- Graphic notation
Musical graphic notation is a form of
music notationwhich refers to the use of non-traditional symbols and text to convey information about the performance of a piece of music. It is used for experimental music, which in many cases is difficult to notate using standard notation.
Graphic notation can come in various forms:
*Graphic scores, in which the music is represented using symbols and illustrations:This notation may be, like music on traditional staves, a time-pitch graph system. In the above example, time is still represented by reading left-to-right.
*Prose scores, in which the music and its directions are written as ordinary text, and the interpretation is down to the performer.
One example of prose scores is
John Cage's " 4'33"" where Cage writes his composition in prose describing at what dynamic the musician should play.
* Line staves showing relative pitch, with the actual pitches being decided upon performance.
*Piano Roll Notation, borrowed in the early 1950's and 1960's from
piano rolls used for player pianos in the turn of the 20th century, this notation is now popular in computer MIDIsequencers to create music.
A more common aspect of graphic notation is the use of symbols to convey information to the performer about the way the piece is to be performed. These symbols first began to appear in the works of
avant-gardecomposers such as Karlheinz Stockhausenand Krzysztof Pendereckias well as the works of experimental composers such as John Cageand Earle Brownduring the 1950s and 60s. Although this concept was closely related to the development of fully graphical notation, it is essentially different in that the symbols are intended to convey a concrete sonic result, whereas true graphic scores are often intentionally ambiguous, leading to many possible interpretations of the score. The following symbols are staples of contemporary scores:
Composers who have used graphic notation
Practitioners of graphic notation include:
Wadada Leo Smith
Juan Maria Solare
* Christian Wolff
* R. Murray Shafer
* Nahneen Kula
* Cage, J. and Knowles, A. (1973). "Notations". Reprint Services Corp. ISBN 0-685-14864-5.
*Tisano, Theresa Sauer (2008). "Notations21". New York: Mark Batty Publisher.
* [http://www.notations21.net/ Notations21, an anthology of innovative musical notation] , an anthology inspired by
John Cage's " Notations"
* [http://www.blockmuseum.northwestern.edu/picturesofmusic/ Pictures of Music at Northwestern University]
* [http://www20.brinkster.com/improarchive/legno1uk.htm Bergstroem-Nielsen, Carl: Experimental improvisation and notation practise 1945-1999; Experimental improvisation and notation practise, addenda 2000-] . Online bibliographies.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71hNl_skTZQ&feature=related Real-time interpretation of Rainer Wehinger visualization of
Ligeti's electronic work "Artikulation"]
* [http://nyme.org/graphic.html An online collection of graphic scores curated by the New York Miniaturist Ensemble]
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