Pitheciidae


Pitheciidae

Taxobox
name = PitheciidaeMSW3 Groves|pages=141-148]



image_width = 200px
image_caption = White-faced Saki ("Pithecia pithecia")
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Primates
subordo = Haplorrhini
infraordo = Simiiformes
parvordo = Platyrrhini
familia = Pitheciidae
familia_authority = Mivart, 1865
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "Pithecia" "Chiropotes" "Cacajao" "Callicebus"

The Pitheciidae are one of the four families of New World monkeys now recognised. Formerly they were included in the family Atelidae. The family includes the titis, saki monkeys and uakaris. Most species are native to the Amazonia region of Brazil, with some being found from Colombia in the north to Bolivia in the south.

Characteristics

Pithecids are small to medium monkeys, ranging from 23 cm in head-body length, for the smaller titis, to 44-49 cm in the uakaris. They have medium to long fur, in a wide range of colors, often with contrasting patches, especially on the face.

They are diurnal and arboreal animals, found in tropical forests from low-lying swamp to mountain slopes. They are predominantly herbivorous, eating mostly fruit and seeds, although some species will also eat a small number of insects. Sakis and uakaris have a diastema between the canine and premolar teeth, but the titis, which have unusually small canines for New World monkeys, do not.cite book |editor=Macdonald, D.|year=1984 |title= The Encyclopedia of Mammals|publisher= Facts on File|location=New York|pages= 358-361|isbn= 0-87196-871-1] All species have the dental formula:dentition2|2.1.3.3|2.1.3.3

Females give birth to a single young after a gestation period of between four to six months, depending on species. The uakaris and bearded sakis are polygamous, living in groups of 8-30 individuals. Each group has multiple males, which establish a dominance hierarchy amongst themselves. The titis and "Pithecia" sakis, by contrast, are monogamous and live in much smaller family groups.

Classification

There are 42 currently recognized species of pithecid monkey, grouped into four genera and two subfamilies.

* Family Pitheciidae: titis, sakis and uakaris
** Subfamily Pitheciinae
*** Genus "Pithecia"
**** White-faced Saki, "Pithecia pithecia"
**** Monk Saki, "Pithecia monachus"
**** Rio Tapajós Saki, "Pithecia irrorata"
**** Equatorial Saki, "Pithecia aequatorialis"
**** White-footed Saki, "Pithecia albicans"
*** Genus "Chiropotes"
**** Black Bearded Saki, "Chiropotes satanas"
**** Red-backed Bearded Saki, "Chiropotes chiropotes"
**** Brown-backed Bearded Saki, "Chiropotes israelita"
**** Uta Hick's Bearded Saki, "Chiropotes utahickae"
**** White-nosed Saki, "Chiropotes albinasus"
*** Genus "Cacajao"
**** Black-headed Uakari, "Cacajao melanocephalus"
**** Bald Uakari, "Cacajao calvus"
**** Ayres Uakari, "Cacajao ayresii"*
** Subfamily Callicebinae
*** Genus "Callicebus"
**** White-eared Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) donacophilus"
**** Rio Beni Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) modestus"
**** Rio Mayo Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) oenanthe"
**** Ollala Brothers' Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) olallae"
**** White-coated Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) pallescens"
**** Baptista Lake Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) baptista"
**** Prince Bernhard's Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) bernhardi"
**** Brown Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) brunneus"
**** Ashy Black Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) cinerascens"
**** Hoffmanns's Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) hoffmannsi"
**** Red-bellied Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) moloch"
**** Barbara Brown's Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) barbarabrownae"
**** Coimbra Filho's Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) coimbrai"
**** Coastal Black-handed Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) melanochir"
**** Black-fronted Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) nigrifrons"
**** Atlantic Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) personatus"
**** Chestnut-bellied Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) caligatus"
**** Coppery Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) cupreus"
**** GoldenPalace.com Monkey, "Callicebus (Callicebus) aureipalatii"
**** White-tailed Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) discolor"
**** Hershkovitz's Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) dubius"
**** Ornate Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) ornatus"
**** Stephen Nash's Titi, "Callicebus (Callicebus) stephennashi"
**** Lucifer Titi, "Callicebus (Torquatus) lucifer"
**** Black Titi, "Callicebus (Torquatus) lugens"
**** Colombian Black-handed Titi, "Callicebus (Torquatus) medemi"
**** Rio Purus Titi, "Callicebus (Torquatus) purinus"
**** Red-headed Titi, "Callicebus (Torquatus) regulus"
**** Collared Titi, "Callicebus (Torquatus) torquatus"

*Newly identified speciescite web | title = New monkey species is already endangered | date = 2008-01-19 | accessdate = 2008-01-19 | url = http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/life/endangered-species/mg19726393.400-new-monkey-species-is-already-endangered.html | work = New Scientist]

Fossil taxa

*Subfamily Pitheciinae
**Genus "Soriacebus"
***"Soriacebus ameghinorum"
***"Soriacebus adrianae"
**Genus "Carlocebus"
***"Carlocebus carmenensis"
***"Carlocebus intermedius"
**Genus "Homunculus"
***"Homunculus patagonicus"
**Genus "Cebupithecia"
***"Cebupithecia sarmientoi"
**Genus "Nuciruptor"
***"Nuciruptor rubricae"
**Genus "Propithecia"
***"Propithecia neuquenensis"

References

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2064216.stm New monkeys in Brazil]


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