Indian Territory


Indian Territory

The Indian Territory, also known as The Indian Country, The Indian territory or the Indian territories, was land set aside within the United States for the use of Native Americans. The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. It was more properly "Indian territory" (lower-case T) than "Indian Territory" (capital T) because the name referred to the unorganized lands set aside for Native Americans, as opposed to an organized territory meant for settlement by EuropeansFact|date=February 2008.

The Indian Territory had its roots in the British Royal Proclamation of 1763, which limited white settlement to Crown lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. Indian Territory was reduced under British administration and again after the American Revolution, until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River.

At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with the British, but a less developed relationship with the American rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated. They finally defeated a Native American confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, imposing the unfavorable Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of what is now Indiana, and the present day sites of Chicago and Detroit to the United States.

The Indian Territory served as the destination for the policy of Indian Removal, a policy pursued intermittently by American presidents early in the nineteenth century, but aggressively pursued by President Andrew Jackson after the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The Five Civilized Tribes in the South were the most prominent tribes displaced by the policy, a relocation that came to be known as the Trail of Tears. The trail ended in what is now Arkansas and Oklahoma, where there were already many Native Americans living in the territory, as well as whites and escaped slaves. Other tribes, such as the Delaware, Cheyenne, and Apache were also forced to relocate to the Indian territory.The Five Civilized Tribes set up towns such as Tulsa, Ardmore, Tahlequah, Tishomingo, Muskogee and others, which often became some of the larger towns in the state. They also brought their African slaves to Oklahoma, which added to the African-American population in the state. Members of these tribes fought primarily on the side of the Confederacy during the American Civil War in Indian territory. Brigadier General Stand Watie, a Confederate commander of the Cherokee nation, became the last Confederate general to surrender in the American Civil War on 23 June 1865.

In time, the Indian Territory was gradually reduced to what is now Oklahoma; then, with the organization of Oklahoma Territory in 1890, to just the eastern half of the area. The citizens of Indian Territory tried, in 1905, to gain admission to the union as the State of Sequoyah, but were rebuffed by Congress and Administration who did not want two new Western states, Sequoyah and Oklahoma. Citizens then joined to seek admission of a single state to the Union. With Oklahoma statehood in November 1907, Indian Territory was extinguished.

Many Native Americans continue to live in Oklahoma, especially in the eastern part.

ee also

* Historic regions of the United States
* Trail of Tears
* Indian Territory in the American Civil War
* Issac Parker

External links

* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~itgenweb/ Twin Territories: Oklahoma Territory - Indian Territory]
* [http://texashistory.unt.edu/search/?q=indian+territory&t=text&q2=%22CCHS%22&t2=institution See 1890s photographs of Native Americans in Oklahoma Indian Territory] hosted by the [http://texashistory.unt.edu/ Portal to Texas History]


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  • Indian Territory — Historical territory (1834 90) of the S U.S., reserved for Amerindian peoples: now a part of Oklahoma …   English World dictionary

  • INDIAN TERRITORY —    Historically, as the Westward Movement progressed after the Civil War, more and more territory of the Great Plains was opened for settlement. But the U.S. government knew that it would eventually have to find a permanent place for the… …   Westerns in Cinema

  • Indian Territory — a former territory of the U.S.: now in E Oklahoma. ab. 31,000 sq. mi. (80,000 sq. km). * * * Former territory, U.S. West, including most of modern Oklahoma. The Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Cherokee, and Chickasaw tribes were forcibly moved to this… …   Universalium

  • Indian Territory — Territoire indien Le Territoire indien et le Territoire de l Oklahoma vers 1890. Le Territoire indien (en anglais: Indian Territory ou Indian Territories) est aussi connu sous les appellations de Pays indien ou Territoires indiens et désigne les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Indian Territory — a former territory of the U.S.: now in E Oklahoma. ab. 31,000 sq. mi. (80,000 sq. km). * * * Indian Territory [Indian Territory] US land west of the ↑Mississippi River to which ↑Native Americans were forced to move in the 19th century. It was… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Indian Territory — Indian Ter|ri|to|ry an area of land west of the Mississippi River in the US, mainly in the state of Oklahoma, to which many Native Americans were forced to move in the middle of the 19th century. The land was later taken back from them by the US… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • INDIAN TERRITORY —    (186), a stretch of country in the basin of the Arkansas, Canadian, and Red Rivers, with Kansas on the N., Arkansas on the E., Oklahoma Territory on the W., and separated by the Red River from Texas on the S., set apart for the occupation of… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Indian territory — A former territory, now a part of the state of Oklahoma. See Indian country …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • Indian Territory — geographical name former territory S United States in present state of Oklahoma …   New Collegiate Dictionary