- Graphic notation
**Musical graphic notation**is a form ofmusic notation which refers to the use of non-traditional symbols and text to convey information about the performance of a piece of music. It is used forexperimental music , which in many cases is difficult to notate using standard notation.Graphic notation can come in various forms:

*

**Graphic scores**, in which the music is represented using symbols and illustrations:This notation may be, like music on traditional staves, a time-pitch graph system. In the above example, time is still represented by reading left-to-right.

***Prose scores**, in which the music and its directions are written as ordinary text, and the interpretation is down to the performer.

One example of prose scores isJohn Cage 's "4'33" " where Cage writes his composition in prose describing at what dynamic the musician should play.

***Line staves showing relative pitch**, with the actual pitches being decided upon performance.

***Piano Roll Notation**, borrowed in the early 1950's and 1960's frompiano roll s used forplayer piano s in the turn of the 20th century, this notation is now popular in computerMIDI sequencers to create music.**Graphic symbols**A more common aspect of graphic notation is the use of symbols to convey information to the performer about the way the piece is to be performed. These symbols first began to appear in the works of

avant-garde composers such asKarlheinz Stockhausen andKrzysztof Penderecki as well as the works of experimental composers such asJohn Cage andEarle Brown during the 1950s and 60s. Although this concept was closely related to the development of fully graphical notation, it is essentially different in that the symbols are intended to convey a concrete sonic result, whereas true graphic scores are often intentionally ambiguous, leading to many possible interpretations of the score. The following symbols are staples of contemporary scores:**Composers who have used graphic notation**Practitioners of graphic notation include:

*

Earle Brown

*Herbert Brun

*John Bergamo

*John Cage

*Cornelius Cardew

*George Crumb

*Brian Eno

*Morton Feldman

*Barry Guy

*Alfred Harth

*Roman Haubenstock-Ramati

*Mauricio Kagel

*Panayiotis Kokoras

*György Ligeti

*Krzysztof Penderecki

*Roger Reynolds

*Wadada Leo Smith

*Juan Maria Solare

*Karlheinz Stockhausen

* Christian Wolff

*John Zorn

* R. Murray Shafer

* Nahneen Kula**ee also**Eye music **Further reading*** Cage, J. and Knowles, A. (1973). "Notations". Reprint Services Corp. ISBN 0-685-14864-5.

*Tisano, Theresa Sauer (2008). "Notations21". New York: Mark Batty Publisher.**External links*** [

*http://www.notations21.net/ Notations21, an anthology of innovative musical notation*] , an anthology inspired byJohn Cage 's "Notations "

* [*http://www.blockmuseum.northwestern.edu/picturesofmusic/ Pictures of Music at Northwestern University*]

* [*http://www20.brinkster.com/improarchive/legno1uk.htm Bergstroem-Nielsen, Carl: Experimental improvisation and notation practise 1945-1999; Experimental improvisation and notation practise, addenda 2000-*] . Online bibliographies.

* [*http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71hNl_skTZQ&feature=related Real-time interpretation of Rainer Wehinger visualization of*]Ligeti 's electronic work "Artikulation"

* [*http://nyme.org/graphic.html An online collection of graphic scores curated by the New York Miniaturist Ensemble*]

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

### Look at other dictionaries:

**Graphic notation (dance)**— Graphic notation for dance is analogous to musical graphic notation. Using abstract symbols, words, colour or any other method of visual representation to document dance movement. Differing from other forms of dance notation by its lack of a set… … Wikipedia**notation**— notational, adj. /noh tay sheuhn/, n. 1. a system of graphic symbols for a specialized use, other than ordinary writing: musical notation. 2. the process or method of noting or setting down by means of a special system of signs or symbols. 3. the … Universalium**notation**— /noʊˈteɪʃən / (say noh tayshuhn) noun 1. a system of graphic symbols for a specialised use, other than ordinary writing: musical notation. 2. the process of noting or setting down by means of a special system of signs or symbols: dance notation.… … Australian English dictionary**Graphic Effects**— Digitale Kunst oder Digitalkunst, oft gleichbedeutend mit Computerkunst gebraucht, sind im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch Sammelbegriffe für Kunst, die digital mit dem Computer erzeugt wird. Im engeren Sinn ist es Kunst, die nur durch die… … Deutsch Wikipedia**notation**— no•ta•tion [[t]noʊˈteɪ ʃən[/t]] n. 1) a system of graphic symbols or signs for a specialized use: musical notation[/ex] 2) the process or method of writing down by means of such a system 3) the act of noting or marking down in writing 4) a short… … From formal English to slang**Musical notation**— Music markup redirects here. For the XML application, see Music Markup Language. Hand written musical notation by J. S. Bach: beginning of the Prelude from the Suite for Lute in G minor BWV 995 (transcription of Cello Suite No. 5, BWV 1011) BR… … Wikipedia**Dance notation**— La Cachucha, by Friedrich Albert Zorn. Dance notation is the symbolic representation of dance movement. It is analogous to movement notation but can be limited to representing human movement and specific forms of dance such as Tap dance. Various… … Wikipedia**Scientific pitch notation**— The first ten Cs in scientific pitch notation Scientific pitch notation is one of several methods that name the notes of the standard Western chromatic scale by combining a letter name, accidentals, and a number identifying the pitch s octave.… … Wikipedia**Helmholtz pitch notation**— The naming of individual C s using the Helmholtz system Helmholtz pitch notation is a musical system for naming notes of the Western chromatic scale. Developed by the German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz, it uses a combination of upper and… … Wikipedia**musical notation**— Written, printed, or other visual representation of music. There are two basic approaches to notating music. Tablature (such as guitar chord diagrams) depicts the actions a performer is to take (in particular, showing where to put the fingers to… … Universalium