Molybdenum(II) chloride


Molybdenum(II) chloride

Molybdenum dichloride describes chemical compounds with the empirical formula MoCl2. At least two forms are known, and both have attracted much attention from academic researchers because of the unexpected structures seen for these compounds and the fact that they give rise to hundreds of derivatives.

Contents

Structure

At first glance, a species with the formula MoCl2 might be expected to adopt a close-packed structure, e.g. the cadmium chloride, rutile, and cadmium iodide motifs. Molybdenum(II), which is a rather large ion, prefers to form compounds with metal-metal bonds, i.e. metal clusters. In fact all "lower halides" (i.e. where halide/M ratio is <4) in the "early transition metal series (Ti, V, Cr, Mn triads) do.

One form of MoCl2 has the formula Mo6Cl12. This species is polymeric consisting of cubic Mo6Cl84+ clusters interconnected by chloride ligands that bridge from one cluster to cluster. This material converts readily to salts of the dianion [Mo6Cl14]2-. In this anion, each Mo bears one terminal chloride but is otherwise part of an Mo6 octahedron embedded inside a cube defined by eight chloride centers. Thus, the coordination environment of each Mo is four triply bridging chloride ligands, four Mo neighbors, and one terminal Cl. The cluster has a "magic" electron count of 24e, four being provided by each Mo2+.

Mo6Cl12-xtal-1993-CM-3D-balls.png
Mo6Cl8-cluster-from-Mo6Cl12-xtal-1993-CM-3D-ellipsoids.png
Mo6Cl14-anion-from-xtal-2008-CM-3D-ellipsoids.png
ball-and-stick model of part of a layer in the crystal structure of Mo6Cl12[1]
thermal ellipsoid model of the [Mo6Cl8]4+ cluster
thermal ellipsoid model of the [Mo6Cl14]2− cluster

Synthesis and reactions

Mo6Cl12 is prepared by the reaction of molybdenum(V) chloride with molybdenum metal:

12 MoCl5 + 18 Mo → 5 Mo6Cl12

This reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of HI → (H3O)2[Mo6Cl8I6] + 6 HCl

Under more forceful conditions, all 14 ligands can be exchanged, to giving salts of [Mo6Br14]2- and [Mo6I14]2-.

Related clusters

A variety of clusters are structurally related to [Mo6Cl12]2-. The tungsten analogue is known. Ta and Nb form related clusters where halides are bridge edges of the Ta6 octahedron vs faces. The resulting formula is [Ta6Cl18]4-.

Sulfido and selenido derivatives are also well studied. [Re6Se8Cl6]4- has the same number of valence electrons as does [Mo6Cl12]2-.[3]

The Mo-S clusters Mo6S8L6, analogues of the "Chevrel phases", have been prepared by the reaction of sulfide sources with Mo6Cl12 in the presence of donor ligands L.[4]

References

  1. ^ von Schnering, H. G.; May, W.; Peters, K.. "Crystal structure of dodecachlorooctahedrohexamolybdenum, Mo6Cl12". Z. Krist. 208 (2): 368–369. doi:10.1524/zkri.1993.208.Part-2.368. 
  2. ^ Nannelli, P.; Block, B. P. Inorganic Syntheses 1970, XII, page170-178. ISBN 0-07-048517-8.
  3. ^ Lee, S. C. and Holm, R. H., "Nonmolecular Metal Chalcogenide/Halide Solids and Their Molecular Cluster Analogues", Angewandte Chemie, International Edition in English, 1990, volume 29, pages 840-856.
  4. ^ Saito, T., "Group 6 Metal Chalcogenide Cluster Complexes and Their Relationships to Solid State Cluster Compounds", Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, 1997, volume 44, 45-91



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  • Molybdenum(V) chloride — IUPAC name Molybdenum(V) chloride Molybdenum pentachloride Identifiers CAS number …   Wikipedia

  • molybdenum(II) chloride — molibdeno(II) chloridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė MoCl₂ atitikmenys: angl. molybdenum dichloride; molybdenum(II) chloride rus. молибден двухлористый; молибдена(II) хлорид ryšiai: sinonimas – molibdeno dichloridas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • molybdenum(III) chloride — molibdeno(III) chloridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė MoCl₃ atitikmenys: angl. molybdenum trichloride; molybdenum(III) chloride rus. молибден треххлористый; молибдена(III) хлорид ryšiai: sinonimas – molibdeno trichloridas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • molybdenum(IV) chloride — molibdeno(IV) chloridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė MoCl₄ atitikmenys: angl. molybdenum tetrachloride; molybdenum(IV) chloride rus. молибден четыреххлористый; молибдена(IV) хлорид ryšiai: sinonimas – molibdeno tetrachloridas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • molybdenum(V) chloride — molibdeno(V) chloridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė MoCl₅ atitikmenys: angl. molybdenum pentachloride; molybdenum(V) chloride rus. молибден пентахлорид; молибдена(V) хлорид ryšiai: sinonimas – molibdeno pentachloridas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • Molybdenum chloride — can refer to: Molybdenum(II) chloride (molybdenum dichloride), MoCl2 Molybdenum(III) chloride (molybdenum trichloride), MoCl3 Molybdenum(IV) chloride (molybdenum tetrachloride), MoCl4 Molybdenum(V) chloride (molybdenum pentachloride), MoCl5 This… …   Wikipedia

  • Molybdenum tetrachloride — IUPAC name Molybdenum tetrachloride Other names Mo …   Wikipedia

  • Molybdenum — niobium ← molybdenum → technetium Cr ↑ Mo ↓ W …   Wikipedia

  • molybdenum dichloride — molibdeno(II) chloridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė MoCl₂ atitikmenys: angl. molybdenum dichloride; molybdenum(II) chloride rus. молибден двухлористый; молибдена(II) хлорид ryšiai: sinonimas – molibdeno dichloridas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • molybdenum trichloride — molibdeno(III) chloridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė MoCl₃ atitikmenys: angl. molybdenum trichloride; molybdenum(III) chloride rus. молибден треххлористый; молибдена(III) хлорид ryšiai: sinonimas – molibdeno trichloridas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas


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