–9] Garland began a relationship with musician David Rose, and on her eighteenth birthday, Rose gave her an engagement ring. The studio intervened because Rose was still married at the time to the actress and singer Martha Raye. The couple agreed to wait a year to allow for Rose's divorce from Raye to become final, and were wed on July 27, 1941. [Clarke p. 155] She was noticeably thinner in her next film, "For Me and My Gal", alongside Gene Kelly in his first screen appearance. Garland was top billed over the credits for the first time and effectively made the transition from teenage star to adult actress.

At the age of twenty-one, she was given the "glamour treatment" in "Presenting Lily Mars", in which she was dressed in "grown-up" gowns. Her lightened hair was also pulled up in a stylish fashion. However, no matter how glamorous or beautiful she appeared on screen or in photographs, she was never confident in her appearance and never escaped the "girl next door" image that had been created for her. [Frank p 175] Adding to her insecurity was the dissolution of her marriage to David Rose. Garland, who had aborted her pregnancy by Rose in 1942, agreed to a trial separation in January 1943 and they divorced in 1944. [Clarke p. 211]

One of Garland's most successful films for MGM was "Meet Me in St. Louis" (1944), in which she introduced three standards: "The Trolley Song", "The Boy Next Door", and "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas." Vincente Minnelli was assigned to direct this movie, and he requested that make-up artist Dorothy Ponedel be assigned to Garland for the picture. Ponedel refined Garland's appearance in several ways, including extending and reshaping her eyebrows, changing her hairline, modifying her lip line and removing her nose discs. Garland appreciated the results so much that Ponedel was written into her contract for all her remaining pictures at MGM. [cite book
last =Minnelli
first =Vincente
authorlink =
coauthors =Hector Arce
title =I Remember it Well
publisher =Doubleday
year =1974
location =
pages =
url =
doi =
id =
isbn = 057-3606-072
] During the filming of "Meet Me in St. Louis", after some initial conflict between them, Garland and Minnelli entered a relationship together. They were married June 15, 1945, [cite news
last =Hopper
first =Hedda
title =No More Tears for Judy
work =Women's Home Companion
date =September 1954
accessdate =
] and on March 12, 1946, daughter Liza Minnelli was born. [Clarke p. 223]

"The Clock" (1945) was her first straight dramatic film, opposite Robert Walker. Though the film was critically praised and earned a profit, most movie fans expected her to sing. It would be many years before she acted again in a non-singing dramatic role.

Garland's other famous films of the 1940s include "The Harvey Girls" (1946), in which she introduced the Academy Award-winning song "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe", and "The Pirate" (1948).

Leaving MGM

During filming for "The Pirate" in April 1947, Garland suffered a nervous breakdown and was placed in a private sanitarium. [Edwards p. 108] She was able to complete filming, but in July of that year she made her first suicide attempt, making minor cuts to her wrist with a broken glass. [Frank p. 231] Following her work on "The Pirate", Garland completed three more films for MGM: "Easter Parade", "In the Good Old Summertime", and her final film with MGM, "Summer Stock".

Garland was unable to complete a series of films. During the filming of "The Barkleys of Broadway", Garland was taking prescription sleeping medication along with illicitly obtained pills containing morphine. These, in combination with migraine headaches, led Garland to miss several shooting days in a row. After being advised by Garland's doctor that she would only be able to work in four- to five-day increments with extended rest periods between, MGM executive Arthur Freed made the decision to suspend Garland on July 18, 1948. She was replaced by Ginger Rogers. [Shipman p. 225] Garland was cast in the film adaptation of "Annie Get Your Gun" in the title role of Annie Oakley. She was nervous at the prospect of taking on a role strongly identified with Ethel Merman, anxious about appearing in an unglamourous role after breaking from juvenile parts for several years, and disturbed by her treatment at the hands of director Busby Berkeley. She began arriving late to the set and sometimes failed to appear. She was suspended from the picture on May 10, 1949, and was replaced by Betty Hutton. [Clarke p. 255] Garland was next cast in the film "Royal Wedding" when June Allyson became pregnant in 1950. She again failed to report to the set on multiple occasions, and the studio suspended her contract on June 17, 1950, replacing her with Jane Powell. [Frank p. 271] Reputable biographies following Garland's death would state that after this latest dismissal, she slightly grazed her neck with a broken water glass, requiring only a Band-Aid, but at the time, the public was informed that a despondent Garland had slashed her throat.cite news
last =Alexander
first =Shana
coauthors =
title =Judy's New Rainbow
work =Life magazine
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1961-06-02
url =
accessdate =
] "All I could see ahead was more confusion," Garland later said of this suicide attempt. "I wanted to black out the future as well as the past. I wanted to hurt myself and everyone who had hurt me."cite news
last =Hyams
first =Joe
title =Crack-Up
work =Photoplay
date =January 1957
accessdate =
]

Renewed stardom on the stage

In 1951, Garland divorced Vincente Minnelli. [cite news
last =
first =
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland Files Suit for Divorce
work =
pages =
language =
publisher =U.P.
date =1952-02-22
url =
accessdate =
] She engaged Sid Luft as her manager the same year. [Juneau p. 108] Luft arranged a four-month concert tour of the United Kingdom, where she played to sold out audiences throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland. [Frank p. 304] The tour included Garland's first appearances at the renowned London Palladium for a four-week stand in April.cite news
last =MacPherson
first =Virginia
title =Judy Garland in Comeback with Palladium Contract
publisher =U.P.
date =1951-04-10
accessdate =
] Although the British press chided her before her opening for being "too plump," she received rave reviews and the ovation was described by the Palladium manager as the loudest he had ever heard. [cite news
title =British Give Judy Garland Big Ovation
publisher =Associated Press
date = 1951-04-10
accessdate =
]

In October 1951, Garland opened in a vaudeville-style, two-a-day engagement at Broadway's newly-refurbished Palace Theatre. Her 19-week engagement exceeded all previous records for the theater and was described as "one of the greatest personal triumphs in show business history." [cite news
last =Garver
first =Jack
title =Judy Garland Ends Triumphant Vaudeville Run
publisher =UPI
date =1952-02-24
accessdate =
] Garland was honored for her contribution to the revival of vaudeville with a special Tony Award. [cite web
title =Judy Garland
publisher =American Theatre Wing
url =http://www.tonyawards.com/p/tonys_search
accessdate = 2007-12-24
]

Garland and Luft were married on June 8, 1952, in Hollister, California, [cite news
last =Garver
first =Jack
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland Married With Simple Ceremony
work =
pages =
language =
publisher =U.P.
date =1952-06-12
url =
accessdate =
] and Garland gave birth to the couple's first child, Lorna, on November 21 that year. [Edwards p. 166]

Garland's personal and professional achievements during this time were marred by the actions of her mother, Ethel. In May 1952, at the height of Garland's comeback, Ethel was featured in a "Los Angeles Mirror" story in which she revealed that while Garland was making a small fortune at the Palace, Ethel was working a desk job at Douglas Aircraft Company for $61 a week. [Clarke p. 311] Garland and Ethel had been estranged for years, with Garland characterizing her mother as "no good for anything except to create chaos and fear" and accusing her of mismanaging and misappropriating Garland's salary from the earliest days of her career.cite news
last =Garland
first =Judy
coauthors =
title =The Plot Against Judy Garland
work =Ladies' Home Journal
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =August 1967
url =
accessdate =
] Garland's sister Virginia denied this, stating "Mama never took a dime from Judy." [cite news
last =Shearer
first =Lloyd
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland's Sister: The Happy One in the Family
work =Parade magazine
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1964-10-04
url =
accessdate =
] On January 5, 1953, Ethel was found dead in the Douglas Aircraft parking lot. [Clarke p. 309]

"A Star Is Born"

In 1954, Garland filmed a musical remake of "A Star Is Born" for Warner Bros. Luft and Garland, through their production company Transcona, produced the film while Warner Bros. supplied the funds, production facilities and crew. [Clarke p. 308] Directed by George Cukor and co-starring James Mason, it was a large undertaking to which Garland initially fully dedicated herself. As shooting progressed, however, she began making the same pleas of illness which she had so often made during her final films at MGM. Production delays led to cost overruns and angry confrontations with Warner Bros. head Jack Warner. Principal photography wrapped on March 17, 1954. At Luft's suggestion, the "Born in a Trunk" medley was filmed as a showcase for Garland and inserted over director Cukor's objections, who feared the additional length would lead to cuts in other areas. The "Born in a Trunk" sequence was completed on July 29. [Clarke p. 319]

Upon its September 29 world premiere, the film was met with tremendous critical and popular acclaim. Before release it was edited at the instruction of Jack Warner; theater operators, concerned that they were losing money by being able to run the film for three or four shows per day instead of five or six, pressured the studio to make additional reductions. About 30 minutes of footage was cut, sparking outrage amongst critics and filmgoers. "A Star is Born" ended up losing money and the secure financial position Garland had expected from the profits did not materialize. [Clarke p. 325] Transcona made no more films with Warner. [Juneau p. 126]

Garland was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress and, in the run-up to the 27th Academy Awards, was believed to be the likely winner by both the public and critics. She could not attend the ceremony because she had just given birth to her son, Joseph Luft, so a television crew was in Garland's hospital room with cameras and wires to televise Garland's acceptance speech. The Oscar was won by Grace Kelly for "The Country Girl" (1954). The camera crew was packing up before Kelly could even reach the stage. Groucho Marx sent Garland a telegram after the awards declaring her loss "the biggest robbery since Brinks." [Clarke p. 326] Garland won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Musical for the role.cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland
work =
publisher =Hollywood Foreign Press Association
date =
url =http://www.goldenglobes.org/browse/member/29377
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-12-24
]

Garland's films after "A Star Is Born" included "Judgment at Nuremberg" (1961) (for which she was Oscar- and Golden Globe-nominated for Best Supporting Actress), the animated feature "Gay Purr-ee" (1962), and "A Child Is Waiting" (1963) with Burt Lancaster. Her final film, "I Could Go On Singing" (1963), co-starring Dirk Bogarde, mirrored her own life with its story of a world famous singing star. Garland’s last screen performance of a song was the prophetic "I Could Go on Singing" at the end of the film.

Television, concerts and Carnegie Hall

Beginning in 1955, Garland appeared in a number of television specials. The first, the 1955 debut episode of "Ford Star Jubilee", was the first full-scale color broadcast ever on CBS and was a ratings triumph, scoring a 34.8 Nielsen rating. Garland signed a three-year, $300,000 contract with the network. Only one additional special, a live concert edition of "General Electric Theater", was broadcast in 1956 before the relationship between the Lufts and CBS broke down in a dispute over the planned format of upcoming specials. [Sanders p. 24] In 1956, Garland performed four weeks at the New Frontier Hotel on the Las Vegas Strip for a salary of $55,000 per week, making her the highest-paid entertainer to work in Las Vegas to date. Despite a brief bout of laryngitis, her performances there were so successful that her run was extended an extra week. [Frank p. 420–1] Later that year she returned to the Palace Theatre, site of her two-a-day triumph. She opened in September, once again to rave reviews and popular acclaim. [cite news
last =
first =
coauthors =
title =Judy Reigns in Palace as Queen of New York
work =
pages =
language =
publisher =U.P.
date =1952-10-31
url =
accessdate =
]

In November 1959 Garland was hospitalized, diagnosed with acute hepatitis. [cite news
last =
first =
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland Said To Have Hepatitis
work =
pages =
language =
publisher =U.P.I.
date =1959-11-26
url =
accessdate =
] Over the next few weeks several quarts of fluid were drained from her body until, still weak, she was released from the hospital in January 1960. She was told by doctors that she likely had five years or less to live and that even if she did survive she would be a semi-invalid and would never sing again. [Clarke p. 347] She initially felt "greatly relieved" at the diagnosis. "The pressure was off me for the first time in my life." However, Garland successfully recovered over the next several months and, in August of that year, returned to the stage of the Palladium. She felt so warmly embraced by the British that she announced her intentions to move permanently to England. [Clarke p. 349]

Her concert appearance at Carnegie Hall on April 23, 1961, was a considerable highlight, called by many "the greatest night in show business history." [cite news
last =Cox
first =Gordon
coauthors =
title =Rufus over the rainbow
work =Variety
pages =
language =
publisher =Variety.com
date =2006-05-28
url =
accessdate = 2007-12-24
] The two-record "Judy at Carnegie Hall" was certified gold, charting for 95 weeks on "Billboard", including thirteen weeks at number one. The album won five Grammy Awards including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal of the Year. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Grammy Awards for Judy at Carnegie Hall
work =
publisher =The Recording Academy
date =
url =http://www.grammy.com/GRAMMY_Awards/Winners/Results.aspx
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-12-27
] The album has never been out of print.

In 1961, Garland and CBS settled their contract disputes with the help of her new agent, Freddie Fields, and negotiated a new round of specials. The first, entitled "The Judy Garland Show", aired in 1962 and featured guests Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin. [Sanders p. 29] Following this success, CBS made a $24 million offer to Garland for a weekly television series of her own, also to be called "The Judy Garland Show", which was deemed at the time in the press to be "the biggest talent deal in TV history." Although Garland had said as early as 1955 that she would never do a weekly television series,cite news
last =Parsons
first =Louella
coauthors =
title =TV Spectacular Gives New Rainbow to Judy
work =The Daily Review
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1955-09-23
url =
accessdate =
] in the early 1960s she was in a financially precarious situation. Garland was several hundred thousand dollars in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, having failed to pay taxes in 1951 and 1952, and the financial failure of "A Star is Born" meant that she received nothing from that investment. [Edwards p. 175] A successful run on television was intended to secure Garland's financial future.

Following a third special, "Judy Garland and Her Guests Phil Silvers and Robert Goulet", Garland's weekly series debuted September 29, 1963. [Sanders p. 391] "The Judy Garland Show" was critically praised, [Sanders p. 108–9] [cite news
last =Lewis
first =Richard Warren
coauthors =
title =The TV Troubles of Judy Garland
work =The Saturday Evening Post
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1963-12-07
url =
accessdate =
] but for a variety of reasons (including being placed in the time slot opposite "Bonanza" on NBC) the show lasted only one season and was cancelled in 1964 after 26 episodes. Despite its short run, the series was nominated for four Emmy Awards. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Awards for The Judy Garland Show (1963)
work =
publisher =Academy of Television Arts and Sciences
date =
url =http://www.emmys.tv/awards/awardsearch.php
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-12-14
] The demise of the series was personally and financially devastating for Garland who never fully recovered from its failure.

Final years

With the demise of her television series, Garland returned to the stage. Most notably, she performed at the London Palladium with her then 18-year-old daughter Liza Minnelli in November 1964. The concert, which was also filmed for British television network ITV, was one of Garland's final appearances at the venue. She made guest appearances on the "The Ed Sullivan Show", "The Tonight Show", "The Hollywood Palace" and "The Merv Griffin Show", an episode of which she guest-hosted. [DiOrio p. 202]

Garland sued Sid Luft for divorce in 1963, claiming "cruelty" as the grounds. She also asserted that Luft had repeatedly struck her while he was drinking and that he had attempted to take their children from her by force.cite news
last =
first =
coauthors =
title =Judy Wins Divorce From Sid Luft
work =Wisconsin State Journal
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1965-05-20
url =
accessdate =
] She had filed for divorce more than once previously, including as early as 1956. [cite news
last =Irwin
first =Elson
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland: Femme Fatale
work =Stars and Stripes
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1968-11-17
url =
accessdate =
]

A 1964 tour of Australia was largely disastrous. Garland's first concert in Sydney, held in Sydney Stadium because no concert hall could accommodate the crowds who wanted to see her, went well and received positive reviews. Her second performance, in Melbourne, started an hour late. The crowd of 70,000, angered by her tardiness — and believing her to be drunk — booed and heckled Garland. The performer fled the stage after just 45 minutes. [Edwards p. 213] She later characterized the Melbourne crowd as "brutish". A second concert in Sydney was uneventful but the Melbourne appearance garnered her significant bad press. [cite news
last =
first =
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland Locks Self in Hotel Room
work =Stars and Stripes
pages =
language =
publisher =U.P.I.
date =1964-05-24
url =
accessdate =
] Some of that bad press was deflected by the announcement of a near fatal episode of pleurisy, followed by Garland's fourth marriage to tour promoter Mark Herron. They announced that their marriage had taken place aboard a freighter off the coast of Hong Kong, however, Garland was not legally divorced from Luft at the time the ceremony was performed. [Edwards p. 214] Her divorce from Luft became final on May 19, 1965, but Herron and Garland did not legally marry until November 14. [Frank p. 556]

In February 1967, Garland was cast as "Helen Lawson" in "Valley of the Dolls" for 20th Century Fox. The character of "Neely O'Hara" in the book by Jacqueline Susann was rumored to have been based on Garland. The role of O'Hara in the film was played by Patty Duke. During the filming, Garland missed rehearsals and was fired in April. She was replaced by Susan Hayward. [Seaman p. 292–3, 343]

Returning to the stage, Garland made her last appearances at New York's Palace Theatre in July, a 16-show tour, performing with her children Lorna and Joey Luft. Garland wore a sequined pantsuit on stage for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her character in "Valley of the Dolls." [Shipman p. 494] By early 1969, Garland's health had deteriorated. She performed in London at the "Talk of the Town" nightclub for a five-week run [Clarke p. 412] and made her last concert appearance in Copenhagen during March 1969. [DiOrio p. 204] She married her final husband, Mickey Deans, in London on March 17, 1969, [cite book
last =Steiger
first =Brad
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland
publisher =ACE Books
year =1969
location =New York
pages =88
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] her divorce from Herron having been finalized on February 11 of that year. [Edwards p. 275]

On June 22, 1969, Garland was found dead by Deans in the bathroom of their rented Chelsea, London house. The coroner, Gavin Thursdon, stated at the inquest that the cause of death was "an incautious self-overdosage" of barbiturates; her blood contained the equivalent of ten convert|1.5|gr|mg|adj=on|lk=in Seconal capsules. [Clarke p. 422] Thursdon stressed that the overdose had been unintentional and that there was no evidence to suggest she had committed suicide. Garland's autopsy showed that there was no inflammation of her stomach lining and no drug residue in her stomach, which indicated that the drug had been ingested over a long period of time, rather than in one dose. Her death certificate stated that her death had been "accidental". [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Judy Garland The Live Performances. The End of the Rainbow
work =
publisher =
date =
url =http://users.deltacomm.com/rainbowz/eotr.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-02-01
citing "United Press International" article "Judy Took Too Many Pills", and containing a copy of Garland's death certificate.
] Garland had turned forty-seven just twelve days prior to her death. Her "Wizard of Oz" co-star Ray Bolger commented at Garland's funeral, "She just plain wore out." An estimated 20,000 people lined up for hours at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Home to view her body. [cite news
last =
first =
coauthors =
title =End of the Rainbow
work =TIME magazine
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1969-07-04
url =http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,840196-1,00.html
accessdate = 2007-12-18
] Garland was interred in Ferncliff Cemetery, in Hartsdale, New York.

Legacy

Judy Garland's legacy as a performer and a personality has endured long after her death. The American Film Institute named Garland eighth among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars
work =
publisher =American Film Institute
date =1999-06-16
url =http://www.afi.com/tvevents/100years/stars.aspx
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-12-22
] She has been the subject of some two dozen biographies since her death, including the well-received ' by her daughter, Lorna Luft. Luft's memoir was later adapted into the multiple award-winning television mini-series, ', which won Emmy awards for two actresses portraying Garland (Tammy Blanchard and Judy Davis). Garland was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1997. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Lifetime Achievement Award
work =
publisher =The Recording Academy
date =
url =http://www.grammy.com/Recording_Academy/Awards/Lifetime_Awards/
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-12-25
] Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Grammy Hall of Fame Award
work =
publisher =The Recording Academy
date =
url =http://www.grammy.com/Recording_Academy/Awards/Hall_Of_Fame/
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-12-25
] These include "Over the Rainbow," which was ranked as the number one movie song of all time in the American Film Institute's "100 Years...100 Songs" list. Four more Garland songs are featured on the list: "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" (#76), "Get Happy" (#61), "The Trolley Song" (#26), and "The Man That Got Away" (#11). [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs
work =
publisher =American Film Institute
date =2004-06-22
url =http://www.afi.com/tvevents/100years/songs.aspx
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-12-25
] Garland has twice been honored on U.S. postage stamps, in 1989 (as Dorothy) [cite news
last =Kronish
first =Syd
coauthors =
title =Hollywood film legends preserved on latest issue
work =The Sunday Capital
pages =
language =
publisher =
date =1990-04-08
url =
accessdate =
] and again in 2006 (as Vicki Lester from "A Star Is Born"). [cite press release
title =The 2006 Commemorative Stamp Program
publisher =United States Postal Service
date =2005-11-30
url =http://www.usps.com/communications/news/stamps/2005/sr05_054.htm?from=bannercommunications&page=comstamps
accessdate = 2007-12-25
]

Gay icon

Of particular note is Garland's status as a gay icon. [cite book
last =Haggerty
first =George E
title =Gay Histories and Cultures
publisher =
isbn = 0815318804
] She always had a large base of fans in the gay community. During a press conference in the 1960s, a reporter asked Garland if she was aware of her loyal gay following. "I couldn't care less," she said. "I sing to people." [cite book
last = Braun
first = Eric
title = Frightening the Horses: Gay Icons of the Cinema
publisher = Reynolds & Hearn
year = 2002
isbn = 1903111102
] Reasons often given for her standing, especially amongst gay men, are admiration of her ability as a performer; the way her personal struggles supposedly mirrored those of gay men in America during the height of her fame and her value as a camp figure. [cite book
last =Murray
first =Raymond
title =Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video
publisher =TLA Video Management
year =1996
isbn =
] A connection is frequently drawn between the timing of Garland's death and funeral, in June 1969, and the Stonewall Riots, the flash point of the modern Gay Liberation movement. [cite book
last =Miller
first =Neil
title =Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present
publisher =Vintage UK
year =1995
location =
pages =367
isbn =009957691
] Coincidental or not, the proximity of Garland's death to Stonewall has become a part of LGBT history and lore. [Bianco, David, " [http://www.planetout.com/news/history/archive/06211999.html Stonewall Riots] ", 1995-2006, PlanetOut]

Filmography and performances

Discography

Awards

###@@@KEY@@@### s-achsuccession box
title = Academy Juvenile Award
years = 1939
before= Deanna Durbin, Mickey Rooney
after = Margaret O'Brien
succession box
title = Special Tony Award
years = 1952
before= Ruth Green
after = Beatrice Lillie, Danny Kaye
succession box
title = Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
years = 1954
for "A Star Is Born"
before= Ethel Merman
for "Call Me Madam"
after = Jean Simmons
for "Guys and Dolls"
succession box
title = Cecil B. DeMille Award
years = 1962
before= Fred Astaire
after = Bob Hope
succession box
title = Grammy Award for Album of the Year
years = 1962
for "Judy at Carnegie Hall"
before= Bob Newhart
for "The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart"
after = Vaughn Meader
for "The First Family"
succession box
title = Grammy Award for Best Vocal Performance, Female
years = 1962
for "Judy at Carnegie Hall"
before= Ella Fitzgerald
for ""
after = Ella Fitzgerald
for "Ella Swings Brightly with Nelson"
succession box
title = Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
years = 1997
before= Dave Brubeck, Marvin Gaye, Georg Solti, Stevie Wonder
after = Bo Diddley, The Mills Brothers, Roy Orbison, Paul Robeson

ee also

* List of Judy Garland biographies
* Judy Garland as gay icon
* Judy Garland ancestry

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Clarke, Gerald. "Get Happy: The Life of Judy Garland". Random House. New York, 2001. ISBN 0375503781
* DiOrio, Jr., Al. "Little Girl Lost: The Life and Hard Times of Judy Garland". Manor Books. New York, 1973
* Edwards, Anne. "Judy Garland". Simon and Schuster. New York, 1975. ISBN 671802283 (paperback edition)
* Finch, Christopher. "Rainbow: The Stormy Life of Judy Garland". Ballantine Books. 1975. ISBN 0345251733 (paperback edition)
* Frank, Gerold. "Judy". Harper & Row. New York, 1975. ISBN 0060113375
* Juneau, James. "Judy Garland: A Pyramid Illustrated History of the Movies". Pyramid Publications. 1974, New York. ISBN 0515034827
* Luft, Lorna. "My and My Shadows: A Family Memoir". Simon and Schuster. New York, 1999. ISBN 0283063203
* Richliano, James. "Angels We Have Heard The Christmas Song Stories". Star Of Bethlehem Books. 2002. ISBN 0971881006
* Sanders, Coyne Steven. "Rainbow's End: The Judy Garland Show". Zebra Books. 1990 ISBN 0821737082 (paperback edition)
* Seaman, Barbara. "Lovely Me: The Life of Jacqueline Susann". Seven Stories Press. 1996, New York. ISBN 096587706 (1996 edition)
* Shipman, David. "Judy Garland: The Secret Life of an American Legend". Hyperion. New York, 1992. ISBN 0786880260 (paperback edition)

External links

*
*
*
*
* [http://www.jgdb.com The Judy Garland Database]
*
* [http://www.thejudyroom.com The Judy Room]
* [http://www.thejudygarlandpage.com The Judy Garland Page]
* [http://www.judy-garland.org/discography/index.html The Judy Garland Online Discography]
* [http://judygarlandmuseum.com/ The Judy Garland Birthplace and Museum in Grand Rapids, MN]
* [http://www.judygarlandclub.org The Judy Garland Club: established 1963; official international Club supported by Judy during her lifetime]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/garland_j.html Judy Garland: By Myself – American Masters special]
* [http://www.hulu.com/watch/15312/nbc-news-on-stage-judy-garland-the-barbara-walters-interview Barbara Walters interview of Judy Garland, 1967, at Hulu.com]
* [http://www.biography.com/deathiversary/judy-garland/judy-garland.jsp Judy Garland Biography at Biography.com]
* [http://www.biography.com/deathiversary/judy-garland/judy-garland-video.jsp "Biography: Judy Garland" Episode at Biography.com]

Persondata
NAME = Garland, Judy
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Gumm, Frances Ethel
SHORT DESCRIPTION = American actress
DATE OF BIRTH = June 10, 1922
PLACE OF BIRTH = Grand Rapids, Minnesota, United States
DATE OF DEATH = June 22, 1969
PLACE OF DEATH = Chelsea, London, England


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Judy Garland — en 1943. Nombre real Frances Ethel Gumm. Nacimiento 10 de junio de 1922 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Judy Garland — mit Mickey Rooney und Louis B. Mayer (rechts) Judy Garland (* 10. Juni 1922 in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, USA; † 22. Juni 1969 in Chelsea …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Judy Garland — posant pour la promotion du film Lily Mars vedette en 1943 Données clés …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Judy Garland — (10 de junio de 1922 † 22 de junio de 1969, actriz de Estados Unidos, considerada como una de las mejores cantantes de musicales de la historia …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Judy Garland — noun United States singer and film actress (1922 1969) • Syn: ↑Garland • Instance Hypernyms: ↑singer, ↑vocalist, ↑vocalizer, ↑vocaliser, ↑actress * * * Judy …   Useful english dictionary

  • Judy Garland — ➡ Garland * * * …   Universalium

  • Judy Garland — …   Википедия

  • Judy Garland — Hendes kendingsmelodi Over the rainbow stammer fra eventyrfilmen Troldmanden fra Oz . Senere med i film som Meet me in St. Louis og Easter parade . Mor til Liza Minnelli …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Judy Garland — motion picturereel name of Frances Gumm …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games

  • Judy Garland — (1922 1969, born Frances Gumm) American award winning actress and singer who is most remembered for her role in The Wizard of Oz …   English contemporary dictionary


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