- Agriculture in Argentina
Agricultureis one of the bases of Argentina's economy.
Argentine agriculture is relatively capital intensive, today providing about 7% of all employment [http://www.mecon.gov.ar/ Ministerio de Economía y Producción - República Argentina] ] and, even during its period of dominance around 1900, accounting for no more than a third of all labor.Rock, David. "Argentina: 1516-1982." University of California Press, 1987.] Having accounted for 20% of GDP as late as 1959, it adds, directly, less than 10% today; however, agricultural goods, whether raw or processed, still earn over half of Argentina's foreign exchange and, arguably, remain an indispensable pillar of the country's social progress and economic prosperity.
Since its formal organization as a national entity in the second half of the 19th century, the country followed an agricultural and
livestock exportmodel of development with a large concentration of crops in the fertile Pampas, particularly in and around Buenos Aires Province, as well as in the littoralof the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers. largely limited to stock-raising activities and centerd around the export of cattle hides and wool, Argentine agriculture languished during the colonial era and well into the 19th century. The need for intensive agriculture was recognized as early as 1776; but, aside from the yerba mateharvest in the northeast, attempts to develop it suffered setbacks due to internal strife and lack of skill and machinery. The development of a cohesive state after 1852 led to the 1868 creation of Argentina's first Institute of Agronomyand the 1875 arrival of the first intact grain shipment from Argentina to the United Kingdomsparked a wave of local investment in cultivation and silos and British investment in railways and finance. The 1876 development of refrigerated beef shipping, likewise, led to the modernization of that sector and by the 1920s, Argentine exports reached US$1 billion annually, of which 99% was agricultural. Maizeand wheathad, by then, largely overshadowed beef production and exports. ["Historical Dictionary of Argentina". London: Scarecrow Press, 1978.]
These developments were accompanied by a wave of European immigration and investments in education and infrastructure, all of which nearly reinvented Argentine society. Agricultural development, in turn, led to the first meaningful industrial growth, which, during the 1920s, was mainly centered around food processing and increasingly involved U.S. capital. Agricultural exports provided the Argentine Treasury with generous surpluses during both World Wars and helped finance a boom in machinery and consumer goods imports between the wars and after 1945. The creation of a single grain purchaser (the IAPI) by Pres.
Juan Perónproduced mixed results, often shortchanging growers even as it benefited them with investments in infrastructure, machinery and pest control. Policies friendly to industrial investment during the Arturo Frondizi's tenure led to the establishment of FIATand John Deerefarm machinery makers locally, spurring further modernization, as did accelerated rural roadbuilding and electrification programs during the 1960s. Cost-cutting measures by the Juan Carlos Onganíaregime led to the closure of 11 large sugar mills in 1966, however, even as agriculture generally continued to grow. Domestic austeritypolicies pursued by the last dictatorship and Raúl Alfonsín's government led to record trade surpluses during much of the 1976-90 era, led by agricultural exports and, notably, the sudden boom in soybeancultivation, which displaced sunflowerseeds as the leading oilseed crop in 1977. A severe shortage of domestic credit hampered the sector somewhat, however, as growing harvests soon outstripped transport and storage capacity. ["National Geographic Magazine." August 1986.] A tie of the Argentine peso to the U.S. dollar implemented by economist Domingo Cavalloin 1991 reduced export competitiveness somewhat, though the resulting stability led to record investments in agricultural infrastructure and led to strong growth in harvests during the late 1990s. A devaluation of the peso in 2002 and a sustained rise in commodity prices since has further encouraged the sector, leading to record production and exports, helping finance record public works spending through export tariffs, a centerpiece of Néstor and Cristina Kirchner's economic policies. [Sur del Sur. [http://www.surdelsur.com/economia/indexingles.html Argentina: Economic Activities] ]
In 2007, more than one fifth of Argentine exports of about US$56 billion were composed of unprocessed agricultural primary goods, mainly
soybeans, wheatand maize. A further one third were composed of processed agricultural products, such as animal feed, flour and vegetable oils. [INDEC, [http://www.indec.gov.ar/principal.asp?id_tema=5187 Foreign Trade, Export Complexes] .]
Rôle of Government
The national governmental organization in charge of overseeing agriculture is the Secretariat of Agriculture, Cattle Farming, Fishing and Food ("Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentos", SAGPyA). [ [http://www.sagpya.mecon.gov.ar/ Secretariat of Agriculture, Cattle Farming, Fishing and Food] . Official website.]
Production per commodity
:"All data refers to 2004 information by the FAO and by 2007 data from the Argentine Ministry of the Economy."
Around 10% of the country is cultivated, while about half of it is used for
cattle, sheepand other livestock.
One of the main exports of the country are
cereals, centered around corn wheatand sorghum, with riceand barleyproduced mainly for national consumption. With a total area of around 210.000 km², the annual production of cereals is around 50 million tonnes.
Oilseeds became important as their international price rose during the late 20th century. Of the approximately 52 million tonnes produced annually, around 92% are
soybeansand 7% are sunflowerseeds. The total cultivated area for oilseeds is around 41.000 km².
Oilseed farming in Argentina has been prominent from the early 20th century, when the country was the world's primary exporter of
flax(linseed). The collapse of that market in the 1930s and the crop's soil denuding qualities, however, ended its dominance within the sector.
Beefand other meats are some of the most important agricultural export products of Argentina. Nearly 5 million tonnes of meats (not including seafood) are produced in Argentina, long the world's leading beef consumer on a per capita basis. Beefaccounts for 3.2 million tonnes (not counting 500.000 tonnes of edible offal). Then, following in importance: chicken, with 1.2 million tonnes; pork, with 265,000 and mutton(including goatmeat), over 100,000. Cattle is mainly raised in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe.
Grapes(mostly for the wine harvest), together with lemons, apples and pears are the most important fruit harvests, produced mainly in the Río Negro valleys of Río Negro Provinceand Neuquén Province, as well as Mendoza Province. Other important crops include peaches and other citruses. With an area of around 6.000 km², the fruit production is around 8 million annual tonnes.
The cultivation of
sugar caneand its derivates over an area of 3.000 km², mainly in the Tucumán Province, yields around 19 million tonnes annually. There are also sugar-cane factories ("ingenios azucareros") for the production of sugar and cellulose.
In 2007 on 393,000 ha, 174,000 net tons of cotton was produced of which 7,000 tons was exported. The main production area is Chaco Province and, though the crop is being replaced in many areas with
soybeans due to production costs, production has more than doubled since the 2002 low.
Milkproduction is of around 10 billion annual litres and eggs, about 650 million dozen. Their production, as well as that of related diary industries (half a million tonnes of cheese, particularly), was favoured by the 2002 devaluation of the Argentine peso, as this placed production costs well below the international price. This increased milk and diary product exports; but has also raised their local prices.
Vegetables, mainly potatoes, onions and tomatoes, are cultivated all over the country, almost exclusively for the domestic market. Other important products include sweetpotato, pumpkins, carrots, beans, peppers and garlic. An approximate area of 3.000 km² produces over five million tonnes of vegetable every year.
Fish and seafood
Fish and other sea foods are less important to the export economy, and are not widely consumed by Argentines. Most of the 900.000 tonnes fished is frozen and exported. The most important product is
hake( merlucciidae), followed by Cephalopod( squid) and other molluscs and Crustaceans.
Production as of 2006-2007 [ [http://www.mecon.gov.ar/peconomica/basehome/infoeco.html (production statistics)] .] . Quantities in thousands of metric tonnes, areas in thousands of hectares.
30 most cultivated commodities by harvested production
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Argentina — For alternative meanings, see Argentina (disambiguation) and Argentine (disambiguation). Argentine Republic … Wikipedia
ARGENTINA — ARGENTINA, South American Federal Republic, general population (2004) 39,150,000; Jewish population 190,000. This entry is arranged according to the following outline: colonial period modern period legal basis for jewish life history EARLY JEWISH … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Argentina (Genre) — Argentina … Wikipédia en Français
Argentina — • A South American confederation of fourteen provinces, or States, united by a federal Constitution framed on the same lines as the Constitution of the United States of America Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Argentina Arge … Catholic encyclopedia
Agriculture in Chile — encompasses a wide range of different activities due its particular geography, climate and geology. Historically agriculture is one of the bases of Chile s economy, now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounts… … Wikipedia
Agriculture and Food Supplies — ▪ 2007 Introduction Bird flu reached Europe and Africa, and concerns over BSE continued to disrupt trade in beef. An international vault for seeds was under construction on an Arctic island. Stocks of important food fish species were reported… … Universalium
Argentina — /ahr jeuhn tee neuh/; Sp. /ahrdd hen tee nah/, n. a republic in S South America. 35,797,536; 1,084,120 sq. mi. (2,807,870 sq. km). Cap.: Buenos Aires. Also called the Argentine. Official name, Argentine Republic. * * * Argentina Introduction… … Universalium
Argentina — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Argentina <p></p> Background: <p></p> In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went… … The World Factbook
AGRICULTURE — in the land of israel in prehistory from the beginning of the bronze age to the conquest of joshua early israelite the period of the first temple the period of the return and the second temple the hasmonean period the mishnaic and talmudic period … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Agriculture — General … Wikipedia