Nyíregyháza


Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza
City center

Coat of arms
Nyíregyháza is located in Hungary
Nyíregyháza
Location of Nyíregyháza
Coordinates: 47°57′11″N 21°43′38″E / 47.95306°N 21.72713°E / 47.95306; 21.72713Coordinates: 47°57′11″N 21°43′38″E / 47.95306°N 21.72713°E / 47.95306; 21.72713
Country  Hungary
County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg
Area
 - Total 274.46 km2 (106 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 - Total 117,852increase
 - Density 425.92/km2 (1,103.1/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 4400
Area code(s) 42

Nyíregyháza (Hungarian pronunciation: [ɲiːrɛɟhaːzɒ] ( listen)) is a city in North-east Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. With a population of 117,000 it is the seventh-largest city in Hungary and is one of the leading cities of Northern Hungary and of the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld). Its dynamic and spectacular development has been incessant since the 18th century, being the economical and cultural center of the region. Its zoo exhibiting more than 300 species including real rarities is recognized throughout Europe.

Contents

Geography

Nyíregyháza is located in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county in the northern Plain region (Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, Hajdú-Bihar county, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county). It is the most important city of North Hungary, in all aspects of the center of the region. It is located in the center of Nyírség, as an agricultural town. The boundaries of the city are often understood as a very broad frame, because generally the near boondocks are listed here. It is located at the intersections of routes 4, 41, 36 and 38, therefore the city is easy to approach. The way to Sub-Carpathia and Transylvania is inevitable without passing the city.

History

Takarekpalota-nyiregyhaza.JPG

The first written notes of Nyíregyháza date back in 1209, although it was called only Nyír (meaning "birch"). A source from 1326 mentions that by then the city already had a church church, hence the second part of the name, "egyház" (meaning "church"). In the middle of the 15th century the town had cc. 400 inhabitants. In the 16th century, during the Turkish occupation of Hungary Nyíregyháza became deserted, and was resettled only in the 1630s – 1640s.

After the War of Independence led by Prince Francis Rákóczi II, the population of the town increased. Most of the new settlers were Slovaks from the area of Békéscsaba. In 1786 Nyíregyháza was granted the right to hold four market days a year, by this time the town was the biggest town of the county with 7,500 inhabitants. In the early 19th century Nyíregyháza was wealthy enough to become free from her feudal lords, the families Dessewffy and Károlyi. During these prosperous years the town got a new town hall, a hospital, several schools and a restaurant by the nearby lake Sóstó ("salty lake").

The inhabitants of the town took an active part in the revolution and war of independence in 1848-49, and after the suppression of the revolution several citizens were imprisoned, among them the mayor, Márton Hatzel.

In the second half of the 19th century Nyíregyháza became more and more urbanized and in 1876 the town became the county seat of Szabolcs county (which is now part of the larger integrated county Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg). In 1858 the railroad line reached Nyíregyháza, several new buildings were built, including a telegraph office, the main post office and the theater. In 1911 the construction of tramways was finished.

After the many trials and tribulations of World War I Nyíregyháza was under Romanian occupation for ten months. Between the two world wars the city celebrated the 100th anniversary of becoming free from her feudal landowners.

During World War II more than 6,000 of the city's Jewish inhabitants were deported, and another 2,000 citizens were sent to Russian labor camps (colloquially called malenky robot). Several buildings were destroyed, too, including the Status Quo Synagogue, whose front wall has been preserved and it is in Nyíregyháza's Jewish Cemetery now.[1]

From the 1960s the city grew and developed quickly. Today, Nyíregyháza is one of the most prosperous cities of Hungary, being both an educational center and a popular tourist destination.

Population

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1870 13,015
1890 18,996 +46.0%
1900 28,073 +47.8%
1910 33,444 +19.1%
1920 38,751 +15.9%
1930 46,522 +20.1%
1941 53,917 +15.9%
1949 48,382 −10.3%
1960 56,834 +17.5%
1970 75,245 +32.4%
1980 108,235 +43.8%
1990 114,152 +5.5%
2000 112,419 −1.5%
2010 117,832 +4.8%
2011 117,852 +0.0%

Tourist sights

Nyiregyháza's Roman Catholic church with the newly-built fountain in the foreground
County Hall

Nyíregyháza also has several museums and exhibitions, showing the city's rich cultural heritage.

  • Collection of the International Medallion Art and Small Sculpture Creative Community of Nyíregyháza-Sóstó – periodic exhibitions of works of contemporary artists

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Nyíregyháza is twinned with :

Broadcasting

Near Nyíregyháza, at47°56′12.17″N 21°45′28.35″E / 47.9367139°N 21.757875°E / 47.9367139; 21.757875 (Nyíregyháza Radio Mast), there is the oldest radio mast in Hungary built in 1925. It is a 115 metres tall guyed mast radiator used for broadcasting on 1251 kHz, which was built in 1925.

Notes

  1. ^ Grand Rabbi Joseph Leifer of Nyíregyháza is buried in the cemetery. He was the son of the world-renowned Rabbi, Rabbi Mordachai of Nadvorna, and he settled in Nyíregyháza after World War I where he attracted a large following. His grave site is visited annually by thousands of Hasidim.
  2. ^ "Serwis informacyjny UM Rzeszów - Informacja o współpracy Rzeszowa z miastami partnerskimi". www.rzeszow.pl. http://www.rzeszow.pl/wspolpraca-miedzynarodowa/informacja-o-wspolpracy-rzeszowa-z-miastami-partnerskimi/668,informacja-o-wsp-lpracy-rzeszowa-z-miastami-partnerskimi.html. Retrieved 2010-02-02. [dead link]
  3. ^ "TABEL privind LOCALITÃŢILE ÎNFRĂŢITE cu localităţile din judeţul Satu Mare" (in Romanian). www.prefecturasatumare.ro. http://www.prefecturasatumare.ro/santoma/infratiri%20satu%20mare.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  4. ^ "Офіційний сайт міста Івано-Франківська" (in Ukrainian). mvk.if.ua. http://www.mvk.if.ua/news/4114/. Retrieved 7 March 2010. 

Notable residents

Further reading

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Nyíregyháza — Nyíregyháza …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nyíregyháza — Héraldique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nyíregyháza — Escudo …   Wikipedia Español

  • NYIREGYHAZA — (Hung. Nyiregyháza), town in N.E. Hungary. Jews were living in the district in the 18th century, but were excluded from Nyiregyhaza itself until 1840, when they were authorized to settle in the towns. By 1848–49, 71 Jews lived in the town. In… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Nyiregyhaza — Nyíregyháza Nyíregyháza est une ville prospère et industrielle de l est de la Hongrie. Elle est située à 70 km de la Slovaquie, 70 km de l Ukraine et 70 km de la Roumanie. Pendant la période soviétique, elle est restée un peu à l écart car elle… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nyiregyháza — (spr. njīr édj hāsa), Stadt mit geordnetem Magistrat, Sitz des ungar. Komitats Szabolcs und Knotenpunkt der Bahnlinien nach Debreczin, Szerencz, Csap, Mátészalka und Vásáros Námény, mit vielen Neubauten (Theater, 2 Kavalleriekasernen, Gerichts… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nyiregyháza — (spr. njiréddjahsa), Hauptstadt des ungar. Komitats Szabolcs, in der Nyir, (1900) 33.088 E., Obergymnasium; Landwirtschaft, viele Salzteiche …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nyíregyháza —   [ njiːrɛdjhaːzɔ], Hauptstadt des Bezirks Szabolcs Szatmár Bereg, Nordostungarn, im Großen Ungarischen Tiefland, 112 400 Einwohner; ethnographisches Freilichtmuseum; Reifenfabrik, Konserven , Tabak , Holzindustrie …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Nyíregyháza — /nyee rddedyeu hah zo/, n. a city in NE Hungary. 91,000. * * * ▪ Hungary       city of county status and seat of Szabolcs Szatmár Bereg megye (county), northeastern Hungary. It is a principal settlement of the upper Tisza River region, which… …   Universalium


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