António Egas Moniz


António Egas Moniz

Infobox Scientist
name=António EGAS MONIZ



imagesize=180px
birth_name=António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
birth_date=birth date|1874|11|29|df=yes
birth_place=Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal
death_date=death date and age|1955|12|13|1874|11|29|df=yes
death_place=Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal
nationality=Portugal
field=Neurologist
work_institutions=
alma_mater=
doctoral_advisor=
doctoral_students=
known_for=therapeutic lobotomy

António Caetano de Abreu Freire EGAS MONIZ (IPA2|'ɛgɐʃ mu'niʃ) (November 29, 1874 – December 13, 1955) was a Portuguese neurologist. He was the first Portuguese to receive a Nobel Prize, "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses."cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1949/index.html|title=The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949|accessdate=2006-11-27|publisher=The Nobel Foundation]

Biography

António EGAS MONIZ was born in Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal. He was the inventor of prefrontal leucotomy which was changed to lobotomy by American surgeons Walter Freeman and James Watts, who introduced a larger severing of the neural fibres. It was used as a surgical approach to the radical treatment of several kinds of mental diseases; one of the several types of psychosurgery. For this work, Egas-Moniz received the Nobel Prize in 1949, jointly with the Swiss neurophysiologist Walter Rudolf Hess.

Career

Egas Moniz studied medicine in the University of Coimbra and thereafter neurology in Bordeaux and Paris, France. He returned to the University of Coimbra as Chairman of the Department of Neurology (1902), but soon left it to enter politics as a representative in the Portuguese parliament (1903-1917), as minister of Foreign Affairs (1918) and later as Ambassador to Spain, under the First Republic (1918-1919). He left politics, returned to the University of Lisbon, where, from 1921 to 1944, he was professor of Neurology. In 1927 he developed cerebral angiography, the technique of using x-rays to visualize arteries and veins that are transiently opacified with the injection of a high density agent. This procedure would allow physicians to map blood vessels in and around the brain, permitting the diagnosis of several kinds of neurological disorders, such as tumors and arteriovenous malformations. The method is widely used today for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases in the brain. Egas Moniz received the Oslo Prize for this discovery.

In 1936, Egas Moniz and his associate Almeida Lima developed for the first time a surgical technique to interrupt the nerve fibers which connect the thalamus (a relay for sensory information coming into the brain) to the prefrontal cortex (already known at the time as a brain structure involved in higher intellectual functions of the brain, and in emotions, as well). His technique was widely used around the world in the next decade, and Egas-Moniz received many honours and international recognition, culminating with the Nobel Prize.

In 1939, Dr. Egas Moniz received several shots from a psychiatric patient. He survived and recovered completely. The patient gave vague reasons for the shooting saying he was unsatisfied with the dose of a drug Dr. Egas-Moniz had prescribed.Egas Moniz died in 1955, in Lisbon, Portugal, from hematemesis.

His former country house became a museum where one can see his art collection. It can be visited in Avanca, in the north of Portugal.

ee also

*Nobel Prize controversies
*Psychiatry
*Anti-psychiatry

References

External links

* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1949/index.html The 1949 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology]
* [http://museuegasmoniz.cm-estarreja.pt/ Egas Moniz Museum (in Portuguese)]
* [http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n02/historia/psicocirg_i.htm The History of Psychosurgery] by Renato M.E. Sabbatini
* [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/353/2/119 "Last-Ditch Medical Therapy — Revisiting Lobotomy"] , Dr. Barron H. Lerner, "New England Journal of Medicine", July 14, 2005.
* [http://www.psychosurgery.org/blog.html Psychosurgery.org blog]
* [http://www.egas-moniz.blogspot.com Egas-Moniz blog] by Alvaro Macieira-Coelho


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  • António Egas Moniz — António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (* 29. November 1874 in Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal; † 13. Dezember 1955 in Lissabon, Portugal) war ein portugiesischer Neurologe und Politiker. Er erhielt 1949 zusammen mit Walter Rudolf Hess den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz — (* 29. November 1874 in Estarreja; † 13. Dezember 1955 in Lissabon) war ein portugiesischer Neurologe und Politiker. Er erhielt 1949 zusammen mit Walter Rudolf Hess den Nobelpreis für Physiologie od …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz — Egas Moniz Fichier:Egas Moniz.jpg Egas Moniz António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (Estarreja, 29 novembre 1874 – Lisbonne, 13 décembre 1955) est un neurologue, psychochirurgien, chercheur, professeur, écrivain et homme politique portugais.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Egas Moniz — António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 novembre 1874 à Estarreja, Portugal – 13 décembre 1955 à Lisbonne) est un neurologue, psychochirurgien, chercheur, professeur, écrivain et …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Egas Moniz — ist der Name folgender Personen: Egas Moniz (o Aio) ( 1080–1146), portugiesischer Edelmann António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (1874–1955), portugiesischer Neurologe und Politiker Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • EGAS MONIZ Antonio Gaetano de Abreu Freyre — (1874 1955): neurocirujano portugués, premio nobel de medicina en 1949. Fué uno de los primeros en intentar resolver problemas psiquiátricos mediante métodos quirúrgicos Diccionario ilustrado de Términos Médicos.. Alvaro Galiano. 2010 …   Diccionario médico

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