- Alcohol dependence
Alcohol dependence, as described in the
DSM-IV, is a psychiatric diagnosis describing a physical dependenceon alcohol. For a person to meet criteria for Alcohol Dependence (303.90) within the criteria listed in the DSM-IV, they must meet 3 of a total 7 possible criteria within a 12 month period. The first 2 criteria are related to physiological dependence: "tolerance" and "withdrawal". The 3rd and 4th criteria establish a pattern of losing control of drinking by breaking drinking rules or failing at attempts to quit or cut back. The 5th and 6th criteria are indicative of a progression of addiction as more and more time is spent on drinking and lifestyle changes result. The seventh criteria for Alcohol Dependence is met when a person continues to drink despite being aware that their drinking is causing or excacerbating some psychological or physiological problem(s). It is important to note that because only 3 criteria of 7 are required in order to be diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence, not all meet the same criteria and therefore not all have the same symptoms and problems related to drinking. Not everyone with Alcohol Dependence, therefore, experiences physiological dependence. Alcohol Dependence is differentiated from alcohol abuseby the presence of symptoms such as tolerance and withdrawal. Both alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse are sometimes referred to by the less specific term alcoholism. However, many definitions of alcoholism exist, and only some are compatible with alcohol abuse.
About 12% of American adults have had an alcohol dependence problem at some time in their life. [ cite journal |author=Hasin D et al |title=Prevalence, Correlates, Disability, and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in the United States |journal=Archives of General Psychiatry |volume=64 |issue=7 |year=2007 |pages=830 |doi=10.1001/archpsyc.64.7.830 |pmid=17606817] Alcohol dependence is acknowledged by the
American Medical Associationas a disease because it has a characteristic set of signs and symptoms and a progressive course.
The contemporary definition of alcohol dependence is still based upon early research. There has been considerable scientific effort over the past three decades to identify and understand the core features of alcohol dependence. This work began in 1976 when the British psychiatrist Griffith Edwards and his American colleague Milton M. Gross [Edwards G. & Gross MM, Alcohol dependence: provisional description of a clinical syndrome, BMJ 1976; i: 1O58-106 ] collaborated to produce a formulation of what had previously been understood as ‘alcoholism’ – the alcohol dependence syndrome.
The alcohol dependence syndrome was seen as a cluster of seven elements that concur. It was argued that not all elements may be present in every case, but the picture is sufficiently regular and coherent to permit clinical recognition. The syndrome was also considered to exist in degrees of severity rather than as a categorical absolute. Thus, the proper question is not ‘whether a person is dependent on alcohol’, but ‘how far along the path of dependence has a person progressed’.
The following elements are the template for which the degree of dependence is judged:
# Narrowing of the drinking repertoire.
# Increased salience of the need for alcohol over competing needs and responsibilities.
# An acquired tolerance to alcohol.
# Withdrawal symptoms.
# Relief or avoidance of withdrawal symptoms by further drinking.
# Subjective awareness of compulsion to drink.
# Reinstatement after abstinence.
[Clark, David, Background Briefing, Alcohol Dependence, Drink and Drug News, 7 February, 2005, p. 11]
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