- Norman Malcolm
Norman Malcolm Full name Norman Malcolm Born 11 June 1911
Selden, Kansas, USA
Died 4 August 1990(aged 79) Era 20th Century Region Western philosophy School Analytic Philosophy Main interests Philosophy of mind Notable ideas The memoir and legacy of Wittgenstein, criticism of common sense beliefs Part of a series on Ludwig Wittgenstein Early Philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein Picture theory of language
Truth tables · Truth conditions
Truth functions · States of affairs
Later Philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein Meaning is use · Language-games
Private language argument
Family resemblance · Rule following
Forms of life · Grammar
Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics
Movements Analytic philosophy · Linguistic turn
Ideal language philosophy
Logical atomism · Logical positivism
Ordinary language philosophy
Wittgensteinian fideism · Quietism
Works Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Some Remarks on Logical Form
Blue and Brown Books · Philosophical Remarks
On Certainty · Culture and Value
Remarks on Frazer's Golden Bough
Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics
Zettel · Remarks on Colour
People Bertrand Russell · G.E. Moore
John Maynard Keynes · Paul Engelmann
Friedrich Waismann · Moritz Schlick
Rudolf Carnap · Francis Skinner
Frank Ramsey · Vienna Circle
G.E.M. Anscombe · Norman Malcolm
Rush Rhees · Peter Winch
Peter Geach · G.H. von Wright
Interpreters Barry Stroud · Cora Diamond
Peter Hacker · Terry Eagleton
Stephen Toulmin · Saul Kripke
Anthony Kenny · Crispin Wright
Warren Goldfarb · James F. Conant
Gordon Baker · Stanley Cavell
D.Z. Phillips · Colin McGinn
Jaakko Hintikka · Oswald Hanfling
A.C. Grayling · Rupert Read
Other Apostles · Moral Sciences Club
Norman Malcolm (11 June 1911 – 4 August 1990) was an American philosopher, born in Selden, Kansas. He studied philosophy with O.K. Bouwsma at the University of Nebraska, then enrolled as a graduate student at Harvard University in 1933.
At Cambridge University in 1938/1939, he met G. E. Moore and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Malcolm attended Wittgenstein's lectures on the philosophical foundations of mathematics throughout 1939 and remained one of Wittgenstein's closest friends. Malcolm's memoir of his time with Wittgenstein, published in 1958, is widely acclaimed as one of the most captivating and most accurate portraits of Wittgenstein's remarkable personality.
After serving in the United States Navy from 1942 to 1945, Malcolm, with his wife, Leonida, and their son, Raymond Charles Malcolm, resided in Cambridge again in 1946-47. He saw a good deal of Wittgenstein during that time, and they continued to correspond frequently thereafter. In 1947, Malcolm joined the faculty at Cornell University, where he taught until his retirement. In 1949, Wittgenstein was a guest of the Malcolms in Ithaca, New York. In that year Malcolm introduced O.K. Bouwsma to Wittgenstein. Bouwsma remained close to Wittgenstein until Wittgenstein's death in 1951.
In 1959, his book Dreaming was published, in which he elaborated on Wittgenstein's question as to whether it really mattered if people who tell dreams "really had these images while they slept, or whether it merely seems so to them on waking". This work was also a response to Descartes' Meditations.
Other than that he is known for propagating the view that common sense philosophy and ordinary language philosophy are the same. He was generally supportive of Moore's theory of knowledge and certitude, though he found Moore's style and method of arguing to be ineffective. His critique of Moore's articles on skepticism (and also on Moore's 'Here is a hand' argument) lay the foundation for the renewed interest in common sense philosophy and ordinary language philosophy.
Malcolm was also a defender of a modal version of the ontological argument. In 1960 he argued that the argument originally presented by Anselm of Canterbury in the second chapter of his Proslogion was just an inferior version of the argument propounded in chapter three. His argument is similar to those produced by Charles Hartshorne and Alvin Plantinga.
His works include:
- Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir
- Moore and Ordinary Language
- Wittgenstein: A Religious Point Of View?
- Nothing Is Hidden: Wittgenstein's criticism of his early thought
- Problems of Mind: Descartes to Wittgenstein
- Knowledge and Certainty
- Consciousness and Causality (with D. M. Armstrong)
- Memory and Mind
- Dreaming and Skepticism
- Wittgenstein: The Relation of Language to Instinctive Behaviour (J.R.Jones Memorial Lecture) Publisher: University of Wales, Swansea (Dec 1981) ISBN 0860760243
- Thought and knowledge
- Wittgensteinian themes (edited by Georg Henrik von Wright) and Dreaming.
"Norman Malcolm: A Memoir," Anthony Serafini, in the journal PHILOSOPHY, published by the Royal Institute of Philosophy, 68:265265, 309-324, Cambridge University Press, 1993.
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