- Sick leave
Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use during periods of temporary illness to stay home and address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Some workplaces offer paid sick time as a matter of workplace policy, and in few jurisdictions it is codified into law. Currently, states around the United States are considering legislation that would require access to paid sick days for workers.
Paid sick days (also referred to as sick leave or paid sick leave) guarantee workers paid time off to stay home when they are sick. Some policies also allow paid sick time to be used to care for sick family members, to attend routine doctor or medical appointments, or to address health and safety needs related to domestic violence or sexual assault.
At least 145 countries ensure access to paid sick days for short- or long-term illnesses, with 127 providing a week or more annually.
An analysis from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) finds that around 39 percent of American workers in the private sector do not have paid sick leave. Around 79 percent of workers in low-wage industries do not have paid sick time. Most food service and hotel workers (78 percent) lack paid sick days.
One survey reports that 77 percent of Americans believe that having paid sick days is "very important" for workers. Some workers report that they or a family member have been fired or suspended for missing work due to illness.
Support for a paid sick day mandate
Paid sick leave advocates assert that providing paid sick time can reduce turnover, increase productivity, and reduce the spread of contamination in the workplace.
Some research has shown that children whose parents have access to paid sick leave are more likely to take time away from work to care for their sick kids, and other research finds that most children recover faster from illness when cared for by their parents. However, 53 percent of working mothers and 48 percent of working fathers don’t have paid sick days to care for children. Without paid time off, workers may be forced to send sick children to school where they spread illness and experience negative short- and long-term health outcomes.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) asks workers to stay at home if they are sick and to keep sick kids out of school. During the 2009 H1N1 crisis, the CDC recommended that anyone with flu-like symptoms remain at home. According to a report from the Institute for Women's Policy Research, more than 8 million workers went to their jobs while sick between September and November 2009 during the H1N1 pandemic.
Some studies show that the cost of losing an employee (which can include advertising for, interviewing, and training a replacement) is often greater than the cost of providing sick days to retain existing employees. One brief suggests the average cost of turnover is 25 percent of an employee's total annual compensation.
Presenteeism costs the U.S. economy $180 billion annually in lost productivity. For employers, this costs an average of $255 per employee per year and exceeds the cost of absenteeism and medical and disability benefits. For workers in the foodservice industry, one analysis found that foodborne illness outbreak for a chain restaurant – including negative public opinion, which affects other operations in a metropolitan area – can be up to $7 million.
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics has said that the average cost of sick leave per employee hour worked is 23 cents and the cost per service worker is 8 cents. Additional research by advocates for a policy has suggested that paid sick days could lead to savings of $1.17 per worker per week for employers.
Many studies have looked at the economic well-being of the city of San Francisco after they passed their sick leave policy in 2004. The research finds that (including other external factors) San Francisco outperformed its neighboring counties in terms of job growth in the years after its sick leave program went into effect – even during the recent recession.
Nearly seven in ten workers (68 percent) report they have gone to work with the stomach flu or other contagious disease. Nearly half reported that they went to work sick because they could not afford to lose the pay. Thirty percent of workers report they contracted the flu from a colleague.
In addition to their colleagues, workers who choose to go to work sick may risk passing the illness to customers. The Food and Drug Administration guidelines recommend that workers with norovirus-related illnesses work on a restricted basis until 24 hours after symptoms subside. Nearly half of outbreaks caused by the stomach flu are linked to ill food-service workers. In 2008, health officials said a sick employee at a Chipotle restaurant in Kent, Ohio might have caused an outbreak resulting in over 500 people becoming violently ill. The outbreak cost the Kent community between $130,233 and $305,337 in lost wages, lost productivity, and health care costs.
Opposition to a paid sick day mandate
Opponents of a workplace mandate assert that employers should offer paid sick days at their own discretion. They say employers best understand the benefit preferences of their employees and must maintain flexibility to meet the unique needs of their workforce.
Research out of Cleveland State University found that the costs incurred by a paid sick leave policy would include "lost wages for new users of paid sick leave policies and administration expenses incurred to operate sick leave accountability systems." The study concluded that a paid sick leave mandate would have been harmful to the state's employees and employers (noting that the costs of a mandate would outweigh the benefits) by imposing a net cost on the state and resulting in lost jobs.
A survey of New York City employers in 2010 by the Partnership for New York City found that a paid sick leave mandate would cost city employers $789 million per year. The survey also found that small businesses and nonprofit organizations would be faced with almost 20 percent of the cost of the city-wide mandate.
The United States does not currently require that employees have access to paid sick days to address their own short-term illnesses or the short-term illness of a family member. The U.S. does guarantee unpaid leave for serious illnesses through the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). This law covers employers with more than 50 workers and, within those businesses, covers employees who have worked for their employer for at least 12 months prior to taking the leave.
Four jurisdictions in the United States have passed local paid sick time laws:
In November 2006, the voters of San Francisco passed a ballot initiative making the city the first in the country to guarantee paid sick days to all workers. The measure received the support of 61 percent of voters. Under San Francisco's law, workers earn one hour of paid sick time for every 30 hours worked. Workers in businesses with 10 or fewer employees earn up to five days per year, while workers at larger businesses earn nine days per year. Workers use paid sick time to recover from illness, attend doctor visits or care for a sick child, partner, or designated loved one. Two studies demonstrate that employment rates in San Francisco have not suffered in the wake of the paid sick days law. However, the research also found that over 28 percent of employees in the "bottom wage quartile" faced layoffs or total hours reduced as a result of the paid sick leave mandate."San Francisco’s Paid Sick Leave Ordinance: Outcomes for Employers and Employees (page 13)". Institute for Women's Policy Research. February 2011. http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/San-Fran-PSD. </ref>
In March 2008, the Washington, D.C. Council voted unanimously to pass legislation guaranteeing workers paid sick time. Under the Accrued Sick and Safe Leave Act, workers in businesses with 100 or more workers earn up to seven days of paid sick leave each year, workers in businesses with 25-99 workers earn five days, and workers in businesses with 24 or fewer workers earn three days. This paid time off can be used to recover from illnesses, care for sick family members, seek routine or preventative medical care, or obtain assistance related to domestic violence or sexual assault. The law exempts tipped restaurant workers as well as workers in the first year of employment. The D.C. law was also the first in the United States to include paid "safe" days for victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.
In November 2008, paid sick days were put to a vote on the Milwaukee ballot, and voters passed the measure with 69 percent of the vote, enacting a law that guarantees paid sick and safe days for all workers in the city. The ordinance was immediately challenged by the Chamber of Commerce and has not been implemented. Recently, a Milwaukee County Circuit Court judge ruled the city ordinance invalid under a Wisconsin state law that bans local paid sick leave ordinances.
On July 1, 2011, Connecticut Governor Dannel P. Malloy signed into law Public Act No. 11-52 which will make Connecticut the first state to mandate paid sick leave. The Act, which only narrowly passed through Connecticut’s Senate (18-17) and House of Representatives (76-65), is set to take effect on January 1, 2012, and requires employers to allow their “service workers” to earn one hour of paid sick leave for every 40 hours worked, capped at a maximum of 40 hours per year. The Act applies to the “service workers” of employers with 50 or more employees in Connecticut during any single quarter in the previous year. It is estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 workers will be eligible for the paid leave. The Act defines “service worker” as an hourly or non-exempt employee who is primarily engaged in one of 68 occupations including: Food Service Manager, Medical and Health Services Manager, Librarian, Pharmacist, Physician Assistant, Registered Nurse, Home Health Aide, Nursing Aide, Orderly and Attendant, Security Guard, Cook, Food Preparation Worker, Bartender, Fast Food and Counter Worker, Waiter, Waitress, Dishwasher, Host, Hostess, Janitor, Usher, Lobby Attendant, Ticket Taker, Barber, Baggage Porter, Bellhop, Concierge, Cashier, Retail Salesperson, Courier, Secretary, Administrative Assistant, Computer Operator, Data Entry and Information Processing Worker, Bus Driver, Taxi Driver, and Chauffeur. Day laborers and temporary workers are not included within the definition of a “service worker.”
Under the Federal Government's industrial relations legislation (Fair Work) eligible employees are entitled to:
- ten days of paid personal/carer's leave per year (including sick leave and carer's leave);
- two days of unpaid carer's leave per occasion; and
- two days of paid compassionate leave per occasion.
Paid personal/carer's leave can be taken:
- due to personal illness or injury (sick leave); or
- to provide care or support for a member of the employee's immediate family or household who requires care or support due to personal illness or injury, or an unexpected emergency (carer's leave).
Up to ten days of paid personal/carer's leave in any given year can be used as carer's leave and personal/carer's leave is cumulative from 2010.
Sweden has paid sick leave. The first sick day is not paid. After that day 80 % of the income is paid for 364 days and 75 % for a further maximum 550 days. A medical doctor must certify the illness no later than one week after the first sick day. A parent of a less than 12 year old sick child can get paid leave to care for the child (termed "temporary parental leave"). The state pays all these benefits.
At least 145 countries provide paid sick days for short- or long-term illnesses, with 127 providing a week or more annually. 98 countries guarantee one month or more of paid sick days.
Many high-income economies require employers to provide paid sick days upwards of 10 days, including: Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Singapore.
- 86 percent of people surveyed said they favor a basic paid sick day policy.
- 94 percent of self-identified liberals and 81 percent of self-identified conservatives believed that paid sick day should be a basic workplace right.
- 77 percent of respondents believed that paid sick days were very important.
- 63 percent of workers who did not have access to paid sick leave said they were concerned about not having paid sick days.
- 16 percent of workers reported that they or a family member have been fired, suspended, or otherwise punished or that they would be fired if they missed work due to illness.
- 46 percent of respondents said they are more likely to vote for a candidate who supports paid sick days.
U.S. federal legislation
The Healthy Families Act (HR 2460 / S 1152) would establish a basic workplace mandate of paid sick days so workers can take paid sick days to care for their health or the health of their families.
The bill creates a minimum requirement that allows workers to earn up to seven days per year of paid to recover from illness, to care for a sick family member, or to seek preventative health care. It enables victims of domestic violence, stalking, and sexual assault to take paid time off to recover from incidents and seek assistance from the police or court. It also allows people to take time off to care for ill parents and elderly relatives, or to attend diagnostic or routine medical appointments. Employers with fewer than 15 workers would be exempt from the law.
The Healthy Families Act would allow an additional 30 million workers to have access to paid sick leave from their jobs, including 15 million low-wage workers and 13 million women workers. If the bill were to become law, 90 percent of all American workers would have access to paid sick days (up from 61 percent currently).
A version of the bill was first introduced in 2004. Each session, it has gained support inside and outside of Congress. Congresswoman Rosa DeLauro and Senator Edward Kennedy reintroduced the Healthy Families Act in the 111th Congress in May 2009. After Senator Kennedy’s death, Senator Chris Dodd became the lead Senate sponsor of the Healthy Families Act. The bill currently has 125 co-sponsors in the House and 24 in the Senate.
The Health Families Act was the subject of three hearings in the 111th United States Congress:
- House Education and Labor Committee’s Workforce Protections Subcommittee hearing on the Healthy Families Act on June 11, 2009.
- Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Subcommittee on Children and Families hearing, “The Cost of Being Sick: H1N1 and Paid Sick Days,” on November 10, 2009.
- House Education and Labor Committee hearing, “Protecting Employees, Employers and the Public: H1N1 and Sick Leave Policies,” on November 17, 2009.
A broad-based coalition of women's, civil rights, health, children's, faith-based, and labor organizations supports the Healthy Families Act.
The U.S. government guarantees federal employees 13 paid sick days a year.
Current U.S. state and local campaigns
In recent years, advocates in states and cities across the country have created campaigns for paid sick days laws.
Alabama State Rep. Merika Coleman introduced paid sick and safe time legislation in February 2010. The paid sick time would have allowed employees to take time off for illness; to seek medical diagnosis or treatment; care for a sick family member; take time away when a school has been closed due to a public health emergency; or to seek services related to domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. The legislation was not considered by the legislature and has since died.
A coalition led by Alaska PIRG advocated for a paid sick days mandate in Alaska in 2009 that would have provided one hour of paid sick time for every 40 hours worked by an employee. The legislation would apply to all businesses with 15 or more employees. The paid sick time could have been used to recover from illness, care for a sick family member, or seek domestic violence recovery services.
Arizona State Rep. Kyrsten Sinema, with the support of several of her colleagues in the Arizona House of Representatives, introduced paid sick and safe time legislation in 2010. The paid sick days could have been used by employees to recover from an illness, seek medical diagnosis or treatment, care for a sick family member, in the event of a public health emergency, or to seek services related to domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. The legislation was not considered by the legislature and has since died.
In 2006, San Francisco voters passed the first paid sick leave law in the country with 61 percent of the city vote. Young Workers United; other San Francisco community organizations led the grassroots campaign for the law.
California's paid sick days campaign, coordinated by the California Work and Family Coalition and sponsored by the California Labor Federation, is working to bring paid sick days to all California workers. The California coalition includes advocates working on behalf of workers, women, children, people of color, and the state's public health interest.
Paid sick day legislation was last considered in California in May 2011. The legislation would have allowed workers to earn one hour of paid sick time for every 30 hours worked. Workers would have been able to use the paid sick days to recover from illness, to care for an ill family member, or to seek services related to sexual assault, or domestic violence. The bill would have guaranteed employees of businesses with 10 or more employees the right to use a minimum of nine paid sick days annually. Employees of smaller businesses would be guaranteed a minimum of five paid sick days annually.
The legislation failed in the legislature, mainly over concerns regarding how to pay for the mandate--which would have applied to state workers and government employees as well.
The Colorado Paid Sick Days Coalition is led by 9to5, National Association of Working Women, and includes many partner organizations working on behalf of workers, women, children, people of color, and the state's public health interest. Colorado's paid sick days bill in 2010 would have allowed employees to take time away from work to recover from illness, receive medical treatment, care for a sick family member, or seek services related to domestic violence. Though the legislation was introduced in 2010, it was pulled almost immediately after. The bill sponsors acknowledged that the legislation needed more work before it could be considered.
Connecticut's campaign is led by Working Families. Connecticut's bill was signed by Governor Dan Malloy on July 1, and enables workers to accrue one hour of paid sick time for every 40 hours worked, capped at 40 hours per year. In previous years, similar proposals had failed in the state legislature over concerns of how the mandate would negatively impact businesses in the state. In 2011, the legislation was approved in the state Senate by one vote (18-17). Under the paid sick day mandate, Connecticut workers employed by businesses with 50 or more employees would be able to take a paid sick day to recover from illness, seek preventive care, care for a sick child, or seek assistance related to family violence, sexual assault, or violence.
Legislation introduced in Hawaii in 2009 would have allowed workers to earn paid sick time to recover from their own illness, seek medical diagnosis or treatment, or to care for a sick family member. Employees would earn one hour of paid sick time for every 30 hours worked, up to a maximum of 40 hours for those employed by smaller businesses (defined as having fewer than 50 employees) or a maximum of 72 hours for those employed by larger businesses (defined as having 50 or more employees). The legislation was not approved the legislature and has since died.
Paid sick days legislation in Illinois would allow workers to earn one hour of paid sick time per 30 hours worked, up to a maximum of seven days per year. Under the Healthy Workplace Act, paid sick days could be used to recover from an illness, care for a sick family member, or seek medical diagnosis or treatment.
Iowa's paid sick and safe days proposal, introduced by State Sen. Thomas Courtney (on behalf of the Senate Committee on Labor and Business Relations) in 2010, would have allowed workers to earn 5.54 hours of job-protected, paid sick time per 40 hours worked, up to a maximum of 18 days per year. Leave could be used to recover from illness, to seek diagnosis or treatment, to care for a sick family member, to seek services related to domestic assault, sexual abuse, or stalking, or in the event of a public health emergency.
The Maine Women's Lobby partnered with the Maine Work and Family Coalition to introduced a paid sick days bill in Maine in 2010. The bill would have guaranteed workers at larger businesses up to about six paid sick days per year, while workers at smaller businesses could have earned approximately three paid sick days per year. The earned paid sick time could have been used for routine illness, to care for a family member during a public health emergency, to receive preventive care, or to be used in relation to domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. The legislation was rejected by the state House in March 2010.
The Massachusetts Paid Leave Coalition, directed by Greater Boston Legal Services in collaboration with the Massachusetts AFL-CIO and the Jewish Alliance for Law and Social Action are advocating for a paid sick days bill in the state legislature. The coalition includes advocates for workers, seniors, children, and people of color, and is supporting a bill that would provide all workers with one hour of paid sick time per 30 hours worked, up to a maximum of seven days per year. Workers could use the paid sick days to recover from illness, to care for a sick family member, or to seek assistance related to domestic violence.
The Minnesota Healthy Families, Healthy Workplace Act from 2009 would have provided all workers with paid sick days to be used to recover from their own illness, to care for a sick family member, or for absence related to domestic violence. Workers would have earned one hour of paid sick time per 40 hours worked, capped at 52 hours (or 6.5 days) per year. Smaller businesses would have provided one hour of paid sick time for every 80 hours worked, capped at 26 hours (or 3.25 days) per year. Businesses with fewer than 15 employees would have been exempt from the law. The proposal was not considered by the state legislature and has since died.
New Hampshire's campaign, led by the New Hampshire Women's Lobby & Alliance, is partnering with a large coalition that includes women's rights and public health advocates to advance a paid sick days bill in the state's legislature. The legislation from 2009, which is now dead, would have provided up to five paid sick and safe days for New Hampshire workers, allowing them to take paid time to recover from illness, to care for a sick family member, or for absence necessary due to domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.
New York City
New York City's campaign, which is led by A Better Balance: The Work and Family Legal Center, the New York State Paid Family Leave Coalition, and the Working Families Party, is working with a broad coalition to raise awareness and advance a paid sick and safe daysmandate that would cover all of the workers in New York City. The coalition includes active participation by Make the Road New York and the Restaurant Opportunities Center of New York as well as involvement by advocates working on behalf of workers, children, and women, as well as public health leaders in the City. The current bill is a top priority of the Progressive Caucus in the New York City Council.
New York City's paid sick time legislation would allow all workers in the city to earn paid sick time at the rate of one hour for every 30 hours worked. Workers in small businesses (defined as having fewer than 20 employees) are eligible to accrue up to 40 hours (or five days) of paid sick leave per year, while workers in larger businesses (defined as having more than 20 employees) are eligible to accrue up to 72 hours (or seven days) of paid sick leave annually. Workers may use the time to care for their own illness or the illness of a family member, to seek preventive medical care for themselves or a family member, or in the event that a public health emergency leads to the closure of their own workplace or a child's school or daycare. Because the legislation was not supported by City Council Speaker Christine Quinn in 2010, it has not come up for debate on the council floor.
New York State
New York State Assemblyman Karim Camara and State Senator Kevin Parker introduced legislation in the New York legislature that would require employers to provide one hour of paid sick time for every 20 hours worked. Workers at larger businesses (defined as having 10 or more employees) would be able to earn up to 80 hours (or ten days) of paid sick time per year, and workers at smaller businesses could earn up to 40 hours (or five days). The time could be used to recover from illness or care for a sick family member.
North Carolina's Paid Sick Days Campaign, led by the North Carolina Justice Center supported legislation that would have guaranteed one hour of paid sick time for every 30 hours worked by employees, up to an annual maximum of 56 hours (7 days) for larger businesses (defined as having 10 or more employees) or 32 hours (4 days) for smaller businesses (defined as having fewer than 10 employees). The paid sick days would have been used for an employee's own illness, to care for a sick family member, or to recover from incidents of domestic violence and stalking. Certain workers who are exempt from minimum wage laws would not be covered by the law. The legislation was not considered by the legislature this year and is now dead.
PathWays PA is working with a large coalition to support paid sick days for all Pennsylvania workers. The Healthy Families, Healthy Workplaces Act would allow workers to earn one hour of paid sick time for every 40 hours worked, capped at 52 hours (or 6.5 days) per year. Businesses with fewer than 10 employees would be required to offer workers one hour of paid sick time for every 80 hours worked, capped at 26 hours (or 3.25 days) per year. Workers may use paid sick days to recover from their own illness, to care for a sick family member, or to recover from or seek services related to incidents of domestic violence.
The coalition advocating for paid sick days in the city of Philadelphia, led by PathWays PA, is supporting the Promoting Healthy Families and Workplaces ordinance. Under this measure, workers would be able to earn one hour of sick time for every 30 hours worked. Workers in larger businesses could earn up to 72 hours (or 9 days) of paid sick time, and workers in smaller businesses could earn up to 40 hours (or five days) of paid sick time. Workers would be able to use their earned sick days to recover from illness or to care for a sick family member. Mayor Michael Nutter vetoed the legislation in June 2011. The Mayor had long said that the issue was best addressed at the federal level, and that a city mandate would make Philadelphia less competitive with neighboring cities that did not impose a paid sick leave mandate. Eventually, a limited version of the plan was approved. It affects only companies that do business with the city. http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/morning_roundup/2011/10/paid-sick-leave-the-law.html
Introduced by State Reps. Messier, Carnevale, Handy, Naughton, and Ferri, Rhode Island's proposed paid sick time legislation would allow workers to earn job-protected paid time off to be used to recover from an illness, seek medical diagnosis or treatment, care for a sick family member, take time away when a school has been closed due to a public health emergency, or seek services related to domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. The bill would allow workers to earn one hour of paid sick time for every 30 hours worked, up to seven days per year for larger businesses and up to four days per year for small businesses.
The Coalition for a Healthy Tacoma, a group of labor, human services, faith, seniors', and women's organizations, is spearheading a new citywide initiative in the city of Tacoma, Washington. The Tacoma campaign is advocating for one hour of paid sick time for every 30 hours an employee works, up to 40 hours per year for workers in smaller businesses and 72 hours per year for workers in larger businesses. Washington already has a statewide law called the Family Care Act that requires businesses that offer paid sick time to permit a worker to use that time to care for an ill family member, so the Tacoma ordinance would only address paid sick time for workers themselves.
Voices for Vermont's Children, the Vermont Livable Wage Campaign, and their coalition partners supported legislation in Vermont from 2009 that would have allowed employee to earn one hour of paid sick time for every 30 hours worked, up to a maximum of 56 hours (or seven days) each year. Workers would have been able to use their days to recover from their own illness, care for a sick family member, or seek preventive or routine health care. The legislation would have also created a safe day mandate that survivors of domestic or sexual assault could use for legal or health issues. The legislation was not considered by the legislature and has since died.
The Economic Opportunity Institute, at the helm of the Washington Family Leave Coalition, is building support for a paid sick day mandate in Washington State. Washington was among the first states in the nation to consider paid sick days legislation, and advocates have built a strong movement committed to improving standards to better meet the needs of both families and businesses.
The Wisconsin Paid Sick Days Coalition, led by 9to5, National Association of Working Women, is working to build upon momentum created by the Milwaukee Paid Sick Days Campaign and to generate support for statewide legislation. Their proposal would provide access paid sick days for all Wisconsin workers, as well as access to paid safe days for victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking. On May 5, 2011 Governor Scott Walker signed legislation that prohibits local paid sick leave ordinances from being enacted in Wisconsin.
- Annual leave
- Employee benefit
- Labour and employment law
- List of statutory minimum employment leave by country
- Long service leave
- Parental leave
- ^ Jody Heymann, Alison Earle, and Jeffrey Hayes, The Work, Family and Equity Index: How Does the United States Measure Up?, Institute for Health & Social Policy, 2007.
- ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 30. Leave benefits: Access, private industry workers, National Compensation Survey, March 2009.
- ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 30.
- ^ Vicky Lovell, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Women and Paid Sick Days: Crucial for Family Well-Being, 2007.
- ^ Tom W. Smith, Paid Sick Days: A Basic Labor Standard for the 21st Century, National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago, August 2008.
- ^ Smith, Paid Sick Days.
- ^ Vicky Lovell, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Valuing Good Health: An Estimate of Costs and Savings for the Healthy Families Act, 2005.
- ^ Lisa Clemans-Cope et al., "Access to and Use of Paid Sick Leave Among Low-Income Families With Children," Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 2 (2008).
- ^ Jody Heymann, The Widening Gap: Why America’s Working Families Are in Jeopardy – and What Can Be Done About It, Basic Books, 2000
- ^ Lovell, Women and Paid Sick Days.
- ^ Testimony of Dr. Heidi Hartmann, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, before the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, 2006.
- ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “What To Do If You Get Sick: 2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu,” January 12, 2010.
- ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “CDC Recommendations for the Amount of Time Persons with Influenza-Like Illness Should be Away from Others,” October 29, 2009.
- ^ Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Sick at Work: Infected Employees in the Workplace During the H1N1 Pandemic, February 2010.
- ^ Employment Policy Foundation, “Fact Sheet: Employee Turnover is Expensive,” 2004.
- ^ Ron Goetzal et al. “Health Absence, Disability, and Presenteeism Cost Esimates, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, April 2004.
- ^ Norman G. Marriott, Principles of Food Sanitation, 1999.
- ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Program Perspectives on Paid Sick Leave, vol. 2, issue 2 (2010).
- ^ Lovell, Valuing Good Health.
- ^ Vicky Lovell and Kevin Miller, "Job Growth Strong with Paid Sick Days," Institute for Women's Policy Research (2008).
- ^ John Petro, Paid Sick Leave Does Not Harm Employment, Drum Major Institute (2010).
- ^ Smith, Paid Sick Days.
- ^ NPR/Kaiser Family Foundation/Harvard School of Public Health, Health Care and the Economy in Two Swing States: A Look at Ohio and Florida, July 2008
- ^ National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, Flu in the Workplace: Key Facts & Figures.
- ^ Supplement to the 2009 FDA Food Code.
- ^ Centers for Disease Control, Norovirus Outbreak Associated with Ill Food-Service Workers, January 2006
- ^ January W. Payne, “Ohio Disease Outbreak Linked to Chipotle Restaurant,” April 21, 2008.
- ^ Policy Matters Ohio, Outbreak in Ohio: Cost of the 2008 Norovirus Incident in Kent.
- ^ [http://urban.csuohio.edu/urban_center/sick_leave/report.pdf "The Likely Impact of Mandated Paid Sick and Family-Care Leave on the Economy and Economic Development Prospects of the State of Ohio"]. The Urban Center at the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs. September 26, 2008. http://urban.csuohio.edu/urban_center/sick_leave/report.pdf.
- ^ Massey, Daniel (September 27, 2010). "Study's cost of paid sick leave: $789M a year". Crain's Business New York. http://www.crainsnewyork.com/article/20100927/SMALLBIZ/100929849.
- ^ National Partnership for Women and Families, The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Frequently Asked Questions, 2009.
- ^ Steven Greenhouse, With the Democratic Congress, Groups Gear Up for Fight Over Paid Sick Days, NY Times, Dec. 5, 2006 available at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/05/washington/05labor.html?fta=y
- ^ Office of Labor Standards Enforcement, Announcement , available at http://www.sfgov.org/site/olse_index.asp?id=49389
- ^ Lovell and Miller, "Job Growth Strong with Paid Sick Days," Institute for Women's Policy Research (2008); John Petro, Paid Sick Leave Does Not Harm Employment, Drum Major Institute (2010).
- ^ Nikita Stewart, Council Approves Sick Leave In District: Bill will Mandate Paid Job Absences, Washington Post, March 5, 2008 available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/04/AR2008030402873.html
- ^ Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. July 28, 2011. http://www.jsonline.com/news/milwaukee/126353488.html.
- ^ Connecticut Becomes First State to Mandate Paid Sick Leave, National Law Review, Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP, http://www.natlawreview.com/article/connecticut-becomes-first-state-to-mandate-paid-sick-leave
- ^ If you fall ill
- ^ Jody Heymann, Alison Earle, and Jeffrey Hayes, The Work, Family and Equity Index: How Does the United States Measure Up?, Institute for Health & Social Policy, 2007.
- ^ Heymann J. Work, Family & Equity Index, 2007: How Does the U.S. Measure Up? Montreal: McGill Institute for Health and Social Policy, 2007.
- ^ Smith, Paid Sick Days.
- ^ Joint Economic Committee of the U.S. Congress, Expanding Access to Paid Sick Leave: The Impact of the Healthy Families Act on America’s Workers, March 2010.
- ^ "DeLauro Introduces Paid Sick Days Legislation"
- ^ Testimony of Deputy Secretary of Labor Seth Harris, U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Children and Families Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, United States Senate, Hearing Titled: "The Cost of Being Sick: H1N1 and Paid Sick Days" (November 10, 2009).
- ^ Remarks by the First Lady at a Workplace Flexibility Conference, 3/31/2010.
- ^ Alabama Legislative Information System Online, HB557.
- ^ Report of the Alaska State Legislature, Senate Labor and Commerce Standing Committee, Feb. 28, 2008.
- ^ Arizona State Legislature, HB 2741.
- ^ http://www.beyondchron.org/news/index.php?itemid=3550
- ^ Norman, Jan (June 7, 2011). "Paid sick leave mandate dead for 2011". Orange County Register. http://jan.ocregister.com/2011/06/07/paid-sick-leave-dead-for-the-year/60025/.
- ^ State of Colorado, HB 1397.
- ^ "Paid Sick Days Bill Supporters: We'll Be Back". Public News Service. April 8, 2010. http://www.publicnewsservice.org/index.php?/content/article/13380-2.
- ^ Bordonaro, Greg (May 6, 2010). "Business: Legislative Tally Better". Hartford Business. http://www.hartfordbusiness.com/news13081.html.
- ^ Everybody Benefits.
- ^ Hawaii State Legislature, HB 1687.
- ^ Illinois Paid Leave Coalition, "Making Workplaces Fairer".
- ^ The Iowa Legislature General Assembly, SF 2337.
- ^ Maine Women’s Lobby, “Paid Sick Days”.
- ^ "Maine sick leave proposal killed". Associated Press. March 30, 2010. http://www.onlinesentinel.com/news/Maine-sick-leave-proposal-killed.html.
- ^ Massachusetts Paid Leave Coalition.
- ^ Minnesota Paid Sick Days Coalition, “Legislation”.
- ^ Montana Legislature, HB 579.
- ^ New York City Council Legislative Research Center, Int 97-2010.
- ^ Davis, Pete (October 14, 2010). "Quinn will not support Paid Sick Leave bill". Queens Courier. http://www.queenscourier.com/articles/2010/10/14/news/top_stories/doc4cb7321537e74215997295.txt.
- ^ New York State Assembly, A3647
- ^ North Carolina Paid Sick Days Campaign.
- ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, HB 1830.
- ^ City of Philadelphia, Bill No. 080474.
- ^ "Nutter vetoes mandatory sick leave in Philly". Newsworks. June 28, 2010. http://www.newsworks.org/index.php/homepage-feature/item/22280-28tmsick.
- ^ "Will Michael Nutter take out his veto pen?". Newsworks. June 20, 2011. http://www.newsworks.org/index.php/local/item/21732.
- ^ State of Rhode Island General Assembly, H 7809.
- ^ What is Healthy Tacoma?
- ^ Vermont Liveable Wage Campaign, “Vermont Paid Sick Days Legislation (H. 382).
- ^ Malek, George (March 11, 2010). "State leaders offer views on deficits, jobs and education". Times Argus. http://www.timesargus.com/article/20100311/BUSINESS/3110307/1006/BUSINESS.
- ^ Economic Opportunity Institute, “Earning Paid Sick Days Keeps Bodies - and Bottom Lines – Healthy.”
- ^ "Wisconsin Governor signs sick leave bill". Business Week. May 5, 2011. http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9N1E2001.htm.
- National Partnership for Women and Families - Paid Sick Days website
- National Partnership for Women and Families - State and Local Action on Paid Sick Days: 2010 Outlook.
- Australian Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
- IOM's Sickness Absence Recording Tool (SART)
- Managing health at work - recording and monitoring information on sickness absence including work relatedness by P Ritchie and others. HSE Research Report 310/2005
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Look at other dictionaries:
sick leave — ➔ leave * * * sick leave UK US noun [U] HR, WORKPLACE ► a period of time that a worker is allowed to be away from work because they are ill: on sick leave »Emmens has been out on sick leave for the past three weeks. »Do employees receive paid… … Financial and business terms
sick leave — n [U] time that you are allowed to spend away from work because you are sick on sick leave ▪ He has been on sick leave for more than three months … Dictionary of contemporary English
sick leave — n. A leave that an employee is allowed to take from work when either the employee or a close family member is sick or injured, either with or without pay but without loss of seniority or benefits. The Essential Law Dictionary. Sphinx Publishing,… … Law dictionary
sick leave — n. leave from work granted for illness, often with pay (sick pay), for a limited number of days … English World dictionary
sick leave — n 1) an absence from work permitted because of illness 2) the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick … Medical dictionary
sick leave — sick ,leave noun uncount a period of time during which you do not work because you are sick … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
sick-leave — see sick a. 10 b … Useful english dictionary
sick leave — sick′ leave n. leave from duty, work, or the like, granted because of illness • Etymology: 1830–40 … From formal English to slang
sick leave — ► NOUN ▪ leave of absence granted because of illness … English terms dictionary
sick leave — noun a leave of absence from work because of illness • Hypernyms: ↑leave, ↑leave of absence * * * noun 1. : a period of absence from duty due to illness or other disability the foreign secretary was on sick leave when the decisions were taken New … Useful english dictionary