- .338 Lapua Magnum
Infobox Firearm Cartridge
name=.338 Lapua Magnum
caption= .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge case
used_by=Multiple official and civil users
wars= Afghanistan War,
.416 Rigby, .338/416
rifling=254 mm (1-10")
primer=Large rifle magnum
btype3=Lapua Scenar GB488 VLD
btype5=Sierra HPBT MatchKing
test_barrel_length=660 mm (26.0 inches)
balsrc= Accurate Powder [http://www.accuratepowder.com/data/PerCaliber2Guide/Rifle/Standarddata(Rifle)/338cal(8.59mm)/338%20Lapua%20Magnum%20new%20data.pdf .338 Lapua at Accurate Online] ] Lapua (690 mm; 27.2 inches) barrel) [ [http://www.lapua.com/fileadmin/user_upload/esitteet/Lapua.338LapuaMagnum.pdf Lapua product brochure .338 Lapua Magnum ammunition] ] [ [http://www.lapua.com/fileadmin/user_upload/esitteet/VihtavuoriInternationalReloguide2008.pdf VihtaVuori international reloading guide 2008] ] The .338 Lapua Magnum (8.6×70mm or 8.58×70mm) is a specialized rimless bottlenecked
centerfirecartridge developed for militarylong-range sniper rifles. The Afghanistan War and Iraq Warmade it a combat-proven round with ready and substantial ammunition availability. The .338 Lapua is a dual-purpose anti-personnel and anti-materiel round; however, its anti-materiel potential is limited, due to the bullet's lower kinetic energycompared with that of the .50 BMG's 35.64 to 55.08 gram (550 to 850 grain) projectiles. The loaded cartridge is 14.93 mm (0.5878 in) in diameter (rim) and 93.5 mm long. It can penetrate better-than-standard military body armourat ranges up to 1000 meters (1094 yd) and has a maximum effective range of about 1750 meters (1914 yards). Muzzle velocity is dependent on load and powder temperature and varies from 880 to 915 m/s(2887 to 3002 ft/s) for commercial loads with 16.2 gram(250 grain) bullets, which results in about 6525 joules (4813 ft·lbf) of muzzle energy.
In addition to its military role, it is increasingly used by
big-game hunters and civilian long-range shooting enthusiasts. The .338 Lapua Magnum is capable of taking any game animalon the planet, though its suitablility for some dangerous game ( Cape buffalo, hippopotamus, white rhinocerosand elephant) is arguable, unless accompanied by a larger "back-up" caliber: "There is a huge difference between calibres that will kill an elephant and those that can be relied upon to stop one." [Robertson, K: "The Perfect Shot," Safari Press, Inc, Long Beach, 1999:p. 50.] Certain sub-Saharan Africacountries have a 9.53 mm (.375 in) minimum caliber rule for hunting Big Five game. It also cannot be used in countries which ban civil use of former or current military rifle cartridges.
In 1983, Research Armament Industries (RAI) in the USA began development of a new, long-range sniper cartridge capable of firing a 16.2 gram (250 gr), .338-inch diameter bullet at 914 m/s (3000 ft/s) that could penetrate 5 layers of military body armor at 1000 m (1094 yd) and still make the kill. After preliminary experiments, a
.416 Rigbycase necked down to take a .338-inch bulletwas selected, since this diameter presents an optimum of sectional densityand penetrating capability for practical spin stabilized rifle bullets (bullets up to about 5 to 5.5 calibers in length). [ [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/PDF/Kneubuehl.pdf What is the Maximum Length of a spin stabilized Projectile? by Mr. Beat Kneubühl] ] The .416 Rigby is an English big game cartridge that was designed to accommodate 325 MPa (47137 psi) pressures. One of the disadvantages of these old cartridge cases intended for firing corditecharges instead of modern smokeless powderis the thickness of the sidewall just forward of the web. During ignition, the cartridge's base, forward to the bolt face, is not supported. The case is driven back against the bolt face which results in the stretching of the case, particularly the sidewall immediately forward of the web. When the sidewall resists the outward expansion against the chamber, the pressure stretches the case thereby increasing its length resulting in the sidewall becoming thinner at that stretch point.
During the process RAI employed Brass Extrusion Labs Ltd. (BELL) of Bensenville, Illinois, to make the .338/416 or 8.58x71mm cartridge cases,
Hornadyproduced bullets, and RAI built a sniper rifle under contract for the U.S. Navy. RAI found out the BELL cases did not fulfil the requirements. Pressed by military deadlines RAI looked for another case producer and got into contact with Lapua of Finland in 1984.Due to financial difficulties RAI was forced to drop out of the program. Subsequently, Lapua of Finland put this (wildcat) cartridge into limited production.Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World 8th Edition, Edited by M.L. McPherson, DBI Books, 1997, ISBN 0-87349-178-5] The .338/416 rifle program was later cancelled when the contractors were unable to make the cartridge meet the project's velocity target 16.2 gram at 914 m/s (250 gr at 3000 ft/s), due to weak brass cases.
From its American origins, the current .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge was developed as a joint venture between the rifle building company
Accuracy Internationaland ammunition manufacturer Lapua(including personal communication with Malcolm Cooper, the now-deceased founder of Accuracy International). In some contrast to this, Lapua states on its website that it developed the cartridge and mentions Mr. Cooper's Accuracy International as a cooperation partner. [ [http://www.lapua.com/index.php?id=889 From an American dream to a Finnish success story] ] Since Mr. Cooper can not comment on this matter it can not be resolved.
Lapua opted to elaborately redesign the .338/416 cartridge. In the new case design, particular attention was directed toward thickening and metallurgically strengthening the case's web and sidewall immediately forward of the web. In modern solid head cases, the hardness of the brass is the major factor that determines a case's pressure limit before undergoing plastic deformation. Lapua tackled this problem by creating a hardness distribution ranging from the head and web (hard) to the mouth (soft) as well as a strengthened (thicker) case web and sidewall immediately forward of the web. This resulted in a very pressure resistant case, allowing it to operate at high pressure and come within 15 m/s (50 ft/s) of the original velocity goal.Lapua also designed a 16.2 gram (250 gr) .338 calibre Lock Base B408
full metal jacket bullet, modeled after its .30 calibre Lock Base bullet configuration.The result was the .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge which was registered with C.I.P.( Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives) in 1989. With the procurement by the Dutch Army, the cartridge became NATO codified.
The .338 Lapua Magnum is considered an ideal military long-range anti-personnel cartridge by long-range sniping specialists like John D. Taylor and Dean Michaelis. It fills the gap between weapons chambered for standard military rounds such as the
7.62x51mm NATOand large, weighty rifles firing the .50 BMG cartridge. It also offers a tolerable amount of barrel wear, which is important to military snipers who tend to fire thousands of rounds in practice every year to acquire and maintain expert long-range marksmanship. [The Finnish Army found out during a test/trails program and 7 years of actual service that the barrels of their Sako TRG-42sniper rifles lasted 7000 to 8000 rounds with Lapua Lock Base B408 factory ammunition before showing impermissible accuracy decay. The Finnish Army consistent accuracy requirement for these rifles is ≤ 1 MOA at 1000 m. If this requirement is not met the TRG-42 gets a new barrel. This is normal practice for active high performance precision rifle operators who regard barrels as expendable items. The continuous use of very powerful handloads (which results in higher muzzle velocities) resulted in much quicker throat erosion reducing the TRG-42 barrels accuracy life to 1500 to 2000 rounds.] Like every other big cartridge the .338 Lapua Magnum presents a stout recoil. An appropriate fitting stock and an effective muzzle brakewill help to reduce recoil induced problems, enabling the operator the fire more rounds before getting too uncomfortable to shoot accurately anymore. Good factory loads, multiple projectile weights and factory special application ammunition are all available. [In 1985, the US military Adjutant General's Office issued a legal opinion holding that the Sierra MatchKing bullet (and similar bullets of other manufacturers), despite being a hollow point design, is not designed specifically to cause greater damage or suffering in a human target, and in fact normally does not create a wound readily distinguishable from wounds caused by conventional full metal jacket bullets, and is therefore in their opinion legal under the Hague Convention for use in war.] [ [http://www.thegunzone.com/opentip-ammo.html Sniper Use of Open-Tip Ammunition] ]
Due to its growing civilian popularity, several high quality tactical and match (semi) custom
bolt actionsdesigned for the .338 Lapua Magnum are becoming available. These (semi) custom bolt actions are used with other high grade rifle and sighting components to build custom sporting and target rifles. Such rifles are ordered by long-range, accuracy oriented shooters and are built by specialized, highly skilled gunsmiths. They can cost thousands of euros or dollars. When built to expectation, such rifles are very accurate - 0.5 MOA or better consistent accuracy for a particular rifle with optimized ammunitionis considered normal. A large degree of skill is required to achieve this level of accuracy.
Since 2006 Vigilance Rifles offers a .338 Lapua Magnum
semi-automatic rifledesigned for dangerous game hunting and long range shooting. [ [http://www.vigilancerifles.com/googled98d2abfef4c7211.php Vigilance Rifles homepage] ]
Law enforcement and military users
The .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge is in law enforcement or
military[http://www.snipercentral.com/worldrifles.htm worldrifles.com] ] [ [http://worldinventory.googlepages.com/ World Small Arms Inventory] ] use with:
RENEA- Sako TRG-42
* - Accuracy International AWSM
Canadian Forces- [http://www.pgwdti.com/ PGWDTI Timberwolf Tactical] [ [http://www2.sfu.ca/casr/101-rifle-c14-timberwolf.htm Canadian Forces Rifle — the 8.6 mm C14 Timberwolf MRSWS] ]
* - Sako TRG-42
Finnish Defence Forces- [http://www.mil.fi/maavoimat/kalustoesittely/index.dsp?level=64&equipment=48 8.6 TKIV 2000] = Sako TRG-42
Military of Estonia- Sako TRG-42
* - [http://world.guns.ru/sniper/sn48-e.htm Erma SR-100] , AMP Technical Services DSR 1
* - Anti-Terrorist Unit EKAM - Sako TRG-41 (predecessor of the Sako TRG-42)
Kopassus- Accuracy International AWSM
* - Sako TRG-42
Dutch military- Accuracy International AWSM, Sako TRG-41
Alpha Groupand SOBR- Accuracy International AWSM and Sako TRG-42 [ [http://www.whq-forum.de/invisionboard/index.php?s=81315bb84faffaf86b59ea51a3a2da99&showtopic=22949 Waffen HQ Russian Infantry weapons] ]
PGM .338 LM
Military of Slovenia- PGM .338 LM
* - Sako TRG-42
* - Sako TRG-42, PGM .338 LM
* - Sako TRG-42
British military- Accuracy International AWSM
United States Special Operations Command- Remington M24A3 SWS
The Accuracy International AWSM rifle chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum is currently (2007) in service with the British Army and
Royal Marinesin Afghanistan and Iraq.
The .338 Lapua Magnum has been designated a "cartridge of interest" by the [http://ndia.org/ National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA)] . It is being groomed to replace the
.300 Winchester Magnumand the .50 BMG for anti-personnel long-range service in the US Military. On June 17 2008, the US Government issued a market survey to support a requirement for a Precision Sniper Rifle (PRS) to possibly replace the currently fielded Bolt Action SOF Sniper Systems MK 13 (.300 Winchester Magnum) and the M40 and M24 (7.62x51mm NATO)) chambered to safely fire factory produced "non-wildcat" .338 caliber ammunition. [ [http://www.tacticalgunfan.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=257&Itemid=1 US Special Operations Considers A ".338" Sniper Rifle] ] [ [https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&tab=core&id=7c3671c8b65d782bbbfe7da8228f827e&_cview=1 Precession Sniper Rifle - Solicitation Number: H92222-09-PSR] ]
Extremely thick-walled brass results in a 7.40 ml (114 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity for the .338 Lapua Magnum. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable feeding and extraction in
bolt actionrifles and machine gunsalike, under extreme conditions.
.338 Lapua Magnum maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).
Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 20 degrees. The common
rifling twist ratefor this cartridge is 254 mm (1 in 10 in), 6 grooves, Ø lands = 8.38 mm, Ø grooves = 8.58 mm, land width = 2.79 mm and the primer type is large rifle magnum.
According to the official
C.I.P.decisions and tables edition 2007 the .338 Lapua Magnum case can handle up to 420 MPa (60,916 psi) piezo pressure. This now prevails over the C.I.P. decisions and tables edition 2003, that rated the .338 Lapua Magnum at 470 MPa (68,167 psi) maximum piezo pressure. Remarkably the 470 MPa (68,167 psi) maximum piezo pressure C.I.P. ruling for the .300 Lapua Magnumcartridge, which is based on the same case, was not accordingly changed.In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of the prevailing maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.
Lapua is ambivalent on the maximum piezo pressure of this cartridge.In the [http://www.lapua.com/index.php?id=889 From an American dream to a Finnish success story] article by Janne Pohjoispää Lapua propagates the C.I.P. 2006 ruling of 420 MPa (60,915 psi) maximum piezo pressure. To further complicate matters the mentioned 56,000 CUP C.I.P. copper crusher pressure in this article would translate in ≈ 447.5 MPa (64,903 psi) C.I.P. piezo pressure according to a study on the conversion from cup to psi for rifle cartridges by Denton Bramwell. [ [http://www.shootingsoftware.com/ftp/psicuparticle2.pdf Correlating PSI and CUP, a study done that shows a high correlation between CUP and PSI for rifle cartridges by Denton Bramwell] ] The C.I.P. 2003 ruling of 470 MPa (68,167 psi) piezo pressure is corroborated by Lapua Australia in the [http://www.custer.com.au/Lap/338magnumstory.php History and development of the .338 Lapua Magnum] article by Alan C. Paulson.A reverse engineering simulation with
QuickLOADinternal ballistic software predicted that Lapua load their factory .338 Lapua Magnum ammunition at ≈ 420 MPa (60,915 psi) piezo pressure as Alan C. Paulson asserts in his article.
The large boltface combined with the high maximum pressure makes that the .338 Lapua Magnum should only be chambered in rifles that are capable of handling such large and fierce cartridges and thus high bolt thrust safely. Chambering such powerful super magnum cartridges in rifles intended for normal magnum rifle cartridges and using high pressure loads can cause serious or fatal injury to the shooter and bystanders.
.338-378 Weatherby Magnumcartridge introduced in 1998 and the American .338 Remington Ultra Magnum(.338 RUM) cartridge introduced in 2000 are probably the closest currently (2007) commercially available ballistic twins of the .338 Lapua Magnum. The .338-378 Weatherby Magnum is however a belted cartridge and the .338 Remington Ultra Magnum is a rebated rim cartridge.
Ballistic performance of the .338 Lapua Magnum
Performance with standard cartridges
For a typical .338 Lapua Magnum high end factory military sniper rifle like the Sako
TRG-42with a 690 mm (27.2 in) long 300 mm (1 in 12 inch) rifling twist rate barrel at sea level, 1500 m (1600 yd) is considered to be the maximum shooting distance for man sized targets when using standard Lapua military loads; it has a supersonic range of 1500 m (1600 yd) under warm summer conditions at a muzzle velocity of 915 m/s (3002 ft/s). However, to be able to maintain 80 to 90% hit probability on non-moving 45 x 90 cm (17. 7 x 35.4 in) reactive army targets, this maximum shooting distance has to be reduced to 1300 m (1400 yd) at freezing point conditions or 1100 m (1300 yd) in Arctic winter conditions, when the muzzle velocity may drop to 880 m/s (2887 ft/s) - only during optimal warm summer conditions that maximum shooting distance is realistically achievable.
Loaded with more aerodynamic bullets than the ones Lapua uses such as the Sierra HPBT Match King .338 19.44 gram (300 gr) bullet (G1 BC ≈ 540 kg/m² = 0.768 lb/in²) or the Lost River Ballistics J40 .338 17.5 gram (270 gr) CNC manufactured mono-metal bullet (G1 BC = 612 kg/m² = 0.871) the long-range performance and maximum range of .338 Lapua Magnum rifles can be extended. These longer
very-low-drag bullets require a 250 mm (1 in 10 inch) twist rate to stabilize them.The .338 17.5 gram Lost River Ballistic Technologies J40 match bullet is one of the most aerodynamic .338 calibre bullets available. It has a 1800 m (2000 yd) supersonic range under optimal warm summer conditions at a muzzle velocity of 869 m/s (2850 ft/s). This makes engaging static targets up to 1800 m (2000 yd) feasible.
Performance improvement experiments with non-standard cartridges
Improvement beyond this standard while still using standard .338 Lapua Magnum brass is possible, but the bullets have to be very long and the normal cartridge overall length of 93.5 mm has to be exceeded. The common 250 mm (1:10 inch) rifling twist rate also has to be tightened to stabilize very long projectiles. Such commercially non-existent cartridges are termed "wildcats". The use of a wildcat .338 Lapua Magnum based cartridge demands the use of a custom or customized rifle with an appropriately cut chamber and a fast-twist bore.
An example of such a special .338 calibre extreme range bullet is the German CNC manufactured mono-metal 18.92 gram (292 gr) LM-105 (G1 BC ≈ 650 kg/m² = 0.93 lb/in² – this Ballistic coefficient (BC) is calculated by its designer, Mr. Lutz Möller, and not proven by
Doppler radarmeasurements). If Mr. Möller's assumptions are right the LM-105 would have a supersonic range of ≈ 2000 m (2200 yd) at a muzzle velocity of 915 m/s (3002 ft/s) under International Standard Atmospheresea level conditions ( air densityρ = 1.225 kg/m³). The LM-105 bullet has an overall length of 54.79 mm (2.157 in) and derives its exceptional low drag from a radical LD Haack or Sears-Haack profile in the bullet's nose area. Rifles chambered for this wildcat cartridge, with a cartridge overall length of 105 mm (4.13 in), and equipped with custom made 180 mm (1:7 inch) progressive twist rate [ [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/Englisch/Rifle-barrels.htm Progressive twist rate barrels] ] 900 mm (35.43 in) long barrels finished first and second at several long range competitions. Its most recent win (2007) was in an international Special Forcesand policesniper competition in Switzerlandagainst rifles chambered for 7.62x51 mmup to .50 BMG at ranges from 100 m – 1500 m (109 yd – 1640 yd). The LM-105 bullet exhibited its very low wind drift susceptibility notably at ranges beyond 800 m (875 yd). [ [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/8,5-mm/LM-105.htm LM-105 "Dominator"] ]
The .343 Lapua Magnum LM-107 is a wildcat cartridge under development based on the standard .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge case [ [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/8,5-mm/LM-107.htm# LM-107 .343 Lapua Magnum] ] . The LM-107 is hoped to boost the ballistic performance of the LM-105 by achieving an increase in supersonic range. The 19.3 g (298 gr) LM-107 projectile is 59 mm long and has a Haack profiled nose and a Adams profiled tail. The
rifling twist ratefor the .343 Lapua Magnum LM-107 wildcat cartridge will be 180 mm (1 in 7 inch), Ø lands = 8.72 mm, Ø grooves = 8.45 mm and loaded with the LM-107 projectile will have a cartridge overall length of 107 mm. The length of the neck is increased from 8,31 to 8,50 mm to support the bigger LM-107 bullet. Several other dimensions of the .338 Lapua Magnum parental cartridge are also changed. The shoulder angle gets steepened from 40° to 60° and the body taper is set at 1°. The throat area is set at a 2° cone-angle. All this modifications make the .343 Lapua Magnum a fairly comprehensively revised wildcat cartridge. Out of a 900 mm (35.43 in) long progressive twist barrel Mr. Möller expects to achieve 909 m/s (2982 ft/s) muzzle velocity. If Mr. Möller's design assumptions are correct the LM-107 projectile with a calculated G1 BC of 720 kg/m² (1.02 lb/in²) will offer a supersonic range of ≈ 2170 m (2373 yd) at a muzzle velocity of 909 m/s (2982 ft/s) under International Standard Atmospheresea level conditions ( air densityρ = 1.225 kg/m³).
.338 Lapua Magnum as a parent case
The .300 Lapua Magnum
The commercially successful .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge has functioned as the parent case for the
.300 Lapua Magnum, which is essentially a necked-down version of the .338 Lapua Magnum. The .338 cartridge case was used for this since it has the capability to operate with high chamber pressures which, combined with smaller and hence lighter bullets result in very high muzzle velocities.
The Finnish ammunition manufacturer Lapua got the .300 Lapua Magnum C.I.P. certified, so it became an officially registered and sanctioned member of the Finnish "family" of super magnum rifle cartridges. The .300 Lapua Magnum is not commercially available and currently exists only as a C.I.P. datasheet. It is however still used by a few shooters who produce the cases from .338 Lapua Magnum brass by reshaping the shoulder and neck, and handloading it with .30 calibre bullets.
The .300 Lapua Magnum has a 7.33 ml (113 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity. The exterior shape of the Lapua Magnum case was designed to promote reliable feeding and extraction in bolt-action rifles and machine guns alike, under extreme conditions.
.300 Lapua Magnum maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).
Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 25 degrees. The common
rifling twist ratefor this cartridge is 240 mm (1 in 9.45 in), 4 grooves, Ø lands = 7.62 mm, Ø grooves = 7.82 mm, land width = 4.47 mm and the primer type is large rifle magnum.
According to the official C.I.P. guidelines the .300 Lapua Magnum case can handle up to 470 MPa (68,167 psi) piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.
This for rifles very high maximum allowed chamber pressure level indicates that the cases of the .300 and .338 Lapua Magnum are built extremely sturdy to cope with this for rifles very high operating pressure. The large boltface combined with the high 470 MPa (68,000 PSI) maximum pressure makes that the .300 Lapua Magnum should only be chambered in rifles that are capable of handling such large and fierce cartridges and thus high bolt thrust safely. Chambering such powerful super magnum cartridges in rifles intended for normal magnum rifle cartridges and using 470 MPa (68,000 PSI) loads can cause serious or fatal injury to the shooter and bystanders.
The 7.62 UKM
The.338 Lapua Magnum cartridge also functioned as the parent case for the German designed
7.62 UKM, which is essentially a necked-down shortened version of the .338 Lapua Magnum. [ [http://www.angelfire.com/ma/ZERMEL/762ukm.html The 7.62 UKM. A German 300 Magnum Wildcat Extraordinary.] ] The use of the .338 cartridge case with its capability to operate at high chamber pressures resulted in magnum case capable of producing high muzzle velocities.
The 7.62 UKM was developed by Michael Uekötter and got
C.I.P.certified in 2002, so it is an officially registered and sanctioned member of the Finnish "family" of super magnum rifle cartridges. The 7.62 UKM is not commercially available and currently exists only as a C.I.P. datasheet. It is however still used by a few shooters who produce the cases from .338 Lapua Magnum brass by reshaping the shoulder and neck, and handloading it with .30 calibre bullets.
The 7.62 UKM has a 5.84 ml (90 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity.
7.62 UKM maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).
Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 20 degrees. The common
rifling twist ratefor this cartridge is 254 mm (1 in 10 in), 6 grooves, Ø lands = 7.62 mm, Ø grooves = 7.82 mm, land width = 2.79 mm and the primer type is large rifle magnum.
According to the official C.I.P. guidelines the 7.62 UKM case can handle up to 470 MPa (68,000 psi) piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.
The .338 Lapua Magnum case is also used as the parent case for a host of modified variants that neither are officially registered with and sanctioned by C.I.P. nor its American equivalent,
SAAMI. Such cartridges which use commercial factory cases are generally known as wildcats. By blowing out standard factory cases the wildcatter generally hopes to gain extra muzzle velocity by increasing the case capacity of the factory parent cartridge case by a few percent. Practically there can be some muzzle velocity gained by this method, but the measured results between parent cartridges and their 'improved' wildcat offspring are often marginal. Besides changing the shape and internal volume of the parent cartridge case, wildcatters also can change the original calibre. A reason to change the original calibre can be to comply with a minimal permitted calibre or bullet weight for the legal hunting of certain species of game. Because the .338 Lapua offers a large and exceptionally sturdy, pressure resistant cartridge case that can be relatively easily reloaded and hence be reused several times it has become quite popular amongst wildcatters. With the .338 Lapua Magnum as the parent case wildcatters have created 7 mm (7 mm Katzmeier), .30 (.30-338 Lapua (Triebel), .30 Wolf), 8 mm (8 mm-338 Lapua (Triebel), LM-101), .338 (.338 Yogi, LM-105), .343 (.343 Lapua Magnum LM-107 [ [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/8,5-mm/LM-107.htm# LM-107 .343 Lapua Magnum] ] ), 9.3 mm (9,3-338 Lapua Magnum (Triebel)),.375 calibre and .50 calibre ( .510 Whisper) variants.
List of firearms
List of sniper rifles
List of rifle cartridges
8 mm caliber
.300 Lapua Magnum
* [http://www.lapua.com/index.php?id=889 From an American dream to a Finnish success story] by Janne Pohjoispää
* C.I.P. CD-ROM edition 2003
* C.I.P. decisions, texts and tables ( [http://www.cip-bp.org/index.php?id=tdcc-telechargement free current C.I.P. CD-ROM version download (ZIP and RAR format)] )
External links and sources
* [http://www.lapua.com Lapua official site]
* [http://www.lapua.com/fileadmin/user_upload/esitteet/Lapua.338LapuaMagnum.pdf Lapua product brochure .338 Lapua Magnum ammunition]
* [http://world.guns.ru/sniper/sn00-e.htm Modern Firearms List of Sniper Rifles]
* [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/Patronen/338_Lapua_Magnum.htm Lutz Möller's .338 Lapua Magnum Page]
* [http://www.coltcanada.com/timberwolf-page.htm PGWDTI Timberwolf Tactical rifle] (.338 Lapua Magnum and
.408 Chey Tacchamberings)
QuickLOADinternal ballistics predictor computer program for fire arms
* [http://www.cheyennetactical.com/Publications/338_Lapua.zip The .338 Lapua Magnum Cartridge: Part 1 - Origin, Development and Future]
* [http://www.cheyennetactical.com/Publications/338%20_Lapua%20II.zip The .338 Lapua Magnum Cartridge: Part 2 - The Men Behind the Cartridge]
* " [http://www.reloadersnest.com/frontpage.asp?CaliberID=140 .338 Lapua Magnum reloading data] " at Reloader's Nest
* [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/Englisch/LM-101.htm LM-101 Long Range Bullet for a 8 mm - .338 Lapua Magnum High Performance Wildcat Cartridge]
* [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/Englisch/LM-105-long-range-bullet.htm LM-105 Long Range Bullet for the .338 Lapua Magnum]
* [http://www.lima-wiederladetechnik.de/8,5-mm/LM-107.htm LM-107 Very high BC bullet for windy long ranges for a .343 Lapua Magnum high performance wildcat cartridge]
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338 (число) — 338 триста тридцать восемь 335 · 336 · 337 · 338 · 339 · 340 · 341 Факторизация: Римская запись: CCCXXXVIII Двоичное: 101010010 Восьмеричное: 522 … Википедия
.338-378 Weatherby Magnum — Infobox Firearm Cartridge name= .338 378 Weatherby Magnum caption= origin= USA type= Centerfire/Rifle service= used by= wars= designer=Elmer Keith and Bob Thompson design date= ca1963 manufacturer=Weatherby production date=1998 number= variants=… … Wikipedia
.338 Remington Ultra Magnum — Infobox Firearm Cartridge name= .338 Remington Ultra Magnum caption= origin= USA type= Rifle service= used by= wars= designer= Remington design date=2000 manufacturer= production date= number= variants= is SI specs= parent=.300 Remington Ultra… … Wikipedia
PGM 338 — Infobox Weapon name=PGM 338 caption=The PGM 338 origin=flag|France flag|Switzerland type=Sniper rifle is ranged=yes service= used by=See users and civil users wars= designer=Chris L. Movigliatti (A.M.S.D.) design date= manufacturer=PGM Précision… … Wikipedia