- Baram River
The Baram river is a river in
Sarawak, East Malaysiaon the island of Borneo. The river originates in the central Iran Mountainsand flows westwards through tropical rainforest to the South China Sea. [citebook|title=Histories of the Borneo Environment|author= Reed L. Wadley|year=2005|publisher=KITLV Press|id=ISBN 9067182540] [ [http://www.geol.lsu.edu/WDD/ASIAN/Baram/baram.htm Louisiana State University] ]
The Baram river basin has been part of Sarawak since it was ceded to the
White Rajahof Sarawakby the then sultan of Brunei in 1882, an area of some convert|10000|sqmi|km2|-4, for a perpetual annual payment of 6000 dollars [ [http://explorion.net/ch.hose-w.mcdougall-pagan-tribes-borneo-1/page-228.html The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, retrieved 22-05-2007] ] .
The river is crossed not far from its mouth by the
Miri-Baram Highway, Federal Route JKR|22, on the Batang Baram Bridgeopened in 2003. Some 100 km upstream lies the town of Marudi.
Environmental History: Tributary of the prehistoric Sunda River
Pleistoceneepoch or Mesolithicperiod about 10,000 years ago, there was a 5 degrees Celsius drop in the global temperature. At mountaintops, rainfall as snow and accumulated as huge icy sheets (including Mount Kinabalu), thus making a break in the global hydrological cycle. Due to lack of water discharge into the sea, there was a 120-meter drop of sea levels from the present time. The South China Sea dried up, exposing the Sunda Shelfand previous deep trenches became huge ancient rivers called the North Sunda River.
Asian Mainland, Malay Peninsular,
Sumatraand Java became connected to Borneovia the landbridge of exposed Sunda Shelf. The North Sunda River provided vital connection to Mekong Riverin Vietnam and Chao Phraya Riverin Thailand to the north, Baram and Rajang rivers in Sarawakto the east and Pahang Riverand Rompin Riverto the west of the massive land mass. Freshwater catfishes and barbs [ [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/article?title=sunda+river&title_type=tka&year_from=1998&year_to=2008&database=1&pageSize=20&index=3 Article] by S. K. J. McConnell, "Mapping aquatic faunal exchanges across the Sunda shelf, South-East Asia, using distributional and genetic data sets from the cyprinid fish Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker, 1850)" in "Journal of Natural History", Volume 38, Number 5, 2004 , pp. 651-670(20)] from those rivers migrated and mated to exchange their genetic materials about 10,000 years ago. Thus, after the Holocene, when the temperature increased, the landbridges and Sunda River were inudated and the catfish populations were isolated. However, their genetic motives are still in the DNAas an evidence of the previous connections of Baram River to other isolated rivers in Indochina and Borneo.
* [http://www.sarawak.gov.my/ Sarawak government website]
* [http://www.panda.org/heart-of-borneo/ WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative]
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