Soviet occupation zone


Soviet occupation zone
The portions of Germany under Soviet control: Red indicates the Soviet occupation zone. Pink indicates the area east of the Oder-Neisse line which the Soviet Union annexed for itself and its Polish satellite government and expelled ethnic Germans from this area.

The Soviet Occupation Zone (German: Sowjetische Besatzungszone (SBZ) or Ostzone; Russian: Советская оккупационная зона Германии, Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. On 7 October 1949 the German Democratic Republic, which became commonly referred to as East Germany, was established in the Soviet Occupation Zone.

The SBZ was one of the four Allied occupation zones of Germany created at the end of World War II. According to the Potsdam Agreement, the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (German initials: SMAD) was assigned responsibility for the (present-day) eastern portion of Germany. American forces first occupied significant areas of what would become the Soviet zone of Germany, but ceded them to the Soviets in July 1945 according to the previously agreed upon occupation zone boundaries.[citation needed]

The SMAD allowed four political parties to develop, though they were all required to work together under an alliance known as the "Democratic Bloc" (later the National Front). In April 1946, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) merged to form the Socialist Unity Party (which later became the governing party of East Germany).

Joseph Stalin wanted to bring all of Germany under Soviet influence, but when the West resisted this idea, he sought to create a united Germany which would be non-aligned (the "Stalin Note"). When the West resisted these efforts, Stalin decided to focus his efforts on the Soviet occupation zone.[citation needed]

The SMAD set up ten "special camps" for the detention of Germans, making use of some former Nazi concentration camps.

In 1945, the Soviet occupation zone consisted primarily of the central portions of Prussia. After Prussia was dissolved by the Allied powers in 1947, the area was divided between the German states (Länder) of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt und Thuringia. On 7 October 1949, the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic, usually referred to in English as East Germany. In 1952, the Länder were dissolved and realigned into 14 districts (Bezirke), plus the district of East Berlin.

See also

References

  • Lewkowicz, NicolasThe German Question and the International Order, 1943-48 (Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke and New York) (2008)
  • Lewkowicz, Nicolas, The German Question and the Origins of the Cold War (IPOC: Milan) (2008)

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Soviet occupation of Romania — The Soviet occupation of Romania refers [The term occupation is widely used by Western and post Revolutionary Romanian historians. Examples include: * Soviet forces occupied Romania in 1944 and stayed for more than a decade. Roger E. Kirk, Mircea …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet war crimes — gives a short overview about serious crimes committed by the Red Army s (1918 1946, later Soviet Army) leadership and an unknown number of single members of the Soviet armed forces from 1919 to 1990 inclusive including those in Eastern Europe in… …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet occupations — World War II seriesv · d · e …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet Union in World War II — Stalin, U.S.President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Tehran Conference, November 1943 …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet Military Administration in Germany — The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Russian: Советская военная администрация в Германии, СВАГ; Sovetskaia Voennaia Administratsia v Germanii , SVAG; German: Sowjetische Militäradministration in Deutschland , SMAD) was the Soviet… …   Wikipedia

  • Occupation of Poland (1939–1945) — Occupation of Poland redirects here. For other uses, see Occupation of Poland (disambiguation). For general history of Poland during that period, see History of Poland (1939–1945). Fourth Partition of Poland aftermath of the The Nazi Soviet Pact; …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet–German relations before 1941 — German and Soviet troops shaking hands following the invasion of Poland. Soviet–German relations date to the aftermath of the First World War. The Treaty of Brest Litovsk,[1] ending World War I hostilities between Russia and Germany, was signed… …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet invasion of Poland — This article is about the invasion in 1939. For the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1920, see Polish Soviet War. Soviet invasion of Poland Part of the invasion of Poland in World War II …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet deep battle — Deep battle was a military theory developed by the Soviet Union for its armed forces during the 1920s and 1930s. It was developed by a number of influential military writers, such as Vladimir Triandafillov and Mikhail Tukhachevsky who endeavoured …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet Union — USSR and CCCP redirect here. For other uses, see USSR (disambiguation) and CCCP (disambiguation). Soviet redirects here. For the term itself, see Soviet (council). For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). Union of Soviet Socialist Republics …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.