Koryaks


Koryaks

Infobox Ethnic group
group=Koryaks


poptime=8743 (2002 Census)
popplace=Russia
rels=Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy
langs=Russian, Koryak
related-c=other Chukotko-Kamchatkan peoples

Koryaks (or Koriak) are an indigenous people of Kamchatka Krai in the Russian Far East, who inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea to the south of the Anadyr basin and the country to the immediate north of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the southernmost limit of their range being Tigilsk. They are akin to the Chukchis, whom they closely resemble in physique and manner of life. Also, they are distantly related to the Kamchadal (Itelmens) on the Kamchatka Peninsula.

The Koryaks' neighbors are the Evens to the west of Koryak lands, the Alutor to the south on the isthmus of Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kerek to the east, and the Chukchi to the northeast.

The koryak are typically split into two groups. The coastal people "Nemelan" (or "Nymylan") meaning 'village dwellers' due to their sedentary fishing habits and the inland Koryaks, reindeer herders called "Chauchen" (or "Chauchven") meaning 'rich in reindeer' who are more nomadic.

The Koryak language and its relative, Alutor, are linguistically very close to Chukchi. They are members of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family.

Etymology

The name Koryak was from the exonym word 'Korak' meaning 'with the reindeer (kor)' in a nearby group Chukotko-Kamchatkan language. Kolga, pp.230-234 ] Earliest writings of the name 'Koryak' were recorded by the Russian explorer Stepan Krasheninnikov in 1775. The variant name was adopted by Russia in official state documents hence popularizing it ever since.

Origin

The origin of the Koryaks are currently unknown. During the Late Pleistocene a land bridge was connected between the Eurasian and North American continent. People moved into the Americas crossing modern day Koryaks land. Various peoples traveled back and forth from the area before the ice age receded with the Koryaks more likely to be a remigration back into Siberian Asia from North America. Cultural and some linguistic similarity exist between the Nivkh and the Koryaks. Friedrich and Diamond, ]

History

Koryaks once roamed a much larger area of the Russian Far East. Their overlapping borders extended to the Nivkh areas in Khabarovsk Krai until Evens arrived and pushed them into their present region. Warfare with Russian Cossacks and a smallpox epidemic in 1769-1770 reduced the Koryak population from 10-11,000 in 1700 to 4,800 in 1800. [http://www.npolar.no/ansipra/english/Indexpages/Ethnic_groups.html#19 "Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North, Siberia and Far East" ] by Arctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic] Warfare with Russian Cossacks and a smallpox epidemic in 1769-1770 reduced the Koryak population from 10-11,000 in 1700 to 4,800 in 1800. [ [http://www.npolar.no/ansipra/english/Indexpages/Ethnic_groups.html#19 "Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North, Siberia and Far East" ] by Arctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic] A Koryak Autonomous Okrug was formed in 1931 named after Koryak, but this was merged with Kamchatka Krai effective July 1, 2007.

ociety

Families usually gathered into groups of six or seven, forming miniature states, in which the nominal chief had no predominating authority, resembling common small group egalitarianism.

Religion

Koryaks practice a form of animist belief system especially via shamanism. Koryak mythology centers around the supernatural shaman Quikil (Big-Raven) who was the first man and protector of the Koryak. Big Raven myths are also found in the Tlingit, Tsimshian, and other Northwest Coast Amerindians. Chaussonnet, p28-29 ]

Environment

Koryak lands are mountains and volcanic covered in mostly Arctic tundra. Coniferous trees lie near the southern regions near the coast of the Shelekhova Bay of the Sea of Okhotsk. The northern regions inland are much colder only with various shrubs but enough to sustain reindeer migration. Mean temperatures in winter is –25 °C (-13 °F) while short summers are +12 °C (53 °F). The area they covered before Russian colonization was 301,500 km² (116,410 mi²), roughly corresponding to the Koryak Okrug of which its administrative centre is Palana. The Koryaks are the largest minority group with 8,743 people among the larger mostly Russian Cossack colonizers.

ee also

*Haplogroup G (mtDNA)
*Alyutors (Koryak sub group)

Footnotes

References


*Chaussonnet, Valerie (1995) "Native Cultures of Alaska and Siberia". Artic Studies Center. Washington, D.C. 112p. ISBN 1560986611
*Friedrich and Diamond (1994) [http://www.everyculture.com/Russia-Eurasia-China/Koryaks-and-Kerek.html "Encyclopedia of World Cultures: Russia and Eurasia- China. Volume 6"] . G.K.Hall and Company. Boston, Massachusetts. ISBN 0816118108
*Kolga, Margus (2001) "The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire". NGO Red Book. Tallinn, Estonia 399p ISBN 9985936922
*Gall, Timothy L. (1998) "Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life":Koriaks. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Inc. 2100p. ISBN 0787605522

Further reading


*G. Kennan, "Tent Life in Siberia" (1871); "Über die Koriaken u. ihnen nähe verwandten Tchouktchen," in "But. Acad. Sc. St. Petersburg," xii. 99.
* Jochelson, Waldemar. "The Koryak". New York: AMS Press, 1975. ISBN 0404581064
* Jochelson, Vladimir Il'ich, and F. Boas. "Religion and Myths of the Koryak Material Culture and Social Organization of the Koryak". New York: [s.n.] , 1908.
* Nagayama, Yukari ed. "The Magic Rope Koryak Folktale". Kyoto, Japan: ELPR, 2003.

External links

* [http://www.koryaks.net Site about the Koryak people]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Koryaks — con armaduras en las zonas al norte de la Bahía de Penzhinsky. 1900 01. Otros nombres Koriak Ubicación Rusia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Koryaks — Populations significatives par régions  Russie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Koryaks —    Ethnic group. Numbering fewer than 9,000, the Koryaks are an indigenous Asiatic people who live in the Kamchatka Peninsula. They identify themselves as either Nymylan (Koryak: “village dwellers”) or Chavchu (“reindeer herders”). The Koryak… …   Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation

  • Russian-American telegraph — The Russian American telegraph also known as the Western Union Telegraph Expedition and the Collins Overland telegraph was an $3,000,000 undertaking by the Western Union Telegraph Company in 1865 1867, to lay an electric telegraph line from San… …   Wikipedia

  • Haplogroup C (Y-DNA) — Infobox haplogroup name =C origin date =60,000 years origin place =Middle East or South Asia ancestor =CF descendants =C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 mutations =M130, M216In human genetics, Haplogroup C (RPS4Y=M130, M216) is a Y chromosome… …   Wikipedia

  • Haplogroup C3 (Y-DNA) — In human genetics, Haplogroup C3 (M217, P44) is a Y chromosome DNA haplogroup mainly found in indigenous Mongolians. Haplogroup C3 is the most widespread and frequently occurring branch of the greater Haplogroup C (M130). One particular haplotype …   Wikipedia

  • Siberie — Sibérie District fédéral de Sibérie (rouge foncé) et Sibérie au sens large (rouge moyen) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sibérie occidentale — Sibérie District fédéral de Sibérie (rouge foncé) et Sibérie au sens large (rouge moyen) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sibérie orientale — Sibérie District fédéral de Sibérie (rouge foncé) et Sibérie au sens large (rouge moyen) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Russian–American Telegraph — Painting of men working on the Collins Overland telegraph line, by John Clayton White. The Russian–American Telegraph, also known as the Western Union Telegraph Expedition and the Collins Overland Telegraph, was a $3,000,000 undertaking by the… …   Wikipedia