- Philip of Cognac
Philip of Cognac (early 1180s-after 1201) was an illegitimate son of
Richard I of Englandby an unidentified mother.
Philip had reached adulthood by the later 1190s. His father married him to his ward, Amelia, the heiress of
Cognacin Charente. However, when she died without issue, Richard kept the castle, and handed it over to his seneschal, Robert of Thornham. ["Comptes d'Alfonse de Poitiers", "Archives historiques du Poitou", vol. 4, p. 21.]
The king was mortally wounded during the suppression of a revolt by Viscount
Aimar V of Limogesin 1199, and died without lawful heirs. The chronicler Roger of Howdenclaimed that later that same year,:"Philip, illegitimate son of King Richard of England, to whom the aforesaid king his father had granted the castle and honour of Cognac, slew the previously mentioned Viscount of Limoges in vengeance for his father." [Roger of Howden, "Chronica", vol. 4, p. 97.] No other source corroborates this, or explicitly indicates that Aimar of Limoges's death was a violent one. However, Guiraut de Bornelh's " planh" (lament) for him, "Planc e sospir", does suggest his death was unexpected.
A further reference to Philip is found in the "
Pipe Rolls" for 1201 of his uncle, John of England: "Et Philippo f. R. Ricardi 1 m. de dono R." ("And to Philip, son of King Richard, one mark as a gift"), but nothing later. It seems likely that he died early in the 13th century.
Philip in fiction, drama and film
The sparsely-documented historical Philip of Cognac has been developed in literature.
William Shakespearedepicted him as "Philip the Bastard" in his play, "The Life and Death of King John". In this, he is the son of Lady Faulconbridge, widow of Sir Robert Faulconbridge, and learns of his true paternity in the first scene::"Madam, I would not wish a better father.":"He that perforce robs lions of their hearts":"May easily win a woman's."However, as mentioned above, nothing is known of the real Philip's mother. Shakespeare's character is essentially a fictional creation, who shares a name and a father with his historical counterpart.
Another highly fictionalised version of Philip, played by
Stephen Moyer, figures as the romantic hero of " Princess of Thieves" (2001), a made-for-TV Disney adventure for young viewers, in which Keira Knightleyplays the daughter of Robin Hood. The film follows the tradition, begun by John Mairand popularised by Walter Scott, of assigning the Hood legends to Richard's reign. In this, the Hood family and their outlaws help Philip win the throne from his uncle John.
*"Comptes d'Alfonse de Poitiers" in "Archives historiques du Poitou", vol. 4 (Poitiers, 1872) (available via external link to [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ Gallica] ).
*John Gillingham, "Richard Cœur de Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century" (London, 1994).
*John Gillingham, "Richard I" (Yale, 1999).
*Oliver de Laborderie, "L'image de Richard Cœur de Lion dans "La Vie et la Mort du roi Jean" de William Shakespeare", in Janet L. Nelson (ed.) "Richard Cœur de Lion in History and Myth" (London, 1992).
*Pipe Roll for the Third Year of the Reign of King John.
*Roger of Howden (ed.
William Stubbs), "Chronica", 4 vols. (London, 1868-71) (available via external link to [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ Gallica] ).
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