- Ghana Empire
Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Wagadou Empire"
conventional_long_name = Ghana Empire
common_name = Ghana Empire
continent = Africa
region = West-Africa
era = Middle Ages
year_start = 750s
event_end = Conquered by the
year_end = 1076 / 1240
p1 = Soninke people
s1 = Almoravids
flag_s1 = Flag_of_Almohad_Dynasty.svg
s2 = Mali Empire
image_map_caption = Ghana Empire at its Greatest Extent
common_languages = Soninke, Mande
religion = Traditional Religions,
government_type = Monarchy
Majan Dyabe Cisse
year_leader1 = 750s
year_leader2 = 1040-1062
year_leader3 = 1203-1240
title_leader = Ghana
The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire (existed c.
750- 1076) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, Western Mali, and Eastern Senegal. This is believed to be first of many empires that would rise in that part of Africa. It first began in the eighth century, when a dramatic shift in the economy of the Sahelarea south of the Saharaallowed more centralized states to form. The introduction of the camel, which preceded Muslims and Islamby several centuries, brought about a gradual revolution in trade, and for the first time, the extensive gold, ivory, and saltresources of the region could be sent north and east to population centers in North Africa, the Middle Eastand Europein exchange for manufactured goods.
The Empire grew rich from the
trans-Saharan tradein gold and salt. This trade produced an increasing surplus, allowing for larger urban centres. It also encouraged territorial expansion to gain control over the lucrative trade routes.
The Almoravids invaded the kingdom in the late 11th century.
The first written mention of the kingdom comes soon after it was contacted by
Sanhajatraders in the eighth century. In the late ninth and early tenth centuries, there are more detailed accounts of a centralized monarchy that dominated the states in the region. The Cordoban scholar al-Bakricollected stories from a number of travelers to the region, and gave a detailed description of the kingdom in 1067. At that time it was alleged by contemporary writers that the "Ghana" could field an army of some 200,000 soldiers and cavalry.
Upon the death of a "Ghana", he was succeeded by his sister's son. The deceased "Ghana" would be buried in a large dome-roofed tomb. The religion of the kingdom involved emperor worship of the Ghana and worship of the "Bida'a", a mythical water serpent of the
The empire was known to its own citizens, a Mande subgroup known as the Soninke, as "Wagadou". The "dou" in the empire's name is a
Mandéterm for "land" and is prevalent in place names throughout central West Africa. The "waga" in the name roughly translates to "herd". Thus, "Wagadou" translates to "Land of Herds". The Empire became known in Europeand Arabiaas the Ghana Empire by the title of its emperor.
The Ghana Empire is believed by many to have been a continuation of the cultural complex at Tichitt-walata attributed to
Mandépeople known as the Soninke. Subsequent incursions of Amazigh Berber tribes, however, collapsed the earlier socio-political organization in the region and established small settlements in the area known as Awkar, around the middle of the fourth century. Around 750 or 800 AD however, the Soninke adjusted and united under Majan Dyabe Cisseor Dinga Cissein taking over Awkar.. [Jackson, John G.: "Introduction to African Civilization". Citadel Press, 1970] [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-8537(1980)21%3A4%3C457%3AAATPOO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23 Prehistoric Origins of the Ghana Empire] ]
Some people believed that the Ghana Empire was a small kingdom, with its base at the city of Kumbi, and that
Al Fazariwas the first to describe it to the world. Later, it was conquered by King Sumaguru Kanteof Sossoin 1203. It was later incorporated by the King of Mali around 1240.
Some archaeologists think that the Mandé are among the first people on the continent, outside the Nile region and Ethiopia, to produce stone settlement civilizations. These were built on the rocky promontories of the
Tichitt- Walataand Tagantcliffs of Mauritania where hundreds of stone masonry settlements, with clear street layouts, have been found. Dating from as early as 1600 BC, these towns had a unique four-tier hierarchy and tribute collection system. This civilization began to decline around 300 BC with the intrusion of Berber armies from the Sahara, but with later reorganization and new trade opportunities, the Wagadou/Ghana Kingdom arose. This polity seems to have inherited the social and economic organization of the Tichitt-Walata complex.
The empire's capital was built at
Koumbi Salehon the edge of the Sahara. The capital was actually two cities six miles apart separated by a six-mile road. But settlements between the cities became so dense due to the influx of people coming to trade, that it merged into one. Most of the houses were built of wood and clay, but wealthy and important residents lived in homes of wood and stone. This large metropolis of over 30,000 people remained divided after its merger forming two distinct areas within the city.
El Ghaba Section
The major part of the city was called El-Ghaba. It was protected by a stone wall and functioned as the royal and spiritual capital of the Empire. It contained a sacred grove of trees used for Soninke religious rites. It also contained the king's palace, the grandest structure in the city. There was also one mosque for visiting Muslim officials. (El-Ghaba, coincidentally or not, means "The Forest" in Arabic.)
The name of the other section of the city has not been passed down. It is known that it was the center of trade and functioned as a sort of business district of the capital. It was inhabited almost entirely by Arab and Berber merchants. Because the majority of these merchants were Muslim, this part of the city contained more than a dozen
The empire owed much of its prosperity to trans-Saharan trade and a strategic location near the gold and salt mines. Both gold and salt seemed to be the dominant sources of revenue, exchanged for various products such as textiles, ornaments and cloth, among other materials. Many of the hand-crafted leather goods found in old
Moroccoalso had their origins in the empire. [Chu, Daniel and Skinner, Elliot. A Glorious Age in Africa, 1st ed. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1965] The main centre of trade was Koumbi Saleh. The taxation system imposed by the king (or 'Ghana') required that both importers and exporters pay a percentage fee, not in currency, but in the product itself. Tax was also extended to the goldmines. In addition to the exerted influence of the king onto local regions, tribute was also received from various tributary states and chiefdomsto the empire's peripheral. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter1.shtml Ancient Ghana] ] The introduction of the camel played a key role in Soninke success as well, allowing products and goods to be transported much more efficiently across the Sahara. These contributing factors all helped the empire remain powerful for some time, providing a rich and stable economy that was to last over several centuries.
Much testimony on ancient Ghana depended on how well disposed the king was to foreign travelers, from which the majority of information on the empire comes. Islamic writers often commented on the social-political stability of the empire based on the seemingly just actions and grandeur of the king. A Moorish nobleman who lived in Spain by the name of
al-Bakriquestioned merchants who visited the empire in the 11th century and wrote that the king:
:" [He] Gives an audience to his people, in order to listen to their complaints and set them right…he sits in a pavilion around which stand 10 horses with gold embodied trappings. Behind the king stand 10 pages holding shields and gold mounted swords; on his right are the sons of princes of his empire, splendidly clad and with gold plaited in their hair. Before him sits the high priest, and behind the high priest sit the other priests…The door of the pavilion is guarded by dogs of an excellent breed who almost never leave the king's presence and who wear collars of gold and silver studded with bells of the same material.
Decline and Conquest
The empire began struggling after reaching its apex in the early 11th century. By 1059, the population density around the empire's leading cities was seriously overtaxing the region. The Sahara desert was expanding southward, threatening food supplies. While imported food was sufficient to support the population when income from trade was high, when trade faltered, this system also broke down. The growing power of the Almoravids soon led them to launch a war against Ghana in 1062 under
Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umarto gain control of the coveted Saharan trade routes. The war was justified as an act of conversion through military arms ( lesser jihad). The Almoravids fought the Ghana empire for five years before reaching and laying siege to the capital city in 1067. For ten more years, under the leadership of "Ghana" Bassi and his successor "Ghana" Tunka Manin, the empire resisted. Finally, in 1076, General Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar captured the capital and ended the state as an empire while converting many to Islam.
General Abu-Bakr died in
1087and the Almoravid rule over the remains of the Ghana Empire did not long survive him. The now fractionalized region came under the rule of the Soninke again, though with far less power.
1140, the rabidly anti-Muslim Sossopeople of the Kaniagakingdom captured much of the former empire. Diara Kantetook control of Koumbi Saleh in 1180and established the DiarissoDynasty. His son, Soumaoro Kante, succeeded him in 1203and forced the people to pay him tribute. The Sosso also managed to annex the neighboring Mandinkastate of Kangabato the south, where the important goldfield of Bure were located.
1230, Kangaba led a rebellion under Prince Sundiata Keitaagainst Sosso rule. "Ghana" Soumaba Cisse, at the time a vassal of the Sosso, rebelled with Kangaba and a loose federation of Mande speaking states. After Soumaoro's defeat at the Battle of Kirinain 1235, the new rulers of Koumbi Saleh became permanent allies of the Mali Empire. As Mali became more powerful, Koumbi Saleh's role as an ally declined to that of a submissive state. It ceased to be an independent kingdom by 1240.
The modern country of
Ghanais named after the ancient empire, though there is no territory shared between the two states. There are traditional stories that the survivors of the Ghana Empire migrated to the region of modern Ghana, and there is sufficient evidence to prove this. Some inhabitants of present Ghana had ancestors linked with the medieval Ghana. This can be traced down to the Mande and Voltaic people of Northern Ghana--Mamprussi, Dagomba and the Gonja.
Anecdotal evidence connected the Ashanti/Akans to this great Empire. The evidence lies in names like Danso shared by the Akans of present Ghana and Mandikas of Senegal/Gambia who have strong links with the Empire.
Rulers of Awkar
*King Kaja Maja : circa 350 AD
*21 Kings, names unknown: circa 350 AD- 622 AD
*21 Kings, names unknown: circa 622 AD- 750 AD
oninke Rulers "Ghanas"
* Majan Dyabe Cisse: circa 750s
Bassi: 1040- 1062
Ghanas of Wagadou Kingdom
*Kambine Diaresso: 1087- 1090s
*Suleiman: 1090s- 1100s
*Bannu Bubu: 1100s- 1120s
*Majan Wagadou: 1120s- 1130s
*Musa: 1140s- 1160s
Rulers during Kaniaga Occupation
*Diara Kante: 1180-1202
*Soumaba Cisse as vassal of Soumaoro: 1203-1235
Ghanas of Wagadou Tributary
*Soumaba Cisse as ally of Sundjata Keita: 1235-1240
* [http://www.accessgambia.com/information/ghana.html Rise and Fall of the Ghana Empire]
* [http://www.ghana.co.uk/history/history/ancient_ghana.htm Ancient Ghana]
* [http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ghan/hd_ghan.htm Empires of west Sudan]
* [http://www.soninkara.org/histoire-soninkara/wagadou/recherches/index.php Empire oh Ghana, Wagadou, Soninke]
* [http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/materials/handouts/k_o_ghana.html Kingdom of Ghana, Primary Source Documents]
* [http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/materials/handouts/gold.html Gold: Select Bibliography for Teaching about GOLD in the West African Kingdoms]
* [http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/materials/handouts/SUNDIATA.pdf Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali]
* [http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/materials/handouts/Ancient_Mali.pdf Why this epic of Ancient Mali?]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter1.shtml Ancient Ghana] — BBC World Service
* Mauny, R. (1971), “The Western Sudan” in Shinnie: 66-87.
* Monteil, Charles (1953), “La Légende du Ouagadou et l’Origine des Soninke” in Mélanges Ethnologiques (Dakar: Bulletin del’Institut Francais del’Afrique Noir).
*Expansions And Contractions: World-Historical Change And The Western Sudan World-System 1200/1000 B.C.–1200/1250 A.D.*. Ray A. Kea. Journal of World Systems Research: Fall 2004
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