New Zealand general election, 1993


New Zealand general election, 1993
New Zealand general election, 1993
New Zealand
1990 ←
members
6 November 1993 (1993-11-06)
elected members
→ 1996
members

All 99 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
50 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  Jim Bolger at press conference cropped.jpg Mike Moore.jpg
Leader Jim Bolger Mike Moore
Party National Labour
Leader since 1986 1990
Leader's seat King Country Christchurch North
Last election 67 seats, 47.82% 29 seats, 35.14%
Seats before 66 29
Seats won 50 45
Seat change decrease 16 increase 16
Popular vote 673,892 666,800
Percentage 35.05% 34.68%
Swing decrease 12.77% decrease 0.46%

  Third party Fourth party
  Jim Anderton.jpg WinstonPetersEuropa.jpg
Leader Jim Anderton Winston Peters
Party Alliance NZ First
Leader since 1991 1993
Leader's seat Sydenham Tauranga
Last election 1 seat, 14.28%[1] Not yet founded
Seats before 1 1
Seats won 2 2
Seat change increase1[1] increase 1
Popular vote 350,063 161,481
Percentage 18.21% 8.40%
Swing increase 3.93%[1] increase 8.40%

Prime Minister before election

Jim Bolger
National

Elected Prime Minister

Jim Bolger
National

The 1993 New Zealand general election was held on 6 November 1993 to determine the composition of the 44th New Zealand Parliament. It saw the governing National Party, led by Jim Bolger, win a second term in office, despite a major swing back towards the Labour Party. The new Alliance and New Zealand First parties gained significant shares of the vote, but won few seats. The election was New Zealand's last to date under the non-proportional first past the post electoral system.

Contents

Background

Before the election, the National Party governed with 64 seats, while the opposition Labour Party held only 29. The 1990 election had been a major victory for the National Party, with the unpopular Fourth Labour Government being decisively defeated. The Labour Party had become increasingly unpopular for its ongoing economic reforms, which were based around liberalisation, privatisation, and the removal of tariffs and subsidies. The National Party was somewhat divided as to the merits of the reforms, with conservatives generally opposed and neoliberals generally in favour. The party had fought the 1990 election saying that the Labour government's program was too radical, and was being carried out without any thought of the human consequences - Jim Bolger spoke about "the Decent Society", promising a return to a more moderate and balanced platform. Once in government, however, the key Minister of Finance role was taken not by a moderate but by Ruth Richardson, who wished to expand, not end, the economic reforms. Many of the voters who had felt betrayed by Labour's reforms now felt betrayed by the National Party as well, a fact which contributed to the rise of minor parties.

The Alliance, the largest "third party", was a broad coalition of five smaller groups - the NewLabour Party (a Labour splinter), the Democrats (a social credit party), the Greens (an environmentalist party), Mana Motuhake (a Māori party), and the Liberal Party (a National splinter). The Alliance held three seats in Parliament - one belonged to Jim Anderton, who had been re-elected under a NewLabour banner in the seat he had formerly held for Labour, while the other two belonged to the National MPs who formed the Liberal Party. In its first electoral test, the 1992 by-election in Tamaki, the Alliance had performed well, taking second place. Another smaller group was New Zealand First, a party established by former National MP Winston Peters. Peters had broken with his party after a number of policy disputes with its leadership, and resigned from parliament to contest his seat as an independent. After being overwhelmingly re-elected, Peters established the New Zealand First party to promote his views. Peters was the party's sole MP.

Another consequence of dissatisfaction with both major parties was the referendum conducted alongside the 1993 election. This referendum asked voters whether New Zealand's electoral system should be changed from the first-past-the-post system to the MMP system, which would implement proportional representation (and thus make it easier for smaller parties to win seats). The referendum was part of the larger New Zealand electoral reform process.

While National and Labour usually stand candidates in every seat, National was one candidate short as their Southern Maori candidate apparently did not apply in time.

The election

The election was held on 6 November. 2,321,664 people were registered to vote, and 85.2% turned out. This turnout was almost exactly the same as for the previous election, although slightly less than what would be seen for the following one.

Summary of results

Preliminary results based on election night counts saw the country facing its first hung parliament since 1931, with no party gaining the 50 seats required for a majority. The National Party won 49 seats, a drop of 15 from before the election. and Labour had won 46 seats, with the balance of power held with the Alliance and New Zealand First, which won two seats each. The Labour Party won 45 seats, while the Alliance and New Zealand First held the balance of power, winning two seats each. [2][3]

Official counts saw the seat of Waitaki swing from Labour to National, giving National 50 seats and Labour 45 seats. This meant that National kept its majority by only a single seat. [3]

The 1993-1996 parliamentary term would see a number of defections from both major parties, meaning that National would eventually be forced to make alliances to retain power.

Detailed results

Party totals

Party Candidates Total votes Percentage Seats won
National Party 98 673,892 35.05% 50
Labour Party 99 666,800 34.68% 45
Alliance 99 350,063 18.21% 2
New Zealand First 84 161,481 8.40% 2
Christian Heritage Party 98 38,745 2.02% -
McGillicuddy Serious Party 62 11,714 0.61% -
Natural Law Party 74 6,056 0.31% -
Mana Māori 5 3,342 0.17% -
Other parties and Independents 63 10,661 0.55% -
Total 682 1,922,796 99

Map of electorates

NewZealandElectorates1993.png

Individual electorate results

Electorate Won by Incumbent
Albany Don McKinnon
Auckland Central Sandra Lee-Vercoe Richard Prebble
Avon Larry Sutherland
Awarua Eric Roy Jeff Grant
Birkenhead Ian Revell
Christchurch Central Lianne Dalziel
Christchurch North Mike Moore
Clutha Robin Gray
Dunedin North Pete Hodgson
Dunedin West Clive Matthewson
East Coast Bays Murray McCully
Eastern Bay of Plenty Tony Ryall (new electorate)
Eastern Hutt Paul Swain
Eden Christine Fletcher
Far North John Carter (new electorate)
Fendalton Philip Burdon
Franklin Bill Birch (new electorate)
Gisborne Janet Mackey Wayne Kimber
Glenfield Peter Hilt
Hamilton East Dianne Yates Tony Steel
Hamilton West Martin Gallagher Grant Thomas
Hastings Rick Barker Jeff Whitaker
Hauraki Warren Kyd (new electorate)
Hawkes Bay Michael Laws
Henderson Jack Elder (new electorate)
Heretaunga Peter McCardle
Hobson Ross Meurant
Horowhenua Judy Keall Hamish Hancock
Howick Trevor Rogers (new electorate)
Invercargill Mark Peck Rob Munro
Island Bay Elizabeth Tennet
Kaimai Robert Anderson
Kaipara Lockwood Smith
Kapiti Roger Sowry
King Country Jim Bolger
Lyttelton Ruth Dyson Gail McIntosh
Manawatu Jill White Hamish McIntyre
Mangere David Lange
Manurewa George Hawkins
Marlborough Doug Kidd
Matakana Graeme Lee (new electorate)
Matamata John Luxton
Miramar Annette King Graham Reeves
Mount Albert Helen Clark
Napier Geoff Braybrooke
Nelson John Blincoe
New Lynn Jonathan Hunt
New Plymouth Harry Duynhoven John Armstrong
North Shore Bruce Cliffe
Onehunga Richard Northey Grahame Thorne
Onslow Peter Dunne (new electorate)
Otago Warren Cooper
Otara Taito Phillip Field Trevor Rogers
Pahiatua John Falloon
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson
Palmerston North Steve Maharey
Panmure Judith Tizard
Papakura John Robertson
Papatoetoe Ross Robertson
Pencarrow Trevor Mallard Sonja Davies
Porirua Graham Kelly
Raglan Simon Upton
Rakaia Jenny Shipley (new electorate)
Rangiora Jim Gerard
Rangitikei Denis Marshall
Remuera Doug Graham
Roskill Phil Goff Gilbert Myles
Rotorua Paul East
Selwyn Ruth Richardson
St Albans David Caygill
St Kilda Michael Cullen
Sydenham Jim Anderton Jim Anderton (NewLabour)
Tamaki Clem Simich Robert Muldoon
Taranaki Roger Maxwell
Tarawera Max Bradford
Tasman Nick Smith
Tauranga Winston Peters Winston Peters
Te Atatu Chris Carter Brian Neeson
Timaru Jim Sutton Maurice McTigue
Titirangi Suzanne Sinclair Marie Hasler
Tongariro Mark Burton Ian Peters
Waikaremoana Roger McClay
Waikato Rob Storey
Waipa Katherine O'Regan
Wairarapa Wyatt Creech
Waitakere Brian Neeson (new electorate)
Waitaki Alec Neill
Waitotara Peter Gresham
Wallace Bill English
Wanganui Jill Pettis Cam Campion
Wellington-Karori Pauline Gardiner (new electorate)
West Coast Damien O'Connor Margaret Moir
Western Hutt Joy McLauchlan
Whangarei John Banks
Yaldhurst Margaret Austin
Eastern Maori Peter Tapsell
Northern Maori Tau Henare Bruce Gregory
Southern Maori Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan
Western Maori Koro Wetere

Summary of changes

A boundary redistribution resulted in the abolition of nine electorates, and the creation of eleven new electorates. In many cases an MP from an abolished seat stood for, and was elected to a new one that broadly covered their previous electorate.

Abolished Electorate MP relocated New Electorate
Ashburton Flecha tesela.svg Jenny Shipley Flecha tesela.svg Rakaia
Bay of Islands Flecha tesela.svg John Carter Flecha tesela.svg Far North
Clevedon Flecha tesela.svg Warren Kyd Flecha tesela.svg Hauraki
Coromandel Flecha tesela.svg Graeme Lee Flecha tesela.svg Matakana
East Cape Flecha tesela.svg Tony Ryall Flecha tesela.svg Eastern Bay of Plenty
Maramarua Flecha tesela.svg Bill Birch Flecha tesela.svg Franklin
Ohariu Flecha tesela.svg Peter Dunne Flecha tesela.svg Onslow
West Auckland Flecha tesela.svg Jack Elder Flecha tesela.svg Henderson
One MP from an abolished electorate failed to win a new electorate
Wellington Central Pauline Gardiner Green tickY Wellington-Karori
Chris Laidlaw Red XN
Due to boundary changes, two MPs moved to safer new electorates
Marginal Electorate MP relocated New Electorate
Te Atatu Flecha tesela.svg Brian Neeson Flecha tesela.svg Waitakere
Otara Flecha tesela.svg Trevor Rogers Flecha tesela.svg Howick


Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Clevedon, Coromandel, East Cape, Maramarua, Ohariu, Wellington Central and West Auckland were abolished.

New Electorates.

  • Eastern Bay of Plenty - most of the abolished East Cape seat, plus part of Tarawera. Won by former East Cape MP Tony Ryall.
  • Far North - most of the abolished Bay of Islands seat. Won by former Bay of Islands MP John Carter.
  • Franklin - part of the abolished Maramarua seat and part of Papakura. Won by former Maramarua MP Bill Birch.
  • Hauraki - parts of the abolished Clevedon, Maramarua, and Coromandel seats. Won by former Clevedon MP Warren Kyd.
  • Henderson - parts taken from the West Auckland, Te Atatu, and Titirangi electorates. Won by former West Auckland MP Jack Elder (Labour).
  • Howick - the eastern part of the Otara seat. Won by former Otara MP Trevor Rogers (National).
  • Matakana - part of the abolished Coromandel seat. Won by former Coromandel MP Graeme Lee.
  • Onslow - the core of the abolished Ohariu seat. Won by former Ohariu MP Peter Dunne (Labour).
  • Rakaia - the abolished Ashburton seat, plus part of the Selwyn seat. Won by former Ashburton MP Jenny Shipley (National).
  • Waitakere - chiefly, the abolished seat of West Auckland. Won by former Te Atatu MP Brian Neeson (National).
  • Wellington-Karori - the abolished Wellington Central seat, plus part of the abolished Ohariu seat. Won by new National MP Pauline Gardiner.

The seats of Gisborne, Hamilton East, Hamilton West, Hastings, Horowhenua, Invercargill, Lyttelton, Manawatu, Miramar, New Plymouth, Onehunga, Otara, Roskill, Te Atatu, Timaru, Titirangi, Tongariro, Wanganui and West Coast were won from the National Party by Labour challengers. Six of these seats (Gisborne, Hastings, Lyttelton, Miramar, New Plymouth & the West Coast) had been won by National in 1990, so were one-term National seats.

  • The seat of Auckland Central was won from the Labour Party by an Alliance challenger. The challenger was Sandra Lee-Vercoe and the defeated incumbent was Richard Prebble.
  • The seat of Northern Maori was won from the Labour Party by a New Zealand First challenger. The challenger was Tau Henare and the defeated incumbent was Bruce Gregory.
  • The seat of Awarua passed from an incumbent National MP to a new National MP.
  • The seat of Pencarrow passed from an incumbent Labour MP to a new Labour MP.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Alliance results compared with 1993 totals of NewLabour Party, Democratic Party, Mana Motuhake and Green Party.
  2. ^ "A Hung Parliament Seems Likely For New Zealand". Orlando Sentinel. 8 November 1993. http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1993-11-08/news/9311080410_1_new-zealand-zealand-first-party-seat. Retrieved 25 October 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "History of the National Party". New Zealand National Party. http://www.national.org.nz/About/history.aspx. Retrieved 25 October 2011. 

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