Fußball-Bundesliga


Fußball-Bundesliga
Fußball-Bundesliga
Countries  Germany
Confederation UEFA
Founded 1963
Number of teams 18
Levels on pyramid 1
Relegation to 2. Bundesliga
Domestic cup(s) DFB-Pokal
International cup(s) Champions League
Europa League
Current champions Borussia Dortmund (4th BL title)
(2010–11)
Most championships Bayern Munich (21 BL titles)
TV partners Sky Deutschland
ARD
ZDF
SPORT1
Liga total!
Website Bundesliga.de
2011–12 Fußball-Bundesliga

The Fußball-Bundesliga (short: Bundesliga, German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəsˌliːɡa], Federal League) is a professional association football league in Germany. At the top of Germany's football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. A total of 50 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Since the 1970s, FC Bayern Munich has dominated the championship, winning the title 21 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Hamburger SV, Borussia Dortmund, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them. The Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, currently ranked 3rd in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking, based on recent European performances.[1] It is the number one football league in terms of average attendance and its average of 42,673 fans per game during the 2010–11 season was in fact only beaten by the NFL.[2]

Unlike other countries, in Germany a unified national football league structure was quite late in developing. The Bundesliga was not formed until 1963 and the structure and organisation of the nation's football leagues have undergone frequent changes right up to the present day. The league was originally founded by the German Football Association, but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga.

Contents

Overview

Borussia Dortmund against rivals Schalke, known as the Revierderby, in 2009

The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga (although it is rarely referred to with the First prefix), and, below that, the 2. Bundesliga (Second Bundesliga), which has been the second tier of German football since 1974. The Bundesligen (plural) are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga (3rd League) in Germany is also a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association (DFB) and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League (Deutsche Fußball-Liga or DFL).

Below the level of the 3rd league, leagues are generally often subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are currently made up of Nord (North), Süd (South) and West divisions, and the Oberligen (upper leagues) are composed of nine divisions representing federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national leagues of East and West Germany.

Every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations.

As in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division:

  • A greater share of television broadcast licence revenues goes to 1. Bundesliga sides.
  • 1. Bundesliga teams draw significantly greater levels of fan support. Average attendance in the first league is 42,673 per game — more than twice the average of the 2. Bundesliga.
  • Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1. Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships.
  • 1. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues, sponsorships and marketing of their team brands. This allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities.

The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, and the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organisationally and financially, and reflecting an increasingly higher standard of professional play.

Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Schalke 04, Bayer Leverkusen and VfB Stuttgart. Hamburger SV is the only team to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation.

In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation:

  • The bottom two finishers in the Bundesliga are automatically relegated to the 2. Bundesliga, with the top two finishers in the 2. Bundesliga taking their place.
  • The third-from-bottom club in the Bundesliga will play a two-legged match with the third-place team from the 2. Bundesliga, with the winner taking up the final place in the following season's Bundesliga.

For several years,[clarification needed] a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. (Before 1974–75 it was only four clubs that changed places instead of six).

The season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks (mid-December through to the end of January). In recent years, games have been played on Saturdays (seven games beginning at 3:30 pm) and Sundays (two games beginning at 5:00 pm). A new television deal in 2006 reintroduced a Friday game (beginning at 8:30 pm) in place of one of the Saturday matches.

History

Origins

For more details on this topic, see History of German football

Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in 1949, part time (semi-) professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen (Premier Leagues) remained. Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship. On 28 January 1900, a national association, the Deutscher Fußball Bund (DFB) had been founded in Leipzig with 86 member clubs. The first recognised national championship team was VfB Leipzig, who beat DFC Prague 7–2 in a game played at Altona on 31 May 1903.

Through the 1950s, there were continued calls for the formation of a central professional league, especially as professional leagues in other countries began to draw Germany's best players away from the semi-professional domestic leagues. At the international level the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries. A key supporter of the central league concept was national team head coach Sepp Herberger who said, “If we want to remain competitive internationally, we have to raise our expectations at the national level.”

Meanwhile, in East Germany, a separate league was established with the formation of the DS-Oberliga (Deutscher Sportausschuss Oberliga) in 1950. The league was re-named the Football Oberliga DFV in 1958 and was generally referred to simply as the DDR-Liga or DDR-Oberliga. The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots.

Establishment

The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia (0–1) in a 1962 World Cup quarter final game in Chile was one impetus (of many) to the formation of a national league. Under new DFB president Hermann Gösmann (elected that very day) the Bundesliga was created in Dortmund on 28 July 1962 to begin play starting with the 1963–64 season.[3]

At the time, there were five Oberligen (Premier Leagues) in place representing West Germany's North, South, West, Southwest, and Berlin. East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. Forty-six clubs applied for admission to the new league. Sixteen teams were selected based on their success on the field, economic criteria and representation of the various Oberligen.

The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August 1963. Early favorite 1. FC Köln was the first Bundesliga champion (with 45:19 points) over second place clubs Meidericher SV and Eintracht Frankfurt (both 39:25).

Structure and competition

The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga. Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth two points, with a draw worth one point and a loss no points. Since the 1995–96 season, a victory has been worth three points, with no change in the value of a draw or loss. The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champions. Currently, the top three clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League, while the fourth-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round (see overview). The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2nd Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2nd Bundesliga are promoted. The sixteenth place team (third last), and the third place team in the 2nd Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match. The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2nd Bundesliga.

If teams are level on points, tiebreakers are applied in the following order:

  1. Goal difference for the entire season.
  2. Total goals scored for the entire season.
  3. Head-to-head results (total points).
  4. Head-to-head goals scored.
  5. Head-to-head away goals scored.
  6. Total away goals scored for the entire season.

If two clubs are still tied after all of these tiebreakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement. However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga.

In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives. Seven substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game.

Changes in league structure

  • Number of teams:
  • Number of teams relegated (automatic relegation except as noted):
    • 1963/64–1973/74: 2
    • 1974/75–1980/81: 3
    • 1981/82–1990/91: 2 automatic plus the 16th-place team in the First Bundesliga played a two-leg test match against the third-place team of the Second Bundesliga for the final spot in the First Bundesliga
    • 1991/92: 4
    • 1992/93-2007/08: 3
    • From 2008/09 on: 2 automatic plus the 16th-place team in the First Bundesliga playing a two-leg test match against the third-place team of the Second Bundesliga for the final spot in the First Bundesliga

European qualification (as of 2011–12)

  • 1st, 2nd place and 3rd place: Group phase of UEFA Champions League
  • 4th place: 4th qualifying round of Champions League for Non-Champions. Winners at this stage enter the group phase; losers enter the group phase of UEFA Europa League.
  • DFB-Pokal (German Cup) winner: Qualifies for 4th qualifying round of UEFA Europa League, regardless of league position.
    • If the Cup winner qualifies for the Champions League, the Cup winner's place in the Europa League goes to the defeated Cup finalist if it is not already qualified for European competition—although the defeated Cup finalist will enter the competition a stage earlier than if it had won the Cup. This rule was retained from the Europa League's predecessor, the UEFA Cup.
      • The team that benefits from this rule does not necessarily have to be a member of the First Bundesliga. For example, although the Second Bundesliga side Alemannia Aachen lost to Werder Bremen in the 2004 DFB-Pokal final, Alemannia secured an entry in the 2004–05 UEFA Cup, because Werder qualified for the Champions League as First Bundesliga champions.
      • Also, if both Cup finalists qualify for the Champions League, an extra Europa League berth is granted to the highest finisher in the First Bundesliga not already qualified for Europe. This most recently happened in 2010, when the 2010 DFB-Pokal final pitted champions Bayern Munich against third placed Werder Bremen, with Bayern winning. As a result, sixth-place VfB Stuttgart received a berth in the 2010-11 UEFA Europa League.
  • 5th place: Qualifies for 4th qualifying round of Europa League.
  • 6th place: Qualifies for 3rd qualifying round of Europa League.
  • An additional place in the Europa League may also be granted via the UEFA Fair Play mechanism. This rule was maintained from the UEFA Cup. The last Bundesliga team to gain entry to the UEFA Cup via the fair play rule was Mainz 05 in 2005–06.
  • 16th place: Plays a two-leg relegation match (home and away) against the 3rd placed team of the 2nd Bundesliga.
  • 17th and 18th place: Directly relegated to 2nd Bundesliga.

The number of German clubs which may participate in UEFA competitions is determined by UEFA coefficients, which take into account the results of a particular nation's clubs in UEFA competitions over the preceding five years.

History of European qualification

  • European Cup/Champions League:
    • Up to and including 1996/97: German champion only.
    • 1997–99: Top two teams; champion automatically into group phase, vice-champion entered the qualifying round.
    • 1999–2008: Top two teams automatically into first group phase (only one group phase starting in 2003/04). Depending on the DFB's UEFA coefficients standing, either one or two other clubs (most recently one) entered at the third qualifying round; winners at this level entered the group phase.
    • 2008-2011: Top two teams automatically into group phase. Third placed team had to play in the play-off round for the right to play in the group stage.
  • UEFA Cup/Europa League:
    • From 1971/72 to 1998/99, UEFA member nations could send between one and four teams to the UEFA Cup. Germany was always entitled to send at least three teams to the competition and often as many as four. From 1978/79, the number of participants was determined by the DFB's UEFA coefficent standing, prior to this the method for deciding the number of participants is unknown. The best performing teams in the league other than the champion would qualify, although if one of these teams was also winner of the DFB-Pokal (German Cup) then they would enter the Cup Winners' Cup instead and their UEFA Cup place would be taken by the next highest placed team in the league (5th or 6th place). Briefly in the mid-1970s the DFB decided to allocate the last UEFA Cup place to the DFB-Pokal runner-up instead of a third or fourth team qualified by performance in the league, meaning that at this point the DFB-Pokal qualified two teams for European competition (winners for the Cup Winners' Cup, runners-up for the UEFA Cup). This policy was unique amongst UEFA member associations and was dropped after only a few seasons. Starting with the 1999/2000 season and the abolition of the Cup Winners' Cup (which was then folded into the UEFA Cup), the DFB-Pokal winner now automatically qualified for the UEFA Cup alongside, depending on the DFB's UEFA coefficients standing, between one and three extra participants (if the DFB-Pokal winner also qualified for the Champions' League, they were replaced by the DFB-Pokal runner-up; if they were also qualified for the Champions' League, the UEFA Cup place went to the next best placed team in the league not otherwise qualified for European competition). Since 1999, the DFB has always been entitled to enter a minimum of three clubs in the UEFA Cup/Europa League, and at times as many as four (the maximum for any European federation). Teams that entered via UEFA's Fair Play mechanism, or those that entered through the now-defunct Intertoto Cup, did not count against the national quota. From 2006 through the final Intertoto Cup in 2008, only one First Bundesliga side was eligible to enter the Intertoto Cup and possibly earn a UEFA Cup berth. For the 2005/06 season, the DFB earned an extra UEFA Cup place via the Fair Play draw; this place went to Mainz 05 as the highest-ranked club in the Fair Play table of the First Bundesliga not already qualified for Europe.
  • Cup Winners' Cup (abolished after 1999):
    • The winner of the DFB-Pokal entered the Cup Winners' Cup, unless that team was also league champion and therefore competing in the European Cup/Champions' League, in which case their place in the Cup Winners' Cup was taken by the DFB-Pokal runner-up. Today, the DFB-Pokal winner (if not otherwise qualified for the Champions' League) enters the UEFA Europa League.

Current members of the Bundesliga (2011–12 season)

Hertha BSC and FC Augsburg have just achieved promotion into the Bundesliga, replacing FC St. Pauli and Eintracht Frankfurt, who finished at the bottom two spots of the table at the end of the 2010–11 season and thus were relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga. Borussia Mönchengladbach earned the right to stay in the Bundesliga despite their 16th place finish by beating VfL Bochum in the 2011 relegation playoffs

Team Location Stadium Capacity
FC Augsburg Augsburg SGL Arena 30,660
Bayer Leverkusen Leverkusen BayArena 30,210
Bayern Munich Munich Allianz Arena 69,000
Borussia Dortmund Dortmund Signal Iduna Park 80,720
Borussia Mönchengladbach Mönchengladbach Borussia-Park 54,057
SC Freiburg Freiburg Badenova-Stadion 25,000
Hamburger SV Hamburg Imtech Arena 57,000
Hannover 96 Hanover AWD-Arena 49,000
Hertha BSC Berlin Olympiastadion 74,244
1899 Hoffenheim Sinsheim Rhein-Neckar-Arena 30,150
1. FC Kaiserslautern Kaiserslautern Fritz Walter Stadion 49,780
1. FC Köln Cologne RheinEnergieStadion 50,000
1. FSV Mainz 05 Mainz Coface Arena 33,500
1. FC Nuremberg Nuremberg EasyCredit-Stadion 48,548
Schalke 04 Gelsenkirchen Veltins-Arena 61,673
VfB Stuttgart Stuttgart Mercedes-Benz Arena 60,300
Werder Bremen Bremen Weserstadion 42,000
VfL Wolfsburg Wolfsburg Volkswagen Arena 30,000


Verdiente Meistervereine

In 2004, the honor of “Verdiente Meistervereine” (roughly “distinguished champion clubs”) was introduced, following a custom first practised by the Italian Football Federation,[4] to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team crests and jerseys. Each country's usage is unique and in Germany the practice is to award one star for three titles, two stars for five titles, three stars for ten titles, and four stars for twenty titles.

The former East German side Berliner FC Dynamo laid claim to the three stars of a ten-time champion. They petitioned the league to have their DDR-Oberliga titles recognized, but received no reply. Dynamo eventually took matters into their own hands and emblazoned their jerseys with three stars. This caused some debate given what may be the tainted nature of their championships under the patronage of East Germany's secret police, the Stasi. The issue also affects other former East German and pre-Bundesliga champions. In November 2005, the DFB allowed all former champions to display a single star inscribed with the number of titles, including all German men's titles since 1903, women's titles since 1974 and East German titles.[5]

The DFB format only applies to teams playing below the Bundesliga (the top two divisions), since there the DFL conventions remain in force. BFC Dynamo Berlin have not followed this guideline and continue to wear three stars, rather than a single star inscribed with the number 10. Greuther Fürth unofficially display three (silver) stars for pre-war titles in spite of being in the Bundesliga second division.

As of June 2010 the following clubs are allowed to wear stars while playing in the Bundesliga. The number in parentheses is for Bundesliga titles won.

As of June 2010 the following clubs are allowed to wear one star while playing outside the Bundesliga. The number in parentheses is for total league championships won over the course of German football history, and would be included within the star.

Media coverage

Domestically, Sky holds the rights to broadcast both all first and second division matches on a pay television basis. Deutsche Telekom holds the IPTV rights. Only four matches – the season opener, the first match after the winter break, and both legs of the relegation playoff – are broadcast on free television, on ARD.

GOL TV has exclusive U.S. and Canadian rights to broadcast the Bundesliga, however ESPN3 also broadcasts certain games that GOL TV does not pick up. In Australia the Bundesliga is broadcast by Setanta Sports and digital channel One HD. Sport Klub has the rights to broadcast in Serbia. In Greece, most Bundesliga matches are broadcast on OTE's cable TV platform, Conn-x TV Sports. SportTV broadcast one live game per week for Portugal. In Spain the Bundesliga is broadcast by Digital+, In Italy the Bundesliga is broadcast by Sky Sport.

In the United Kingdom the Bundesliga was formerly available to Setanta Sports subscribers with two games shown per week on average. However after Setanta's UK division went out of business due to financial problems, Eurosport secured the rights to broadcast the Bundesliga in several European countries, on their secondary channel, Eurosport 2. From the start of the 2009–10 season, ESPN's UK channel broadcasts live Bundesliga matches in the UK.

In Australia four exclusive games per week from the Bundesliga are broadcast on Setanta Sports & Match of the Week Live or Delay on ONE HD.

In India, up to three matches a week are shown on Neo Sports, generally two live and one delayed.

The rights to broadcast the Bundesliga are generally marketed by the DFL.

In Mexico, TVC Deportes have 5 exclusive games per week.

In China, CCTV5 have exclusive matches every week.

In Philippines, AKTV on IBC have exclusive games every week.

Champions

In total, 43 clubs have won the German championship. FC Bayern Munich have 22 titles, more than any other club. The clubs with the next most titles are BFC Dynamo Berlin (10; all accomplished in the GDR Oberliga) and 1. FC Nuremberg (9).

The clubs with the most Bundesliga titles besides FC Bayern Munich (21 titles) are Borussia Mönchengladbach (5), Werder Bremen and Borussia Dortmund (4). Hamburger SV and VfB Stuttgart are tied with (3) in addition to 1. FC Köln and FC Kaiserslautern who have (2) while TSV 1860 Munich, Eintracht Braunschweig, 1. FC Nuremberg and VfL Wolfsburg have (1).

Season Bundesliga-Champion[6] Season Bundesliga-Champion Season Bundesliga-Champion Season Bundesliga-Champion
63–64 1. FC Köln 75–76 Borussia Mönchengladbach 87–88 SV Werder Bremen 99–00 FC Bayern Munich
64–65 SV Werder Bremen 76–77 Borussia Mönchengladbach 88–89 FC Bayern Munich 00–01 FC Bayern Munich
65–66 TSV 1860 München 77–78 1. FC Köln 89–90 FC Bayern Munich 01–02 Borussia Dortmund
66–67 Eintracht Braunschweig 78–79 Hamburger SV 90–91 1. FC Kaiserslautern 02–03 FC Bayern Munich
67–68 1. FC Nuremberg 79–80 FC Bayern Munich 91–92 VfB Stuttgart 03–04 SV Werder Bremen
68–69 FC Bayern Munich 80–81 FC Bayern Munich 92–93 SV Werder Bremen 04–05 FC Bayern Munich
69–70 Borussia Mönchengladbach 81–82 Hamburger SV 93–94 FC Bayern Munich 05–06 FC Bayern Munich
70–71 Borussia Mönchengladbach 82–83 Hamburger SV 94–95 Borussia Dortmund 06–07 VfB Stuttgart
71–72 FC Bayern Munich 83–84 VfB Stuttgart 95–96 Borussia Dortmund 07–08 FC Bayern Munich
72–73 FC Bayern Munich 84–85 FC Bayern Munich 96–97 FC Bayern Munich 08–09 VfL Wolfsburg
73–74 FC Bayern Munich 85–86 FC Bayern Munich 97–98 1. FC Kaiserslautern 09–10 FC Bayern Munich
74–75 Borussia Mönchengladbach 86–87 FC Bayern Munich 98–99 FC Bayern Munich 10–11 Borussia Dortmund

Borussia Dortmund are the current title-holders.

Records

Top Ten Players With Most Appearances[7]
Player Period Club[8] Games
1 Germany Karl-Heinz Körbel 1972–1991 Eintracht Frankfurt 602
2 Germany Manfred Kaltz 1971–1991 Hamburger SV 581
3 Germany Oliver Kahn 1987–2008 FC Bayern Munich 557
4 Germany Klaus Fichtel 1965–1988 FC Schalke 04 552
5 Germany Miroslav Votava 1976–1996 SV Werder Bremen 546
6 Germany Klaus Fischer 1968–1988 FC Schalke 04 535
7 Germany Eike Immel 1978–1995 VfB Stuttgart 534
8 Germany Willi Neuberger 1966–1983 Eintracht Frankfurt 520
9 Germany Michael Lameck 1972–1988 VfL Bochum 518
10 Germany Uli Stein 1978–1997 Hamburger SV 512
Top Ten Highest Goalscorers[9]
Player Period Club[10] Goals
1 Germany Gerd Müller 1965–1979 FC Bayern Munich 365 (Ø 0,85)
2 Germany Klaus Fischer 1968–1988 FC Schalke 04 268 (Ø 0,50)
3 Germany Jupp Heynckes 1965–1978 Borussia Mönchengladbach 220 (Ø 0,60)
4 Germany Manfred Burgsmüller 1969–1990 Borussia Dortmund 213 (Ø 0,48)
5 Germany Ulf Kirsten 1990–2003 Bayer 04 Leverkusen 181 (Ø 0,52)
6 Germany Stefan Kuntz 1983–1999 1. FC Kaiserslautern 179 (Ø 0,40)
7 Germany Dieter Müller 1973–1986 1. FC Köln 177 (Ø 0,58)
8 Germany Klaus Allofs 1975–1993 1. FC Köln 177 (Ø 0,42)
9 Germany Hannes Löhr 1964–1977 1. FC Köln 166 (Ø 0,44)
10 Germany Karl-Heinz Rummenigge 1974–1984 FC Bayern Munich 162 (Ø 0,52)

Player records

Club records

Most positive club records are held by Bayern Munich. The major ones are:

  • Most titles won: 21
  • Most games won in a season: 25
  • Fewest games lost in a season: 1
  • Most goals scored in a season: 101
  • Fewest goals conceded in a season: 21
  • Most consecutive victories: 15 (19 March–20 September 2005)

Bayern is not the club with the most seasons in the Bundesliga, though. Hamburg is the only club that has participated in each of the 46 seasons. At the far end Tasmania 1900 Berlin holds an extraordinary list of worst-of records, all achieved in their 1965–66 one-season Bundesliga spell. These records include:

  • Most losses in a season: 28
  • Fewest games won in a season: 2
  • Most goals conceded in a season: 108
  • Fewest goals scored in a season: 15

See also

References

External links

History
  • Bundesliga — All results since 1963, statistics, compare teams.
  • Bundesliga : presentation — All time table and all results since 1963 with links to entire results and winners, second and third.


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