- Bachem Ba 349
name = Ba 349 "Natter"
type = Rocket
manufacturer = Bachem
caption = A replica of Bachem Ba349 at the
Deutsches Museumin Munich, Germany
first flight =
introduced = n/a
primary user =
more users =
number built = 11 production aircraft (Ba 349B)
unit cost =
developed from =
variants with their own articles =
Bachem Ba 349 "Natter" ("
colubrid") was a World War IIera German experimental point-defense rocket-powered interceptor aircraftwhich was to be used in a very similar way as unmanned surface-to-air missiles. After vertical takeoffwhich eliminated the need for airfields, the majority of the flight to the bombers was radio controlled from the ground. The primary mission of the (inexperienced) pilot was to aim the aircraft at its target bomberand fire its armament of rockets. The pilot and the main rocket engine should then land under separate parachutes, while the wooden fuselage was disposable. The only manned test flight, on 1 March 1945, ended with test-pilot Lothar Sieberbeing killed.
Luftwaffeair superiority being challenged by the Allies even over the Reich in 1943, radical innovations were required to overcome the crisis. Surface-to-air missiles appeared to be a very promising approach to counter the Allied bombing offensive and various projects were started, but invariably problems with the guidance systems and fusing prevented these from seeing widespread use. Providing the missile with a pilot who could control the weapon during the critical terminal approach phase offered a solution and was requested by the Luftwaffe in early 1944, under the Emergency Fighter Program.
A number of simple designs were proposed, most using a prone pilot to reduce frontal area. The front runner for the design was initially the
Heinkel P.1077"Julia" that took off from a rail and landed on a skid like the Messerschmitt Me 163"Komet".
Erich Bachem's BP20 was a development from a design he worked on at Fieseler, but considerably more radical than the other offerings. It was built using glued and screwed wooden parts with an armored cockpit, powered by a Walter HWK 509A-2 rocket, similar to the one in the Me 163. Four jettisonable Schmiddingrocket boosters were used for launch, providing a combined thrust of 4,800 kgf (47 kN or 10,600 lbf) for 10 seconds before they were jettisoned. The aircraft rode up a rail for about 25 metres, by which time it was going fast enough for the aerodynamic flight controls to keep it flying straight.
The aircraft took off and was guided almost to the bomber's altitude using
radio controlfrom the ground, with the pilot taking control right at the end to point the nose in the right direction, jettison the plastic noseconeand pull the trigger. This fired a salvo of rockets (either 33 R4M or 24 Henschel Hs 217), at which point the aircraft flew up and over the bombers. After running out of fuel the aircraft would then be used to ram the tail of a bomber, with the pilot ejecting just before impact to parachuteto the ground.
Despite its apparent complexity, the design had one decisive advantage over the competitors — it eliminated the necessity to land an extremely fast rocket aircraft at an airbase that, as the history of the Me 163 demonstrated, was extremely vulnerable against air raids.
After Bachem's design caught the eye of
Heinrich Himmlerat the SS, it emerged as the winner of the design contest. The Luftwaffe nevertheless managed to include some minor redesigns to try to save as much of the aircraft as possible, as well as eliminating the ramming attack.
The resulting tiny aircraft was fired up a 50-foot (15 meter) wooden pole with the help of four solid fuel rockets (
Schmidding), at the end of which it was already going fast enough for its control surfaces to work. The RATOboosters burned out after 12 seconds, at which point the main engine was long up to full thrust. Mission control now had the aircraft guided by radio to a point in front and above the bombers, where the pilot would turn off the autopilot, and push over for a gliding attack. After firing its armament of rockets it continued gliding down at high speed to about 3,000 m (10,000 ft), at which point the aircraft "broke" when a large parachute opened at the rear of the aircraft, popping off the nose section and the pilot with it. The pilot and the tail with the engine would land under their separate parachutes, and only the nose and the fuselage with the wooden wings were disposable.
At Schloss Ummendorf near
Biberach an der Rißscientists of Technische Hochschule Aachen under Professor Wilhelm Fuchscalculated the Natter's aerodynamics with a large Analog computer while RATO engines were tested at Bachem-Werke factory in Waldsee. The Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt(DVL) in Braunschweigprovided Wind-tunneltest of models which were built early in the program. The results returned to the Bachem designers were that it would be "satisfactory" up to speeds of about Mach 0.95 or 685 mph, i. e. close to the sound barrier.
Full sized models were then completed and started flight testing on
3 November 1944in Neuburg an der Donau. The initial prototype BP-20 M1 did not include an engine, and was towed up to 3000 meter by a Heinkel He 111bomber for glide testing by Erich Klöckner. Klöckner managed to bail out as planned, and stated that it handled well over 200 km/h. Only the center of gravityand the fixing of pulling wires caused concerns..
Other test articles were equipped with extra solid motors for launch and autopilot tests. All of these went well, but during testing it was shown that any attempt to re-use the engine was hopeless; the impact speed was simply too high.
27 January 1945several manned and unmanned gliding flights after having been towed or released from a Mistelwere conducted. Also, the unmanned vertical takeoff starts powered by rockets, which started on 18 December 1944on Truppenübungsplatz Lager Heubergnear Stetten am kalten Marktwere completed, as well as tests of the weapons. The distance from the Bachem factory in Waldsee to Heuberg was only 50 kilometers.
First manned test flight
Construction of the production Ba 349A models had already started in October, and fifteen were launched over the next few months. Each launch resulted in some small modification to the design, and eventually these were collected into the definitive production version, the Ba 349B which started testing in January.
In February 1945 the SS funders decided that the program was not going fast enough, and demanded a manned launch later that month. The first and only time that the aircraft was tested in this way was on
March 1, when Lothar Sieberflew Ba 349A M23, which was launched from the Lager Heubergmilitary training area near Stetten am kalten Markt. Things went well at first, but one of the jettisonable Schmiddingboosters failed to release and the Natter got out of control. At 500 m (1,600 ft) the cockpit canopy pulled off as Sieber intended to bail out. He was instructed by radio to keep trying to shake off the booster, but inside the clouds he lost orientation. Also, the parachute did not open due to the stuck booster. Eventually, the aircraft turned over and slammed into the ground, killing Sieber. It is suspected that Sieber may have broken the sound barrieron the way down.
The cause was explained as a failure of the canopy which may simply not have been properly latched before launch. Photos were altered to hide the fact that a FuG16 radio was in the cockpit, used to order Sieber not to bail out. Excavations in 1998 found remains of the booster.
Of the 36 [Maloney 1966, chapter Ba 349] [Green 1970, p. 69] Natter that had been built, 18 were used in unmanned tests, and two crashed with pilots, one during a glide and one with Sieber. Of the remaining 16, ten were burned at the end of the war while four were captured by Americans, one went to Britain and one ended up with the Russians. Of the four American aircraft one is reported to have been fired aloft -pilotless- at Muroc Army Air Base in 1946. It would have crash landed somewhere near Las Vegas. [Maloney 1966, chapter Ba 349]
US forces overran the factory at
Waldseein April, but small numbers of Bachem staff had moved and taken the remaining ten B models with them. Soon the US had caught up with them again and captured four, as six of the ten were burnt.
Several sources claim that an operational unit of Natters was set up by volunteers in
Kirchheim unter Teckbut didn't carry out any operations, but the evidence for this is inconclusive.
Japanduring the last days of the Pacific War, the Mizuno aircraft company under orders from the Imperial Japanese Navydeveloped an aircraft similar to the Natter. The Mizuno Shinryu[ [http://www.j-aircraft.org/xplanes/hikoki_files/shinryu.htm Mizuno Shinryu] ] suicide-interceptor rocket aircraft was the result. It would have been armed with air-to-air unguided rockets mounted under its wings and used, like the Natter, for interception of enemy aircraft, as well as a nose mounted warhead to be used for a suicide attack.
Natter launchpads at Kirchheim (Teck)
There are three launch pads for the Bachem Ba 349 in the Hasenholz forest near Kirchheim/Teck at coord|48|37|42.2|N|9|29|57.4|E|type:landmark_region:DE, coord|48|37|42|N|9|29|53.5|E|type:landmark_region:DE and coord|48|37|39.8|N|9|29|54|E|type:landmark_region:DE. They are all that remain from the active launch site constructed in 1945. The three launchpads are arranged in the form of an equilateral triangle, whose sides point toward the east and the south. The distance between the launchpads is approximately 50 meters. The circular concrete pads on which the Bachem Ba 349's and their launch towers once stood still exist. In the center of each of the three concrete plates is a square hole approximately 50 centimeters deep, which once served as the foundation for the launch tower. Beside each hole is a pipe, cut off at ground level, which was probably once a cable pit. The Natter launchpads at Kirchheim (Teck) might be the only remnants of these rocket launch pads still on publicly accessible terrain. The former test site for the Natter in Baden-Württemberg on the Heuberg near Stetten am kalten Markt is in an active military area, and therefore not accessible to tourists.
Three Ba 349As survive today. Two can be found in the USA:
*A restored Ba 349A is on display at the
Smithsonian Institution's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centernear Washington, D.C.This aircraft was captured at the war's end and transferred to Freeman Field, Indianafor evaluation. It was given the foreign captured equipment number T2-1. The U.S. Air Force transferred the aircraft to The National Air Museum (now the National Air & Space Museum) on May 1, 1949. The aircraft was stored for many years at the museum's Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility in Suitland, Marylandbefore undergoing a full restoration. It was one of the first aircraft moved to the new center in 2004.
*An additional unrestored Ba 349A remains at the Garber facility and restoration plans are unknown.
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=both
length main= 6.02 m
length alt=19 ft 9 in
span main=3.60 m
span alt=11 ft 10 in
area main= 4.8 m²
area alt= 51.7 ft²
empty weight main= 800 kg
empty weight alt= 1,940 lb
loaded weight main= 2,232 kg
loaded weight alt= 4,920 lb
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
Walter HWK 509A
type of jet=liquid-fuel rocket
number of jets= 1
thrust main= 16.7 kN
thrust alt= 10,600 lbf
afterburning thrust main=
afterburning thrust alt=
Schmidding109-533 (1.200 kp, 11,768 kN, 10 seconds)
type of prop=solid fuel rocket boosters
number of props= 4
max speed main= 1,000 km/h
max speed alt= 620 mph
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
ceiling main= 14,000 m
ceiling alt= 46,000 ft
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
*Endurance: 6 minutes of flight
* 24 × 73 mm Hs 217 Föhn rockets or 33 × 55 mm
List of World War II military aircraft of Germany
* Ford, Brian. "German Secret Weapons: Blueprint for Mars" (Ballantine's Illustrated History of World War II, Weapons Book No.5). New York: Ballantine Books, 1969. ISBN 3-89555-087-6.
* Gooden, Brett A. "Projekt Natter, Last of the Wonder Weapons: The Luftwaffe's Vertical Take-Off Rocket Interceptor". Crowborough, UK: Classic Publications, 2006. ISBN 1-90322-362-8.
* Green, William. "Warplanes of the Third Reich". London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1970 (Fourth impression 1979). ISBN 0-356-02382-6.
* Green, William. "Rocket Fighter" (Ballantine's Illustrated History of World War II, Weapons Book No.20). New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. ISBN 0-34525-893-2.
* Lommel, Horst. "Der erste bemannte Raketenstart der Welt" (in German). Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag, 2nd edition 1998. ISBN 3-61301-862-4.
* Lommel, Horst. "Das bemannte Geschoß Ba 349 "NATTER" : Die Technikgeschichte" (in German). Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Publishing, ISBN 3-92548-039-0.
* Lommel, Horst. "Vom Höhenaufklärer bis zum Raumgleiter - Geheimprojekte der DFS 1935 – 1945" (in German). Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag, 2000. ISBN 3-613-02072-6.
* Maloney, Edward T. "Kamikaze: The Okha Suicide Flying Bomb, Bachem Ba 349A "Natter" and Fzg 76 "Reichenberg" (Aero Series 7)". Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers Inc., 1966.
* Miranda, Justo and Paula Mercado. "Vertical Takeoff Fighter Aircraft of the Third Reich (Luftwaffe Profile Series No.17)". Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-76431-435-1.
* Myhra, David. "Bachem Ba 349 Natter (X-Planes of the Third Reich)". Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-76431-032-1.
* [http://www.kheichhorn.de/html/body_natter.html Abfangjagdflugzeug Bachem Ba 349 "Natter"]
* [http://h1.ripway.com/erwinj/vtol/bachemfolder/natterbase.html Bachem Ba 349 Natter]
* [http://www.lonesentry.com/features/f36_natter-bachem-ba349.html U.S. Intelligence Report Photos]
* [http://www.walter-rockets.i12.com/missiles/ba349.htm Bachem Ba.349 Natter]
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