Farmer


Farmer
Farmer
Old farmer woman.JPG
Eastern European farmer
Occupation
Activity sectors Agriculture
Description

A farmer is a person, engaged in agriculture, who raises living organisms for food or raw materials, generally including livestock husbandry and growing crops such as produce and grain. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a labourer on land owned by others; but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are farm workers, farmhands, etc.

Definition

Russian farmer family, Mugan plain, early 20th century

The term farmer usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry or other livestock. Their products might be sold either to a market, in a farmers' market or perhaps directly from a farm. In a subsistence economy, farm products might to some extent be either consumed by the farmer's family or pooled by the community.

More distinct terms are commonly used to denote farmers who raise specific domesticated animals. For example, those who raise grazing livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, are known as ranchers (U.S.), graziers (Australia & U.K.), or simply stockmen. Sheep, goat, and cattle farmers might be also be referred to respectively as shepherds, goatherds, and cowherds. The term dairy farmer is applied to those engaged primarily in milk production, whether from cattle, goats, sheep, or other milk producing animals. A poultry farmer is one who concentrates on raising chickens, turkeys, ducks or geese, for either meat, egg, or feather production, or commonly, all three. A person who raises a variety of vegetables for market may be called a truck farmer or market gardener. Dirt farmer is an American colloquial term for a practical farmer, or one who farms his own land.[1]

A Nepali farmer

In the context of developing nations or other pre-industrial cultures, most farmers practice a meager subsistence agriculture—a simple organic farming system employing crop rotation, seed saving, slash and burn or other techniques to maximize efficiency while meeting the needs of the household or community. In developed nations however, a person using such techniques on small patches of land might be called a gardener and be considered a hobbyist. Alternatively, one may be driven into such practices by poverty or, ironically—against the background of large-scale agribusiness--may become an organic farmer growing for discerning consumers in the local food market. Historically, one subsisting in this way may have been known as a peasant.

Farmers harvesting rice in Japan

In developed nations, a farmer (as a profession) is usually defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, and who provides land or management in their production. Those who provide only labor are most often called farmhands. Alternatively, growers who manage farmland for an absentee landowner, sharing the harvest (or its profits) are known as sharecroppers or sharefarmers. In the context of agribusiness, a farmer is defined broadly, and thus many individuals not necessarily engaged in full-time farming can nonetheless legally qualify under agricultural policy for various subsidies, incentives, and tax deductions.

Farmers are often members of local, regional or national farmers' unions or agricultural producers' organizations and can exert significant political influence. The Grange movement in the United States was effective in advancing farmers' agendas, especially against railroad and agribusiness interests early in the 20th century. The FNSEA is very politically active in France, especially pertaining to genetically modified food. Agricultural producers, both small and large, are represented globally by the International Federation of Agriculture Producers (IFAP), representing over 600 million farmers through 120 national farmers' unions in 79 countries.[2]

See also

References


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  • Farmer — steht für: die englische Bezeichnung für einen Landwirt eine Modellreihe von Traktoren, siehe Fendt (Marke) einen Kleinwagen, der von 1968 bis 1980 gebaut wurde, siehe Lawil Farmer Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Farmer (Missouri) Farmer (North… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • farmer — farm‧er [ˈfɑːmə ǁ ˈfɑːrmər] noun [countable] FARMING a person who owns or manages a farm: • Government subsidies to farmers have been reduced. • a sheep farmer • There s a farmers market (= a market where farmers sell, vegetables, meat, eggs etc …   Financial and business terms

  • Farmer — Farm er (f[aum]rm [ e]r), n. [Cf. F. fermier.] One who farms; as: (a) One who hires and cultivates a farm; a cultivator of leased ground; a tenant. Smart. (b) One who is devoted to the tillage of the soil; one who cultivates a farm; an… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • farmer — Under Title 11 U.S.C. Section 101: (20) The term farmer means (except when such term appears in the term family farmer ) person that received more than 80 percent of such person s gross income during the taxable year of such person immediately… …   Glossary of Bankruptcy

  • Farmer — Farmer, SD U.S. town in South Dakota Population (2000): 18 Housing Units (2000): 10 Land area (2000): 0.063721 sq. miles (0.165037 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.063721 sq. miles (0.165037 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Farmer, SD — U.S. town in South Dakota Population (2000): 18 Housing Units (2000): 10 Land area (2000): 0.063721 sq. miles (0.165037 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.063721 sq. miles (0.165037 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • farmer — [fär′mər] n. [ME fermour, farmer, bailiff < Anglo Fr fermer < OFr fermier < ferme: see FARM] 1. a person who earns a living by farming; esp., one who manages or operates a farm 2. a person who pays for a right, as, formerly, to collect… …   English World dictionary

  • Farmer — (spr. Farrmer), Städtischer Bezirk mit Postamt (Post township) in der Grafschaft Defiance im Staate Ohio (Nordamerika); 900 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Farmer — Farmer, Fan|nie (1857 1915) a US cook who wrote a ↑cookery book used by many people in the US …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • farmer — late 14c., one who collects taxes, etc., from Anglo Fr. fermer, Fr. fermier, from M.L. firmarius, from firma (see FARM (Cf. farm)). In the agricultural sense, 1590s, replacing native CHURL (Cf. churl) and husbandman …   Etymology dictionary

  • farmer — fȁrmer m DEFINICIJA onaj koji ima farmu, vlasnik farme ETIMOLOGIJA vidi farma …   Hrvatski jezični portal


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