Peruvian sol


Peruvian sol

Infobox Currency
currency_name_in_local = sol peruano es icon
image_1 = Un_sol_de_1889.jpg
image_title_1 = 1 sol coin with the motto: "Firme y feliz por la unión" ("Steady and happy for the union").
iso_code = PEH
using_countries = Peru
subunit_ratio_1 = 1/100
subunit_name_1 = centavo
symbol = S/.
plural = soles
issuing_authority = Central Reserve Bank of Peru
issuing_authority_website = www.bcrp.gob.pe
The sol, was the currency of Peru between 1863 and 1985. It had the ISO 4217 currency code "PEH". It was subdivided into 10 "dineros" or 100 "centavos". The name derives from the "sueldo", the Spanish equivalent of the French sou and Italian soldo.

History

The sol was introduced in 1863 when Peru completed its decimalization, replacing the "real" at a rate of 1 sol = 10 reales. The sol also replaced the Bolivian peso, which had circulated in southern Peru, at the rate of 1 soles = 1.25 Bolivian pesos. Between 1858 and 1863, coins had been issued denominated in reales, centavos and escudos. The sol was initially pegged to the French franc at a rate of 1 sol = 5 francs (approximately 5 soles to the British pound).

In 1880 and 1881, silver coins denominated in "pesetas", were issued, worth 20 centavos to the peseta. In 1881, the "inca", worth ten soles, was introduced for use on banknotes. The peg to the franc was replaced in 1901 by a link to sterling at a rate of 10 soles = 1 pound, with gold coins and banknotes issued denominated in "libra". This peg was maintained until 1930 when Peru left the gold standard and established an official rate of 2.5 soles = 1 USD, a rate which remained until 1946. In 1933, banknotes were issued once more denominated in soles, now called "soles de oro". This name also appeared from 1935 on coins, when silver was replaced by base metal.

Since 1975, multiple rates to the U.S. dollar have been used.

Due to the chronic inflation that occurred in Peru during the second presidency of Fernando Belaúnde Terry, the sol was replaced in 1985 by the "inti" at a rate of 1000 soles = 1 inti. The "nuevo sol" replaced the inti in 1991, during the administration of Alberto Fujimori, at the rate of 1 million to one (or 1 billion (109) old sols to 1 nuevo sol).

Coins

In 1863, cupro-nickel coins for 1 and 2 centavos and .900 silver coins for ½ and 1 dinero and frac|1|5 sol were introduced, followed by .900 silver ½ and 1 sol in 1864. Gold 5, 10 and 20 soles were issued only in 1863. In 1875 and 1876, bronze replaced cupro-nickel. In 1879 and 1880, provisional coins were struck in cupro-nickel in denominations of 5, 10 and 20 centavos for replaced the banknotes of cents. In 1898, gold coins for 1 libra (10 soles) were introduced, followed by ½ libra (5 soles) in 1902 and frac|1|5 libra (or 2 soles) in 1905. These were issued for circulation until 1930.

In 1918, cupro-nickel 5, 10 and 20 centavos coins were introduced, followed, in 1922 with ½ and 1 sol coins in .500 fineness silver. The silver ½ and 1 sol were replaced by brass coins in 1935. Brass 5, 10 and 20 centavos followed in 1942. In 1950, zinc 1 and 2 centavos coins were introduced which were issued until 1965 and 1958, respectively. In 1966, 25 centavos coins were introduced, followed, in 1969, by cupro-nickel 5 and 10 soles.

Production of 5 and 25 centavos ceased in 1975, followed by 10 and 20 centavos in 1976, and 50 centavos in 1977. In 1978, brass replaced cupro-nickel in the 5 and 10 soles whilst aluminium-bronze 50 soles and cupro-nickel 100 soles coins were introduced in 1979 and 1980. The last 1 and 5 soles coins were issued in 1982 and 1983. In 1984, brass 10, 50, 100 and 500 soles coins were issued. The last of these pieces was minted in 1985.

Banknotes

The first banknotes were introduced by the private banks. In 1864, "Banco La Providencia" introduced notes for 5, 20, 40, 80 and 200 soles, with all but the 5 soles also denominated in pesos (25, 50, 10 and 250 pesos). Later issues of this bank included denominations of ½, 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 soles.

Other private banks which issued notes in Peru were:

Additional denominations to those issued by the Banco La Providencia included 10, 20 and 40 centavos, 25 and 400 soles.

In 1879, the government introduced notes for 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 soles. In 1881, 5 and 100 incas notes were overprinted with the denominations 50 and 1000 soles. In 1914, bearer cheques were introduced for ½, 1, 5 and 10 libras (5, 10, 50 and 100 soles). 1 sol cheques were issued in 1918 whilst, in 1917, gold certificates for 5 and 50 centavos and 1 sol were issued. In 1922, the Reserve Bank of Peru took over paper money production, issuing a final series of libra notes.

In 1933, the Reserve Bank began issuing notes denominated in soles. The first issues were libra notes overprinted with the new denominations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 soles. Regular issues followed in denominations of ½, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 soles. 50 centavos and 1 sol were only issued until 1935. 500 soles notes were introduced in 1946, followed by 200 and 1,000 soles in 1960. The 5 soles note was last produced in 1974, with the 10 and 50 soles being last issued in 1976 and 1977 respectively. That same year, 5,000-sol notes were introduced. In 1979, 10,000 soles notes were added, followed by 50,000 soles in 1982 and 100,000 soles in 1985.

ee also

* Economy of Peru

References

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External links

Standard numismatics external links
world_coin_gallery_1_url = Peru
world_coin_gallery_1_name = Peru
banknote_world_1_url = peru
banknote_world_1_name = Peru
dollarization_1_url =
dollarization_1_name =
gfd_1_url = Peru
gfd_1_name = Peru
gfd_data_1_url = 5188
gfd_data_1_name = Peru New Sol
show_gfd_excel = Y


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