- Ignacio Zuloaga
Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta (
July 26, 1870- October 31, 1945) was a Spanish Basquepainter, born in Eibar, in the Basque country, near the monastery of Loyola. He was the son of metalworker and damascener Plácido Zuloaga and grandson of the organizer and director of the royal armoury in Madrid.
In his youth, he drew and worked in his father's workshop. He was educated by the
Jesuits in France. His father wanted him to be an architect, and with this objective in mind, he was sent to Rome, where he immediately followed the strong impulse that led him to painting. After only six months' work he completed his first picture, which was exhibited at the Paris Salonof 1890. Continuing his studies in Paris, where he lived for five years, he was strongly influenced by Paul Gauguinand Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Only upon returning to his native land did he find his true style, which is based on the national Spanish tradition embodied in the work of Diego Velázquez, Francisco de Zurbarán, El Greco, and Francisco Goya.His own country was slow in acknowledging the young artist whose strong, decorative and rugged style stood in opposition to the styles of well-known modern Spanish artists such as Fortuny, Madrazo, and Benlliure. It was first in Paris, and then Brusselsand other European art centres, that Zuloaga was hailed by the reformers as the regenerator of Spanish national art and as the leader of a school. He is now represented in galleries across Europe.
Two of his canvases are at the Luxembourg, one at the Brussels Museum ("Avant la Corrida"), and one ("The Poet Don Miguel") at the Vienna Gallery. The Pau Museum owns an interesting portrait of a lady; the
BarcelonaMunicipal Museum, the important group "Amies"; the VeniceGallery, "Madame Louise"; and the BerlinGallery, "The Topers". Other examples are in the Budapest, Stuttgart, Ghent, Poznań, and New York Citygalleries and in many important private collections.
Ignacio Zuloaga's work is known for his depictions of traditional Spanish characters, including
peasants, Gypsies, and bullfighters.
*Presents "A Priest Praying in an Old Room (Un Sacerdote Rezando en una Habitación Antigua)" at the "Exposición Nacional de Madrid"
Prado Museum, copies the works of Velázquez, who he would consider his teacher, together with Zurbarán, Ribera and Goya1888
*Paints "Fountain of Eibar (Fuente de Eibar)" and "The Blind Man of Arrate (El Ciego de Arrate)"
Rome, a dream of many young artists, where he stays more than a year, absorbing the masters of the Renaissance
*Paints "The Wounded Forger (El Forjador Herido)"
*Transfers to Paris and lives in
Montmartre, frequenting "La Palette" academy, where Eugène Carrièreholds sway
*Presents a painting at the "Exposición Nacional de Madrid"
Santiago Rusiñoland the Catalonianartists of Montmartre
*Begins friendship with
Toulouse-Lautrec, Jacques-Emile Blanche, Degas, Maxime Dethomasand Gauguin
*Resides at different times in "rue Durantin", "rue Cortot" and "rue des Saulnes"
*Is attracted to the painting of
Monet, Degas and Carrière
*Introduces "El Forjador" at the Salon
*Takes part in a collective exhibit with Cottet,
Sérusier, Signac, at "Le Barc de Bouteville"
*Maintains a relationship with the Gauguin group (
Paco Durrio, Emile Bernard, Paul Maurice)
*Exposition at "Le Barc de Bouteville" with the Gauguin group, where he introduces two landscape works
Bilbaowhere he is founder of the festive society, "The Desk (El Escritorio)", furnishing one of its walls with the canvas titled "Dawn (Amanecer)"
*Finds two works by
El Grecoin París which Rusiñol acquires
Île Saint-Louiswith Rusiñol and Utrillo
*Goes to the "
Salon des Indépendants", Exhibition VIII, with five paintings
*Travels to Andalusia, seeking subjects in Spain
*Makes studies in the streets of
Sevilleduring its annual traditional " Feria" market fair
*Attends the "Salon des Indépendants", with six paintings
*Discovers the work of
*Consolidates his friendship with the French "literati", even though he was averse to their symbolist and
*Introduces two paintings at the Paris Salon for the first time: "Portrait of the Painter's Grandmother (Retrato de la Abuela del Pintor)" and "Don Pedro the Dwarf (El Enano Don Pedro)"
*Buys two more works by El Greco with Rusiñol in Paris and travels through
*Begins painting his casino frescos in the Vizcayan town of
*Passes the fall in Seville
*Shows six paintings for the second exhibition at "Le Barc de Bouteville"
*Shares a studio with Paco Durrio and Gauguin
*Creates a portrait of Valentine Dethomas
*Finishes his casino frescoes
*Resides principally in Andalusia.
*Sends a painting to the Exhibition of Barcelona, and is awarded a second-prize medal for "Friends (Amigos)"
*Maintains a fondness for bullfighting
*Attends the "Exposición Nacional de Madrid" and though living in Andalusia, travels much through Spain
*Devotion to the bulls extends to taking them on in bullring of Manuel Carmona in Seville
*Exhibits at the "Societé Nationale de Paris"
*Shows his "Vespers Before the Bullfight (Víspera de la Corrida)", winning first prize in Barcelona
Segovia, where he paints, among other works, "My Uncle and my Cousins (Mi Tio y mis Primas)", a work which would be acquired by the state of Francefor placement at the Luxembourg Museum
May 18, marries Valentine Dethomas, sister of his friend, the painter Maxime
*Carrière and Albéniz attend the wedding
*Makes a celebratory trip through Europe and returns to Spain, installing himself in the province of
Guipúzcoa, at Elgueta
*Paints "Mrs. Mercedes the Dwarf (La Enana Doña Mercedes)" and the
Belgianstate buys "The Mayor of Riomoros (El Alcalde de Riomoros)"
Segovia, makes studies at the "House of Crime (Casa del Crimen)", the popular Spanish name given to the "Palace of Ayala Berganza (Palacio de Ayala Berganza)", and also in the neighborhood of "La Canonjia"
*On the occasion of the "Exposition Universelle" (
World's Fair) in Paris, sells "Víspera de la Corrida"
*This work was rejected by the Spanish juror choosing the works to be shown but then bought by the Belgian state
*Has exhibitions in
Brussels, Berlín, Cologne, Düsseldorfand Bilbao
*Travels during holy week, together with his wife and in-laws, to Seville, and then to France
*After a stay in Segovia, paints in the valley of Ansó
*Receives the great golden medal in Dresden, with
Anglada Camarasaand Iturrinoalso present
*Initiates a friendship with the poet
Rainer Maria Rilke
*Returns to paint Seville
*Named member of the
École des Beaux-Arts
*Mother, Lucía Zamora Zabaleta, passes away in Éibar
*Daughter Lucia is born shortly after, on
*Spends long periods in Segovia painting together with his friend Pablo Uranga
*Continued showings in diverse European cities: París,
Bordeaux, Munich, Budapestand Berlín
*Participates in the National Exposition of Paris once more
*Critics such as Alexandre and Lafónd celebrate him in the press and an edition of "The Illustrated Figaro (
Le FigaroIllustré)" is dedicated completely to the painter
*Initiates his relationship with the sculptor
*Returns to Spain
*Detained for passing false currency while on vacation in
*Completes the paintings of "Our Lady of Arrate (Nuestra Señora de Arrate)"
*Is joined in Segovia by his friend Cottet, who will create four works, followed by others Ignacio drew to work there
*Abandoned "Gentlemen's Church of San Juan (San Juan de los Caballeros)" purchased by Daniel Zuloaga to house the workshop and studio of his uncle and cousin
Düsseldorfby invitation of Rodin attain great success
*Exhibits in París,
Prague, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Liège, Venice, Dresden and Vienna
*Appointed in Berlin with setting the stage for the opera
*Collaborates in Brussels on mounting the opera "Pepita Jiménez", whose author is his friend
*Travels through Spain with Rodin and the
Russian collector Tchoukin
*Sets up a new studio in Paris at "rue Caillaincourt, 54"
*Son Antonio is born on
*Continues working in his studio at "San Juan de los Caballeros" which would culminate in eleven paintings to show in Paris, among them: "Bullfighters of Town (Toreros de Pueblo)" and "Celestina"
*Exhibits at the Fifth International Exposition of Barcelona, in which a hall is dedicated to him, and wins the prize of the king and the diploma of honor, with Maxime Dethomas and Rodin present
*Begins looking around the Spanish province of Guipúzcoa for properties on which to build a residence, studio and museum
*Finishes fourteen paintings in Segovia, among them: "The Witches of San Millán (Las Brujas de San Millán)" and "Gregory the Dwarf Bootmaker (El Enano Gregorio el Botero)"
*Exhibits at the Beaux Arts Salón in Paris with great success
*In Eibar, shows his countrymen "Gregorio el Botero", holding audience with the king
*In Segovia, paints "The
Flagellants(Los Flagelantes)" and "Gregory in Sepulveda (Gregorio en Sepúlveda)"
*Exhibits a total of thirty-eight works in the
United States( New York, Buffalo and Boston), fifteen of which have Segovian themes
*Dedicates himself to the study of landscapes, which occupies much of his productive time
*Continuing his fascination with bulls, visits Seville and "Lora del Rio", a bull-calf corral on the Zabariche estate of the cattle rancher Urcola
*In October, Charles Morice pens monograph on him published in the magazine "Art and Artists (L'Art et les Artistes)"
Mexico, Chileand Buenos Aires, where he receives communication on the passing of his father, even as events provoke confusion over his name and give rise to quick trade in his paintings
*Presents works at the
*Acquires properties in the Guipúzcoan town of Zumaya to build, over time, the residence he would call "Santiago Etxea"
*After his love of custom, temple of "San Juan de los Caballeros" prepared to receive holy sacrament, as by one remaining observant of traditional worship, with liturgical articles brought from Eibar for decoration
*Paints "Victim of the Feast (Victima de la Fiesta)" and "The Family of my Uncle Daniel (La familia de mi Tio Daniel)"
*International Exposition of Rome:*Not invited by the group representing Spain:*Attends on his own account, in fact, paradoxically at the beckoning of the Italian government:*Fourteen of twenty-five works displayed are from Segovia:*Awarded the great prize
*Travels through Italy
*paid homage in Eibar by his countrymen
*In Paris, Leónce Bénédite dedicates special article in "Art and the Beautiful (L'Art et le Beau)"
*Exhibits in Vienna, Dresden, Budapest, Munich and
*"The Cardinal (El Cardenal)" is most distinguished work from his Segovian estate
*Attends a homage to Goya, in the master's hometown of Fuendetodos, in the province of
Saragossa, unveiling a commemorative stone slab at the house of his birth
*Depicts the subjects of "Future Idols (Ídolos Futuros)" or "Young Bullfighters of Turegano (Torerillos de Turégano)", as if they were Spanish courtesans
Manuel de Fallain Paris who he had offered to design costumes and staging for "The Short Life" (" La Vida Breve)"
*Fertile collaboration begins between the two
*Goes to the
Paris Salonfor the last time
*Purchases the house of Goya in Fuendetodos
*Inaugurates his home at "Santiago Etxea" on
*Passing of Darío de Regoyos
*Paints "My Candid Cousin (Mi Prima Cándida)" and "Ballerina Dressed as Bullfighter (Bailarina Vestida de Torero)"
*Exhibits in New York and Brussels
*Finds political sympathy, after a manifesto, with partisans of
World War Iallied powers
*Delicate state of industry in Eibar leads him to donate a portrait of "Cándida" so that the price of its sale might unburden families in need
*Exhibits in the United States, sending thirty-four paintings to New York, of which twenty are from Segovia
*Converts "Santiago Etxea" into an attraction for his Spanish and foreign friends
*Completes sketches for the opera "Goyescas", composed by
*Presented by President Poincaré, for the many merits favoring France, with the
Legion of Honor
*Juan de la Encina (pseudonym of
Ricardo Gutiérrez Abascal) publishes study on Zuloaga
*Called to complete a portrait of
*Travels with Dr. Marañón to
Las Hurdesand the Sierra de Gredos
*"The Duchess of Noailles (La Duquesa de Noailles)" bought by financier Señor Sota in Bilbao, and later sold to "Museo de la Villa"
*Inaugural performance of the opera "Goyescas" in Paris
*Installs his workshop in the Madrid neighborhood of "Las Vistillas"
*Completes a portrait of his friend
Ortega y Gasset
*Unveils his monument to Goya In Fuendetodos
*Exhibits at the
Royal Academyin London
*Studies the performance of a work based on the highly-regarded novel, "The Glory of Mr. Ramiro (La Gloria de Don Ramiro)", together with Enrique de Larreta and Manuel de Falla
*Visits and is enthused by the "
comarca" of Sierra de Albarracín, in the province of Teruelin Aragon
*Distances himself from Segovia in mourning over the death of his uncle Daniel
Granadafor a performance of cante jondoorganized by Falla
*Exhibitions in New York, at the Reinhardt Gallery, where fifteen of fifty-two works were from Segovia, meet with great success
*Received by President Coolidge
*Shows in Boston and
Palm Beach, culminating his tour in Havana, where he is glorified upon arrival
*Buys the castle of Pedraza
*Great exhibit of Zuloaga innaugurates the new "Circle of Fine Arts (Círculo de Bellas Artes)" in Madrid
*His work becomes controversial with young artists oriented toward emerging vanguard of the day
*Vizcayan guesthouse of Segovia serves him as a motif to guide stagework for the opera of Manuel de Falla, "
Master Peter's Puppet Show(El retablo de Maese Pedro)", taken as related by Cervantesin character of "Don Quijote"
*In medium of carton and plaster, painted various colors by himself, completes a figure of "Sancho" and another of "Quijote"
*Named president of the Patronage of the Museum of Modern Art in Madrid
*Makes portraits of
Ramón del Valle-Inclánand Ramón Pérez de Ayala
*Invited to visit by the ambassador of the United States in Italy and paints "The Italian Woman (La Italiana)"
*Completes a portrait of the sculptor Julio Behovide
*Disruption of the
Spanish Civil Warforces the painters life into relative seclusion, which opens a path into the world of sculpture
*Grand prize at the
Venice Biennialadds to recognition of his work
*London Exposition dedicates a showing room to him
*Individual exhibit at the Madrid Museum of Modern Art
*Grand solo exhibition in Barcelona at the Argos Gallery is the last which celebrates his life
*Named a favorite son of Guipúzcoa after twenty years of repeated petitions and efforts by the Vascongada Society of Friends of the Country of Spain
*Paints wives of presidents as well as portraits of his friends
*Dedicates his creativity to still lifes
*Dies in his studio in Madrid
*The chronology, the first two sentences of paragraph two, and part of the first sentence were translated from the article , accessed
22 January 2006. They were merged into the pre-existing article.
* [http://www.artcult.com/zulo.html Artcult.com Zuloaga article]
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105030 Britannica on-line]
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