- Mumbai Metro
Info Locale Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Transit type Rapid transit Number of lines 3 (Phase 1) Number of stations 12 Chief executive K.P. Maheshwari Headquarters Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Website Official Website Operation Began operation 2012 (line 1, planned) Operator(s) Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL) Train length 4-6 coaches Technical Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge Electrification 25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary Average speed 33 km/h (21 mph) Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph) System map
The Mumbai Metro (Marathi: मुंबई मेट्रो) is a rapid transit system being built in Mumbai, India's largest city. The system is designed to reduce the rapidly-growing city's congestion problems, and will be built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. The Metro's operator is Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL), a joint venture company formed by Reliance Energy Limited, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).
In June 2006, the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, inaugurated the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project, which will ultimately comprise a three-line high-capacity metro railway system spanning 63 kilometres (39 mi). Construction work began in February 2008, and the first phase is expected to be completed in 2012.
- 1 Background
- 2 Plan
- 3 Construction
- 4 Stations
- 5 Technology
- 6 Operations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Greater Mumbai is the financial capital of India and the heart of its commercial and trade activities. It is also among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 20 million as of 2011, and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum. Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system. The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 6.94 million passengers every day, and is supplemented by the BEST bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. However, due to the city’s geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the past several decades. Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications.
In May 2003, the original Mumbai rapid-transit plan was updated to include an elevated 10-kilometre LRT system linking Andheri and Ghatkopar, via Asalpha, Marol, Chakala and Saki Naka. In January 2004, a master transit plan was unveiled by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). The plan integrated a 146-kilometre-long metro system, of which 32 km is underground. In June 2004, government approval was given for a 13-station elevated light rail line between Ghatkopar and Versova. The foundation-stone-laying ceremony was held on 21 June 2006.
Plan of Phase I and interchanges with Mumbai Suburban Railway Charkop WR Towards Virar / Dahanu Malad Kasturi Park Bangur Nagar Oshiwara Samartha Nagar Versova Shastri Nagar DN Nagar ESIC Nagar Azad Nagar JVPD CR-Harbour Line ext. to Goregaon Juhu Andheri Vile Parle Nanavati Hospital WEH Aryasamaj Chowk Chakala Khar Airport Road National College Marol Naka Bandra Saki Naka Mahim Subhash Nagar Shitla Devi Asalpha Shivaji Park Ghatkopar Dadar CR Towards Kalyan Siddhi Vinayak MMRDA Udyog Bhawan Income Tax Office Acharya A Chowk Bharat Nagar Worli Hill Complex Road Mahalaxmi Kurla-LTT Ghadge Chowk Mumbai Central Minerva Girgaon SG Barve Marg WR Towards Churchgate RC Marg Chandanwadi Shivaji Chowk Phadke Chowk BSNL Mumbai CST Mankhurd Hutatma Chowk Nariman Point Thane Creek Colaba CR-Harbour LineTowards Panvel
The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide rail-based mass transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network. The Mumbai Metro is to be built in three phases, at a total cost of 36,000 crore (US$7.3 billion). The nine lines of the system are projected to have a total length of 146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi), including 32.5 kilometres (20.2 mi) of underground track.
Phase I (2006–2016)
- Line 1: Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar (11.07 km) (Construction started by Simplex Infrastractures Ltd., completion expected by 2012)
- Line 2: Charkop–Bandra–Mankhurd (31.8 km)
- Line 3: Colaba–Bandra (20 km)
Phase II (2012–2017)
- Line 4: Charkop–Dahisar (7.5 km)
- Line 5: Ghatkopar–Mulund (12.5 km)
- Line 6: BKC–Kanjurmarg via Airport (19.50 km)
Phase III ( 2016–2021)
- Line 7: Andheri (E)–Dahisar (E) (18 km)
- Line 8: Ghatkopar–Flora Fountain (21.8 km)
- Line 9: Sewri–Prabhadevi (an underground stretch, the details of which are being finalised)
Estimated total length: 146.5 km
Phase I implementation
Phase I of the metro project will be implemented on a Build-Operate-Transfer basis for a 35-year period. The phase includes construction of three metro lines. The 2,356 crore (US$477.8 million) contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was secured by a consortium led by Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group's Reliance Infrastructure Ltd, along with Veolia Transport Co. and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Simplex Infrastractures Ltd, the main technical contractor, began construction work on this line in 2008, and is expected to complete it in 2012. The next corridor to be built in the first phase will be the 32-km Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route, which will have 27 stations. The MMRDA has appointed Reliance Infrastructure to carry out this phase of the project, which is expected to cost 8,250 crore (US$1.67 billion).
Interface with road network
The Andheri-Kurla Road is one of India's busiest roads – the Metro will thus be a relief for millions of commuters, especially during the monsoon season, when driving can become highly difficult. There is as yet little clarity regarding plans determining the actual system to be put in place for traffic management, management of passenger inflow/outflow at each station, and vehicle pile-up at each station. This is a critical issue, since an addition of people and vehicles into the congested road without a dedicated management plan would lead to severe traffic jams.
The Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar line of the Metro had an initial construction cost of 2,356 crore (US$477.8 million). The Metro Railway Administration will be paying charges equivalent of 99% of the market value of the land, plus nominal charges of 1,000 rupees per annum for a period of 35 years, extendable for a further 35-year period. Overhead crossing charges of 50,000 rupees per annum will be levied for the area of land, and 100,000 rupees per annum will be levied for each 100-metre stretch of crossing, according to Joint Project Director Dilip Kawathkar.
Work on the 11-km Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. In September 2011, MMOPL officials claimed that trial runs on the first section of the corridor, the 3-kilometre Versova–DN Nagar–Azad Nagar stretch, would start by February 2012, with a view to opening the stretch to commuters by March or April 2012. By October 2011, the majority of the corridor's track-support pillars and girders had been laid, and the twelve individual stations were 70% complete, with most of the stations rising above platform level. However, land acquisition and right-of-way issues, along with problems with the construction of a Metro-related viaduct, delayed the line's predicted completion to August 2012.
Station No. From To Distance between stations (km) 1 Versova D N Nagar 0.955 2 D N Nagar Azad Nagar 0.796 3 Azad Nagar Andheri 1.36 4 Andheri WEH 1.007 5 WEH Chakala 1.264 6 Chakala Airport Road 0.725 7 Airport Road Marol 0.598 8 Marol Saki Naka 1.075 9 Saki Naka Subhash Nagar 1.123 10 Subhash Nagar Asalpha 0.862 11 Asalpha Ghatkopar 1.056
RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock. In May 2008, CSR Nanjing constructed 16 trains of 4 cars each for a total fee of 6 billion (US$121.7 million).
The coaches will be air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations. The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit.
Carrying capacity of mass rail vehicles Driving motor car Non-driving motor car 4 car train 6 car train 8 car train Normal Crush Normal Crush Crush Crush Crush Seated 43 43 50 50 186 286 386 Standing 120 239 129 257 992 1506 2020 Total 163 282 179 307 1178 1792 2406 Capacity provided (Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar Line) 2011 2021 2031 Cars per train 4 4 4 Headway (minutes) 5 4 3 PHPDT Capacity Demand 15563 23590 30547 PHPDT Capacity available 14136 17670 23560 Capacity provided (Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd Line) 2011 2021 2031 Cars per train 4 6 6 Headway (minutes) 3.5 3.5 3 PHPDT Capacity Demand 26432 36208 42409 PHPDT Capacity available 20026 30464 35840
The Swiss-Swedish ABB Group was awarded the contract for supplying power systems to Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro. ABB will be responsible for the supply, installation, testing and commissioning of the traction electrification, power supply, power distribution and SCADA system for the first metro corridor.
Signaling and communications
The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements on the 11-km Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.
Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.
The Mumbai Metro is expected to have a three-tier fare structure based on journey distances.
Capacity and frequency
During peak hours, up to sixteen trains, with four to six coaches each, will ferry around 25,000 passengers per hour on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar line. Travel time from Versova to Ghatkopar is expected to be approximately 21 minutes.
- List of Mumbai metro stations
- List of rapid transit systems
- Mumbai Monorail
- Transport in India
- Rapid transit in India
- Public transport in Mumbai
- Other metro systems
- ^ a b c d e "Mumbai Metro project". MMRDA. 2008-01-01. http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- ^ "Ride on Metro by Jan 2012". Hindustantimes.com. 2011-01-15. http://www.hindustantimes.com/tabloid-news/mumbai/Ride-on-Metro-by-Jan-2012/Article1-650525.aspx. Retrieved 2011-01-28.
- ^ "Mumabi Metro Details". Railway Technology. 2008-01-01. http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/mumbai-metro/. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- ^ "Metro, Monorail projects could miss deadline". Indian Express. 2011-08-14. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/metro-monorail-projects-could-miss-deadline/831682/. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
- ^ United Nations Population Division - City Population. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- ^ United Nations Population Division - Average Annual Rate of Change. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- ^ "Mmrda - Projects - Mumbai Metro Rail Project". Mmrdamumbai.org. http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/projects_metro_rail.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- ^ "Infra projects in MMR now cost Rs 38K cr more-Infrastructure-Economy-News-The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2010-05-18. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/infrastructure/Infra-projects-in-MMR-now-cost-Rs-38K-cr-more/articleshow/5943238.cms. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ "Metro Rail-I to be operational in Mumbai in 2012". The Economic Times. 2011-09-05. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/transportation/railways/metro-rail-i-to-be-operational-in-mumbai-in-2012/articleshow/9873315.cms. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- ^ DNA India. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ "Could Metro-II 'finish the suburbs'?". Times of India, 30 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
- ^ "Mumbai Metro's Future". Mumbai Mirror, 11 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
- ^ IndiaTransportPortal. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
- ^ Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- ^ a b c d "Metro first line hinges on Andheri bridge". Times of India, 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
- ^ "Work on metro pillar between railway tracks begins at slow pace". DNAIndia, 19 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- ^ "Mumbai Metro One Project updates". mumbai-metro.com. http://www.mumbai-metro.com/projec-update. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- ^ "Mumbai's beautiful butterfly emerges". Railway Gazette, 25 March 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- ^ a b "MMOPL awards contract to ABB, Siemens, SEW". Projects Today. 2008-01-08. http://www.projectstoday.com/News/NewsDetails.aspx?smid=16&nid=22722. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
- ^ Mumbai-Metro.com. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- Mumbai Metro Official Site
- Mumbai Metro Rail Project
- Mumbai Metro Blog site
- Mumbai Metro is finally cleared
- New metro rail project for Mumbai
- Mumbai Metro Discussion forum
- Mumbai Metro Map with proposed lines
- Mumbai Metro Google Mashup
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