- Immortal DNA strand hypothesis
The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for
adult stem cellsto minimize mutationsin their genomes.Cairns, J. 1975. Mutation selection and the natural history of cancer. Nature (London) 255: 197-200.] This hypothesis proposes that instead of segregating their DNAduring mitosisin a random manner, adult stem cells divide their DNA asymmetrically, and retain a distinct template set of DNA strands (parental strands) in each division. By retaining the same set of template DNA strands, adult stem cells would pass mutations arising from errors in DNA replicationon to non-stem cell daughters that soon terminally differentiate (end mitotic divisions and become a functional cell). Passing on these replication errors would allow adult stems cells to reduce their rate of accumulation of mutations that could lead to serious genetic disorders such as cancer.
Although evidence for this mechanism exists, whether it is a mechanism acting in adult stem cells
in vivois still controversial.
assays are used to detect immortal DNA strand segregation: label-retention and label-release pulse/chase assays.
In the label-retention assay, the goal is to mark 'immortal' or parental DNA strands with a DNA label such as tritiated
thymidineor bromodeoxyuridine(BrdU). These types of DNA labels will incorporate into the newly-synthesized DNA of dividing cells during S phase. A pulse of DNA label is given to adult stem cells under conditions where they have not yet delineated an immortal DNA strand. During these conditions, the adult stem cells are either dividing "symmetrically" (thus with each division a new 'immortal' strand is determined and in at least one of the stem cells the immortal DNA strand will be marked with DNA label), or the adult stem cells have "not yet been determined" (thus their precursors are dividing symmetrically, and once they differentiate into adult stem cells and choose an 'immortal' strand, the 'immortal strand' will already have been marked). Experimentally, adult stem cells are undergoing symmetric divisions during growth and after wound healing, and are not yet determined at neonatal stages. Once the immortal DNA strand is labelled and the adult stem cell has begun or resumed asymmetric divisions, the DNA label is chased out. In symmetric divisions (most mitoticcells), DNA is segregating randomly and the DNA label will be diluted out to levels below detection after five divisions. If, however, cells are using an immortal DNA strand mechanism all the labeled DNA will continue to co-segregate to the adult stem cell, and after five (or more) divisions will still be detected within the adult stem cell. These cells are sometimes called label-retaining cells (LRCs).
In the label-release assay, the goal is to mark the newly synthesized DNA that is normally passed on to the daughter (non-stem) cell. A pulse of DNA label is given to adult stem cells under conditions where they are dividing "asymmetrically." Under conditions of
homeostasis, adult stem cells should be dividing asymmetrically so that the same number of adult stem cells is maintained in the tissue compartment. After pulsing for long enough to label all the newly replicated DNA, the DNA label is chased out (each DNA replication now incorporates unlabeled nucleotides) and the adult stem cells are assayed for loss of the DNA label after two cell divisions. If cells are using a random segregation mechanism, then enough DNA label should remain in the cell to be detected. If, however, the adult stem cells are using an immortal DNA strand mechanism, they are obligated to retain the unlabeled 'immortal' DNA, and will release the all the labeled newly synthesized DNA to their differentiating daughter cells in two divisions.
Some scientists have combined the two approaches,Potten, C.S., Owen, G., and D. Booth. 2002. Intestinal stem cells protect their genome by selective segregation of template DNA strands. J. Cell Science 115: 2381-2388.] Smith, G.H. 2005. Label-retaining epithelial cells in mouse mammary gland divide asymmetrically and retain their template DNA strands. Development 132: 681-687] by first using one DNA label to label the immortal strands, allowing to adult stem cells to begin dividing asymmetrically, and then using a different DNA label to label the newly synthesized DNA. Thus, the adult stem cells will retain one DNA label and release the other within two divisions.
Evidence for the immortal DNA strand hypothesis has been found in various systems. One of the earliest studies by Karl Lark "et al." demonstrated co-segregation of DNA in the cells of plant root tips.Lark, K.G. 1967. Nonrandom segregation of sister chromatids in Vici faba and Triticum boeoticum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sciences 58: 352-359.] Plant root tips labeled with tritiated thymidine tended to segregate their labeled DNA to the same daughter cell. Though not all the labeled DNA segregated to the same daughter, the amount of thymidine-labeled DNA seen in the daughter with less label corresponded to the amount that would have arisen from sister-chromatid exchange. Later studies by Christopher Potten "et al." (2002), using pulse/chase experiments with tritiated thymidine, found long-term label-retaining cells in the small intestinal crypts of neonatal mice. These researchers hypothesized that long-term incorporation of tritiated thymidine occurred because neonatal mice have undeveloped small intestines, and that pulsing tritiated thymidine soon after the birth of the mice allowed the 'immortal' DNA of adult stem cells to be labeled during their formation. These long-term cells were demonstrated to be actively cycling, as demonstrated by incorporation and release of BrdU.
Since these cells were cycling but continued to contain the BrdU label in their DNA, the researchers reasoned that they must be segregating their DNA using an immortal DNA strand mechanism. Joshua Merok "et al." from the lab of James Sherley engineered mammalian cells with an inducible
p53gene that controls asymmetric divisions.Merok, J., Lansita, J.A., Tunstead, J.R., and J.L. Sherley. 2002. Co-segregation of chromosomes containing immortal DNA strands in cells that cycle with asymmetric kinetics. Cancer Res. 62: 6791-6795. [http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/62/23/6791 Available free online] ] BrdU pulse/chase experiments with these cells demonstrated that chromosomes segregated non-randomly only when the cells were induced to divide asymmetrically like adult stem cells. These asymmetrically dividing cells provide an "in vitro" model for demonstration and investigation of immortal strand mechanisms.
Scientists have strived to demonstrate that this immortal DNA strand mechanism exists "in vivo" in other types of adult stem cells. In 2005, Gilbert Smith published evidence that mouse mammary epithelial stem cells could retain DNA label and release DNA label in a manner consistent with the immortal DNA strand mechanism. Soon after, scientists from the laboratory of Derek van der Kooy showed that mice have neural stem cells that are BrdU-retaining and continue to be mitotically active.Karpowicz P., Morshead C., Kam A., Jervis E., Ramunas J., Cheng V., and D. van der Kooy. 2005. Support for the immortal strand hypothesis : neural stem cells partition DNA asymmetrically "in vitro". Journ. Cell Biology 170: 721-732.] Asymmetric segregation of DNA was shown using real-time imaging of cells in culture. In 2006, scientists in the lab of Shahragim Tajbakhsh presented evidence that that muscle
satellite cells, which are proposed to be adult stem cellsof the skeletal musclecompartment, exhibited asymmetric segregation of BrdU-labelled DNA when put into culture. They also had evidence that demonstrated BrdU release kinetics consistent with an immortal DNA strand mechanism were operating "in vivo", using juvenile mice and mice with muscle regeneration induced by freezing.Shinin V., Gayraud-Morel B., Gomès D., and S. Tajbakhsh. 2006. Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells. Nature Cell Biology 8: 677-687.]
These experiments supporting the immortal strand hypothesis, however, are not conclusive. While the Lark experiments demonstrated co-segregation, the co-segregation may have been an artifact of radiation from the tritium. Although Potten identified the cycling, label-retaining cells as adult stem cells, these cells are difficult to identify unequivocally as adult stem cells. While the engineered cells provide an elegant model for co-segregation of chromosomes, studies with these cells were done "in vitro" with engineered cells. Some features may not be present "in vivo" or may be absent "in vitro". In May 2007 more robust in vivo evidence in support of the Immortal DNA Strand theory was discovered by Michael Conboy et al. Conboy MJ, Karasov AO, Rando TA. 2007 High Incidence of Non-Random Template Strand Segregation and Asymmetric Fate Determination In Dividing Stem Cells and their Progeny. PLoS Biol. Apr 17;5(5):102. [http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0050102 Available free online] ] , using the muscle stem/satellite cell model during tissue regeneration, where there is tremendous cell division during a relatively brief period of time. Using two BrdU analogs to label template and newly synthesized DNA strands, they saw that about half of the dividing cells in regenerating muscle sort the older "Immortal" DNA to one daughter cell and the younger DNA to the other. In keeping with the stem cell hypothesis, the more stemmy daughter typically inherited the chromatids with the older DNA, while the more differentiated daughter inherited the younger DNA.
Experimental evidence against the immortal strand hypothesis is sparse. In one study, researchers incorporated tritiated thymidine into dividing murine epidermal basal cells.Kuroki, T. and Y. Murakami. 1989. Random segregation of DNA strands in epidermal basal cells. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80: 637-642.] They followed the release of tritiated thymidine after various chase periods, but the pattern of release was not consistent with the immortal strand hypothesis. Although they found label-retaining cells, they were not within the putative stem cell compartment. With increasing lengths of time for the chase periods, these label-retaining cells were located farther from the putative stem cell compartment, suggesting that the label-retaining cells had moved. However, finding conclusive evidence against the immortal strand hypothesis has proven difficult.
After Cairns first proposed the immortal DNA strand mechanism, the theory has undergone several refinements.
In 2002, he proposed that in addition to using immortal DNA strand mechanisms to segregate DNA, when the immortal DNA strands of adult stem cells undergo damage, they will choose to die (apoptose) rather than use DNA repair mechanisms that are normally used in non-stem cells.Cairns, J. 2002. Somatic stem cells and the kinetics of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. PNAS 99: 10567-10570 [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/99/16/10567 Available free online] ] Emmanuel Tannenbaum and James Sherley developed a quantitative model describing how repair of
point mutations might differ in adult stem cells.Tannenbaum E., Sherley J. 2005. Evolutionary dynamics of adult stem cells: Comparison of random and immortal-strand segregation mechanisms. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 71: 41914-1 - 41914-9. [http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PLEEE8000071000004041914000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Abstract] ] They found that in adult stem cells, repair was most efficient if they used an immortal DNA strand mechanism for segregating DNA, rather than a random segregation mechanism. This method would be beneficial because it avoids wrongly fixing DNA mutations in both DNA strands and propagating the mutation.
The complete proof of a concept generally requires a plausible mechanism that could mediated the effect. Although controversial, there is a suggestion that this could be provided by the Dynein Motor. Armakolas & Llar 2007. Left-Right Dynein Motor Implicated in Selective Chromatid Segregation in Mouse Cells. cience 5 January 2007: Vol. 315. no. 5808, pp. 100 - 101 [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/315/5808/100 Available free online] ] This paper is accompanied by a comment summarizing the findings and background [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/315/5808/46 Available free online]
However, this work has highly respected biologists among its detractors as exemplified by a further comment on a paper by the same authors from 2006. [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/313/5790/1045b Available free online] . But please also see the authors rebuttal of the criticism [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;313/5790/1045c Available free online] .
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