Part of the Politics series on Monarchism Politics portal
Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government out of principle, independent from the person, the Monarch.
In this system, the Monarch may be the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise inhabit the throne but has been deposed.
In 1688, the Glorious Revolution and the overthrow of King James II established the principles of constitutional monarchy, which would later be worked out by Montesquieu and other thinkers. However, absolute monarchy, theorized by Hobbes in the Leviathan (1651), remained a dominant principle. In the 18th century, Voltaire and others encouraged "enlightened absolutism", which was embraced by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and Catherine II of Russia.
Absolutism continued to be the dominant political principle of sovereignty until the 1789 French Revolution and the regicide against Louis XVI, which established the concept of popular sovereignty upheld by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Monarchy began to be contested by the Republican principe. Counterrevolutionaries, such as Joseph de Maistre or Louis de Bonald, sought the restoration of the Ancien Régime, divided in the three estates of the realm, and the divine right of kings.
Following the ousting of Napoleon I in 1814, the Coalition restored the Bourbon Dynasty in pushing Louis XVIII to the French throne. The ensuing period, called the Restoration, was characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church, supported by the ultramontanism movement, as a power in French politics. After the 1830 July Revolution and the overthrow of Charles X, the legitimist branch was defeated and the Orleanists, gathered behind Louis-Philippe, accepted the principle of constitutional monarchy.
World War I and its aftermath saw the end of three major European monarchies, the Russian Romanov dynasty, the German Hohenzollern dynasty and the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg dynasty. In Russia, the 1917 February revolution resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the establishment of Bolshevik Russia and a civil war between the Bolshevik Red Army and the monarchist White Army from 1917 to 1921.
The rise of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919 saw an increase in support for monarchism, however efforts by Hungarian monarchists failed to bring back a royal head of state, and the monarchists settled for a regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, to represent the monarchy until it could be restored. Horthy was regent from 1920 to 1944. In Germany a number of monarchists gathered around the German National People's Party which demanded the return of the Hohenzollern monarchy and an end to the Weimar Republic. The party retained a large base of support until the rise of Nazism in the 1930s.
With the arrival of Communism in Eastern Europe by 1945, the remaining Eastern European monarchies such as the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia were all abolished and replaced by socialist republics.
The aftermath of World War II also saw the return of monarchist and republican rivalry in Italy, in which a referendum was held on whether Italy should remain a monarchy or become a republic. The republican side won the referendum (by a narrow margin) and the modern Republic of Italy was created.
Monarchism as a political force internationally has substantially diminished since the end of the Second World War, though it had an important role in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and also played a role in the modern political affairs of Nepal. Nepal was one of the last states to have had an absolute monarch, which continued until King Gyanendra of Nepal was peacefully deposed in May 2008 and Nepal became a federal republic. One of the world's oldest monarchies was abolished in Ethiopia in 1974 with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie.
Constitutional monarchies form the majority of the current monarchies. Since the middle of the 19th century, some monarchists have stopped defending monarchy on the basis of abstract, universal principles applicable to all nations, or even on the grounds that a monarchy would be the best or most practical government for the nation in question, but on local symbolic grounds that they would be a particular nation's link to the past.
The International Monarchist League, founded in 1943, which has been very influential in Canada and Australia, has always sought to promote monarchy on the grounds that it strengthens popular liberty, both in a democracy and in a dictatorship, because by definition the monarch is not beholden to politicians.
Hence, post-19th century debates on whether to preserve a monarchy or to adopt a republican form of government have often been debates over national identity, with the monarch generally serving as a symbol for other issues.
For example, in countries like Belgium and the Netherlands anti-monarchist talk is often centered around the perceived symbolism of a monarch contrasting with those nation's political culture of egalitarianism. In Belgium, another factor are the anti-Belgian sentiments of the separatist Flemish movement.
In Canada and Australia, by contrast, debates over monarchy represent or represented debates whose driving force concerned each nation's relationship with the United Kingdom and the cultural heritage that that represents. In a nation like Saudi Arabia, finally, opposition to the monarchy may be synonmous with advocacy of democracy or Islamic fundamentalism. As monarchies take many different forms, so too do pro- and anti-monarchy debates.
Otto von Habsburg advocates a form of constitutional monarchy based on the primacy of the supreme judicial function, with hereditary succession. Mediation by a tribunal is warranted if suitability is problematic. .
Monarchist groups past and present
- International Monarchist League
- The Society of United Royalists
- International Monarchist Conference
- The Imperial Commission
- Parti National-Monarchiste Algérien (Algeria)
- Abahuza (Burundi)
- Parliamentary Monarchist Party (Burundi)
- Egyptian Royalists (Egypt)
- Ethiopian National Front
- Moa Anbessa (Ethiopia)
- Crown Council of Ethiopia (Ethiopia)
- Libyan Constitutional Union
- South African Monarchy Society (South Africa)
- Southeast Asia Imperial & Royal League
- Royal House of Afghanistan
- National Solidarity Movement of Afghanistan (Afghanistan)
- National Development Party (Brunei)
- Funcinpec (Cambodia)
- Iraqi Constitutional Monarchy (Iraq)
- Rashtriya Prajatantra Party (Nepal)
- Rashtriya Prajatantra Party-Chand (Nepal)
- Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League (Vietnam)
- Malchut Israel (Israel)
- Red Turbans (China)
- White Lotus (China)
- Protect the Emperor Society (Qing Dynasty) China
- Qing Dynasty Restoration Organization (China)
- Empire of China (1915–1916) (Attempt by Yuan Shikai to restore the Monarchy)
- Monarchist League of India
- British Monarchist League
- The Royal House of Greece
- Movement of Legality Party (Albania)
- Albanian Democratic Monarchist Movement Party (Albania)
- Black-Yellow Alliance (Austria)
- Belgian Union (Belgium)
- Koruna česká (Czech Republic)
- The Estonian Monarchist League (Estonia)
- Bund aufrechter Monarchisten (Germany)
- Tradition und Leben (Germany)
- Kaisertreue-Jugend (Germany)
- Union of Georgian Traditionalists (Georgia)
- National Alignment (Greece)
- The Hellenic Royal Family (Greece)
- Regnum Portál (Hungary)
- Orange Order (Ireland)
- Monarchist Alliance (Italy)
- Movimento Monarchico Italiano (Italy)
- Unione Monarchica Italiana (Italy)
- Klub Zachowawczo-Monarchistyczny (Poland)
- Polska Liga Monarchistyczna (Poland)
- Organizacja Monarchistów Polskich (Poland)
- American TFP in Poland
- Integralismo Lusitano (Portugal)
- People's Monarchist Party (Portugal)
- National Peasants' Party (Romania)
- All-Russian Monarchist Centre (Russia)
- Black Hundreds (Russia)
- Monarchist Party "Autocratic Russia" (Russia)
- Pamyat (Russia)
- Russian Imperial Movement (Russia)
- Russian Imperial Union-Order (Russia)
- Russian Monarchist Movement (RMD) (Russia)
- Union of Orthodox Gonfalon Holders (Russia])
- Union of the Russian People (Russia)
- Russian Monarch Union (RMS) (Russia)
- Förenade Monarkister (Sweden)
- Rojalistiska Föreningen (Sweden)
- Royal Stuart Society
- Serbian Renewal Movement (Serbia)
- Serbian Democratic Renewal Movement (Serbia)
- Jacobites (United Kingdom)
- Strafford Club (United Kingdom)
- Royalist Party UK
- Monarchist League of Canada (Canada)
- Orange Order (Canada)
- Movimiento Monárquico Mexicano[dead link] (Mexico)
- Constantian Society (United States)
- Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (Australia)
- Australian Monarchist Alliance (Australia)
- Australian Monarchist League (Australia)
- Orange Order (Australia)
- Monarchist League of New Zealand (New Zealand)
- Hermandad Tradicionalista Carlos VII (Fraternité Traditionaliste Charles VII) (Argentina)
- Movimento Monárquico Brasileiro (Brazil)
- Casa Imperial do Brasil (Brazil)
- Correio Imperial (Brazil)
- Folha Imperial (Brazil)
- Monarquia Brasil (Brazil)
- Movimento Monarquista (Brazil)
- Movimento Pró-Monarquia (Brazil)
- Partido da Real Democracia (Brazil)
- ^ For a “Directory of Monarchist Organizations,” see Olga S. Opfell, Royalty Who Waits: The 21 Heads of Formerly Regnant Houses of Europe (Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2001), 213-216.
- Australians for Constitutional Monarchy
- Australian Monarchist League
- Monarchist League of Canada
- Monarchist League of New Zealand
- (German) KaisertreueJugend.org
- (Italian) Monarchist Alliance
- (French) Royaliste.org
- (German) Monarchisten.de
- Monarchisten.org; Schwarz-Gelbe Allianz ("Black-Yellow Alliance") and Schwarzgelbes Forum ("Black-Yellow Forum"), two Monarchist organizations in Austria. (Black and yellow are the colours of the Habsburg family, former rulers of Austria-Hungary.)
- The Monarchist
- The Monarchist League
- Theodore's Royalty and Monarchy Site
- Monarchy Forum
- (English)(German) Pro-Monarchie.de Tradition und Leben ("Tradition and Life").
- The Altar and Throne Monarchy Site
- IMC, official site of the International Monarchist Conference.
- (English)(French) Monarchiste.com, an independent monarchist portal.
- (English)(French) Royalist Canada
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Look at other dictionaries:
Monarchism — Mon arch*ism, n. The principles of, or preference for, monarchy. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
monarchism — (n.) from Fr. monarchisme, from monarchie (see MONARCHY (Cf. monarchy)) … Etymology dictionary
monarchism — ► NOUN ▪ support for the principle of monarchy. DERIVATIVES monarchist noun & adjective … English terms dictionary
monarchism — [män′ər kiz΄əm, män′ärkiz΄əm] n. [Fr monarchisme] monarchical principles or the advocacy of these monarchist n., adj. monarchistic adj … English World dictionary
Monarchism — Writing in 1928 about the November Revolution,* August Winnig* stated that when the Republic took the place of the Monarchy, nobody opposed the Republic in order to die for the Monarchy (Von Klemperer). Despite a mythology regarding the… … Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik
monarchism — noun Date: 1838 monarchical government or principles • monarchist noun or adjective … New Collegiate Dictionary
monarchism — monarchist, n., adj. monarchistic, adj. /mon euhr kiz euhm/, n. 1. the principles of monarchy. 2. advocacy of monarchical rule. [1830 40; MONARCH(Y) + ISM; cf. F monarchisme, G Monarchismus] * * * … Universalium
monarchism — noun a) Rule by a monarchy b) The advocacy of such a political system … Wiktionary
monarchism — Synonyms and related words: Bourbonism, Nazism, Toryism, backwardness, centralism, collectivism, communism, conservatism, conservativeness, constitutionalism, democratism, die hardism, extreme right, extreme right wing, extreme rightism, fascism … Moby Thesaurus
monarchism — monÂ·archÂ·ism || mÉ‘nÉ™(r)kÉªzÉ™m / mÉ’ n. principles or advocacy of monarchy … English contemporary dictionary