Annona


Annona
Annona
Sugar-apple (Annona squamosa)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Annona
L.[1]
Species

Some 100-150, see text.

Synonyms

Guanabanus Mill.
Raimondia Saff.
Rollinia A. St.-Hil.
Rolliniopsis Saff.[2]

Annona is a genus of flowering plants in the pawpaw/sugar apple family, Annonaceae. It is the second largest genus in the family after Guatteria,[3] containing approximately 110 species of mostly neotropical and afrotropical trees and shrubs.[4] The generic name derives from anón, a Hispaniolan Taíno word for the fruit.[5] Paleoethnobotanical studies have dated Annona exploitation and cultivation in the Yautepec River region of Mexico to approximately 1000 BC.[6]

Currently, seven Annona species and one hybrid are grown for domestic or commercial use, mostly for the edible and nutritious fruits; several others also produce edible fruits.[7] Many of the species are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Several annonacaeous species have been found to contain acetogenins, a class of natural compounds with a wide variety of biological activities.[8][9]

Contents

Description

Annona species are taprooted, evergreen or semideciduous, tropical trees or shrubs.[4] This fruit typically grows in areas which do not get below 28 degrees; Cuba, Jamaica, and the Philippines, however it has been known to grow in certain areas of Florida.

  • Trunks: The trunks have thin bark that has broad and shallow depressions or fissures which join together and are scaly giving rise to slender, stiff, cylindrical and tapering shoots with raised pores and naked buds.[4]
  • Leaves: Leaf blades can be leathery or thin and rather soft or pliable, bald or hairy.[4]
  • Flowers: The flowering stalks rise from axils, or occasionally from axillary buds on main stems or older stems, or as solitary flowers or small bundle of flowers. Usually, the three or four deciduous sepals are smaller than the outer petals that do not overlap while in bud. Six to eight fleshy petals in two whorls—the petals of the outer whorl are larger and do not overlap; inner petals are ascending and distinctively smaller, and nectar glands are darker pigmented. Numerous stamens that are ball, club-shaped, or curved and hooded or pointed beyond anther sac. Numerous pistils, attached directly to the base, are partially united to various degrees with distinct stigma, with one or two ovules per pistil; the style and stigma are club-shaped or narrowly conic.[4]
  • Fruits: One fleshy, ovate to spherical fruit is produced per flower. Each fruit consists of many individual small fruits or syncarps, with one syncarp and seed per pistil. Seeds are bean-like with tough coats; the seed kernels are toxic.[4]
  • Pollination: Dynastid scarab beetles appear basic within the genus Annona. Those species of Annona which are more morphologically derived, as well as all Rollinia spp., possess reduced floral chambers and attract small beetles such as Nitidulidae or Staphylinidae.[10]

Images

Selected species

The following is a list of some of the more important species. Many of them have significant agricultural, medicinal, pharmaceutical, and other uses. Synonyms appear in the sublist.[11]

Insects and diseases

Annona species are generally disease-free. They are susceptible to some fungi and wilt. Ants are a problem, since they promote mealy bugs on the fruit.[12]

Insects
  • Braephratiloides cubense (annona seed borer)
  • Bepratelloides cubense (annona seed borer)[13][14]
  • Morganella longispina (plumose scale)
  • Philephedra n.sp. (Philephedra scale)
  • Pseudococcus sp. (mealy bugs)
  • Xyleborus sp. (ambrosia beetles)[13]
  • Ammiscus polygrophoides
  • Anastrepha atrox
  • Anastrepha barandianae
  • Anastrepha bistrigata
  • Anastrepha chiclayae
  • Anastrepha disticta
  • Anastrepha extensa
  • Anastrepha fraterculus
  • Anastrepha oblicua
  • Anastrepha serpentina
  • Anastrepha striata
  • Anastrepha suspensa
  • Apate monachus
  • Bactrocera spp.
  • Bephrata maculicollis
  • Brevipalpus spp.
  • Ceratitis capitata
  • Cerconota anonella
  • Coccoidea spp.
  • Coccus viridis (green scale)
  • Emanadia flavipennis
  • Gelwchiidae spp.
  • Heliothrips haemorphoidalis
  • Leosynodes elegantales
  • Lyonetia spp.
  • Oiketicus kirby
  • Orthezia olivicola
  • Phyllocnistis spp.
  • Pinnaspis aspidistrae
  • Planococcus citri
  • Saissetia nigra
  • Talponia spp.
  • Tenuipalpidae
  • Tetranynchus spp.
  • Thrips[15]

Fungi
  • Armillaria (oak root fungus)
  • Ascochyta cherimolaer
  • Botryodiplodia theobromae
  • Cercospora annonaceae
  • Cladosporium carpophilum
  • Colletotrichium spp.
  • Colletotrichium annonicola
  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
  • Corticium salmonicolor
  • Fumagina spp.
  • Fusarium solani
  • Gloeosporium
  • Glomerella cingulata
  • Isariopsis anonarum
  • Koleroga noxis
  • Monilia
  • Nectria episphaeria

Nematodes
  • Cephalobidae spp.
  • Dorylaimidae spp.
  • Gracilacus spp.
  • Helicotylenchus spp.
  • Hemicycliophora spp.

Algae

Diseases

References

  1. ^ Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Annona L.". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ANNON. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  2. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1996-09-17). "Genus: Annona L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?720. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  3. ^ "Annona". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=18095. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Flora of North America. 1. Annona Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 536. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 241, 1754. 3. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=101891. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  5. ^ Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 95. ISBN 9780849323324. http://books.google.com/?id=eS7lX_rC3GEC. 
  6. ^ Warrington, Ian J. Warrington (2003). "Annonaceae". Apples: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0851995926. http://books.google.com/books?id=AxbUJntXepEC&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&source=web&ots=huvTs57P4I&sig=1AECuDjdwZa8qHmb-hEY-69PwzE&hl=en#PPA74,M1. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  7. ^ University of Southampton (March 2002). "Factsheet No. 5. Annona" (PDF). Fruits for the Future. Department for International Development, International Centre for Underutilised Crops. http://www.icuc-iwmi.org/files/News/Resources/Factsheets/annona.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  8. ^ Pilar Rauter, Amélia; A. F. Dos Santos and A. E. G. Santana (2002). "Toxicity of Some species of Annona Toward Artemia Salina Leach and Biomphalaria Glabrata Say". Natural Products in the New Millennium: Prospects and Industrial Application. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 540 pages. ISBN 1402010478. http://books.google.com/books?id=4rrC7c_6OUoC&pg=PA264&lpg=PA264&source=web&ots=GVwQsxA_oK&sig=9U5mL2oGo14l_K6XnC8wb8k1a_M&hl=en. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  9. ^ Esposti, M Degli; A Ghelli, M Ratta, D Cortes, and E Estornell (1994-07-01). "Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family Annonaceae are powerful inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I)". The Biochemical Journal (The Biochemical Society) 301 (Pt 1): 161–7. PMC 1137156. PMID 8037664. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1137156. 
  10. ^ Gottsberger, Gerhard (28 April 1988). "Comments on flower evolution and beetle pollination in the genera Annona and Rollinia (Annonaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution (Springer Science+Business Media) 167 (3–4): 189–194. doi:10.1007/BF00936405. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u03w164g12876313/. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  11. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). "GRIN Species Records of Annona". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?720. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  12. ^ a b Robert Vieth, Master Gardener. "Cherimoya". Minor subtropicals. Ventura County Cooperative Extension. http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/counties/ceventura/Agriculture265/Cherimoya.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  13. ^ a b c Jorge Pena and Freddie Johnson (October 1993). "Insect Pests of Annona Crops" (PDF). Other Fruits With Insecticides Known to Have Labels for Use. Department of Entomology, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IG/IG07900.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  14. ^ Jonathan H. Crane, Carlos F. Balerdi, and Ian Maguire (April 1994). "Sugar Apple Growing in the Florida Home Landscape". Fact Sheet HS38. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MG330. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  15. ^ a b c d Bridg, Hannia (2001-05-03). "Micropropagation and Determination of the in vitro Stability of Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona muricata L.". Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/bridg-hannia-2000-03-24/HTML/brigd-ch1.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Annona — Annona …   Wikipédia en Français

  • annona — ANNÓNA s.f. 1. (ist.; în Roma antică în perioada imperiului) Obligaţie a populaţiei de a aproviziona oraşele şi armata. 2. (În Imperiul Bizantin) Tain al soldaţilor. [< lat. annona]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DN  ANNÓNA s. f …   Dicționar Român

  • Annona — Annona, TX U.S. town in Texas Population (2000): 282 Housing Units (2000): 142 Land area (2000): 0.806103 sq. miles (2.087798 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.806103 sq. miles (2.087798 sq. km)… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Annona, TX — U.S. town in Texas Population (2000): 282 Housing Units (2000): 142 Land area (2000): 0.806103 sq. miles (2.087798 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.806103 sq. miles (2.087798 sq. km) FIPS code:… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • ANNONA — apud Romanos Dea τῆς εὐθηνίας καὶ εὐετίας, fertilitatis et ubertatis anmtorum redituum. Unde vetus Inscr. DIVAE ANNONAE, apud Salmas. ad Solin. p. 250. Idem de Pomona factum; quae pomorum proventus, sicut Annona unius anni fetus, proprie fuit;… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Annōna — (lat.), 1) (röm. Ant.), das ganze Jahreserzeugniß an Früchten; 2) sämmtliche Victualien, die auf den Markt gebracht werden; 3) der Marktpreis; 4) Göttin, welche die jährlichen Früchte schützte u. segnete; dargestellt: bekleidet, nur den rechten… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

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  • Annona —   [lateinisch »Jahresertrag«] die, /...nae, im alten Rom der jährliche Ertrag an Feldfrüchten, besonders an Getreide; v. a. der Getreidebedarf und die Getreideversorgung der Stadt Rom (lateinisch »cura annonae«); später auch Bezeichnung für die… …   Universal-Lexikon