Liu Song Dynasty


Liu Song Dynasty

The Song Dynasty (宋朝, Pinyin: Sòng cháo Wade-Giles: Sung) (420479) was first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, followed by the Southern Qi Dynasty.

It was founded by Liu Yu 劉裕 (363–422), whose surname together with "Song" forms the most commonly used name for the dynasty, the Liu Song 劉宋. This appellation is used to distinguish it from a later dynasty of the same name, the Song Dynasty 宋 (9601279), which is much more famous and significant. The Liu Song is also at times referred to as the "Southern Song Dynasty" (南宋), as it is one of the Southern Dynasties of the early medieval period, i.e., one of those with its capital at Jiankang (modern Nanjing). However, the later Song Dynasty, after 1127, when it moved its capital south to Lin'an (modern Hangzhou, Zhejiang), is most commonly referred to as "Southern Song Dynasty" (南宋). Thus, for the shorter dynasty which is the subject of this article, "Liu Song" has become the term preferred in most contexts.

The Liu Song was a time when there was much internal turmoil. A number of emperors were incompetent and/or tyrannical, which at least partially led to many military revolts. These rulers include Liu Shao, Emperor Xiaowu, Emperor Qianfei, Emperor Ming, and Emperor Houfei. Emperor Ming was especially vicious, murdering a large number of his brothers, nephews, and other male relatives — many of them children. Such internal instability eventually led to the dynasty's destruction. However, its founder Emperor Wu was considered one of the greatest generals during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, and the reign of its third emperor, Emperor Wen, is known for its political stability and capable administration, not only of its emperor but its strong and honest officials. This is known as the Reign of Yuanjia (425–453) and one of the relative golden ages for the Southern Dynasties.

Literature and Culture

Despite, and certainly to some extent because of, this bloodbath, the Liu Song produced much great poetry ("shi" 詩) and other poetic genres, notably the rhapsody, "fu" 賦. The imperial house sponsored many literary works, and many wrote themselves. The court of Emperor Wen was especially active in literary circles, with Liu supporting the compilation of a large collection of short prose anecdotes, "A New Account of Tales of the World" ("Shishuo xinyu"). The "Three Giants of Yuanjia," Bao Zhao 鮑照 (d.466), Xie Lingyun 謝霊運 (385–422), and Yan Yanzhi 顏延之 (384–456) are perhaps the most famous poets of the Song, each of them being credited as the originators of the three major literary trends to follow.

Scientists and astronomers were also active during periods of relative peace. Buddhism also began to be better understood and more widely practised at this time, and some officials such as Xie Lingyun, were Buddhists.

Table of Successions

Sovereigns of Liu Song Dynasty (420–479)
Posthumous NameTemple NameFamily name and given namesPeriod of ReignsEra names and their according range of years
"Chinese convention: (Liu) or (Nan) Song + posthumous name +"dia". "Song Wudi was also referred to as Liu Yu."
Wu, ch. 武, py. wǔGaozu, 高祖Liu Yu, ch. 劉裕 py. liú yù420422"Yongchu" (永初 yǒng chū) 420422
Shao, ch. 少, py. shaòLiu Yifu|劉義符 liú yì fú423424"Jingping" (景平 jǐng píng) 423424
Wen, ch. 文, py. wénTaizu 太祖 or Zhongzong 中宗Liu Yilong|劉義隆 liú yì lóng424453"Yuanjia" (元嘉 yuán jiā) 424453
Yuanxiong, 元凶Liu Shao|劉劭 liú shào453"Taichu" (太初 taì chū) 453
Xiaowu, ch.孝武, py. xiaò wǔShizu 世祖Liu Jun|劉駿 liú jùn453464"Xiaojian" (孝建 xiaō jiàn) 454456
"Daming" (大明 dà míng) 457464
(Qian) Fei, ch. (前)廢, py. qián feìLiu Ziye|劉子業 liú zǐ yè465"Yongguang" (永光 yǒng guāng) 465
"Jinghe" (景和 jǐng hé) 465
Ming, ch. 明, py. míngTaizong 太宗Liu Yu|劉彧 liú yù465 [Emperor Xiaowu's son Liu Zixun (Emperor Qianfei's brother) was declared emperor in spring 466 and received pledges of allegiance from the vast majority of provinces, but was defeated by Emperor Ming's forces and executed by Emperor Ming's general Shen Youzhi in fall 466.] –472"Taishi" (泰始 taì shǐ) 465471
"Taiyu" (泰豫 taì yù) 472
{Hou} Fei, ch. (後)廢, py. (hoù) feì or Cangwu Wang ch. 蒼梧王, py. cāng wú wángLiu Yu|劉昱 liú yù473477"Yuanhui" (元徽 yuán huī) 473477
Shun, ch. 順, py. shùnLiu Zhun|劉準 liú zhǔn477479"Shengming" (昇明 shēng míng) 477479

Note

References

* "Book of Song".
* "History of Southern Dynasties", available at [http://ef.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/ccw/02/index.htm National Sun Yat-sen University] .
* "Zizhi Tongjian", vols. 119 to 134.

ee also

*History of China
*Southern and Northern Dynasties
*Six dynasties
*Chinese sovereign
*Song Dynasty


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Song Dynasty — This article is about the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties. For the Southern Dynasty, see Liu Song Dynasty. Song 宋 ← …   Wikipedia

  • Liu Shao (Liu Song) — Liu Shao (劉劭) (426 [However, historical records also indicate that this birthdate, while official, was a falsified date that Liu Shao had been conceived while Emperor Wen was still in the three year mourning period for his father Emperor Wu, who… …   Wikipedia

  • Liu Yong (Song Dynasty) — Liu Yong (zh c|c=柳永, Pinyin: Liǔ Yǒng; 987 1053) is a Chinese poet of the Song dynasty. He was born in Chong an (崇安) of Fujian …   Wikipedia

  • Society of the Song Dynasty — …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Song Dynasty — The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960 1279) of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century. The Song Dynasty is considered… …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Wen of Liu Song — ((劉)宋文帝) (407 453), personal name Liu Yilong (劉義隆), nickname Che er (車兒), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song. He was the third son of the dynastic founder Emperor Wu (Liu Yu). After his father s death in 422, Liu Yilong s eldest… …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Wu of Liu Song — Emperor Wu of (Liu) Song ((劉)宋武帝) (363 422), personal name Liu Yu (劉裕), courtesy name Dexing (德興), nickname Jinu (寄奴), was the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song. He came from a humble background, but became prominent after leading… …   Wikipedia

  • Culture of the Song Dynasty — A Song Dynasty Chinese inkstone with gold and silver markings, from the Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan The Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD) was a culturally rich and sophisticated age for China. There was blossomi …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Ming of Liu Song — ((劉)宋明帝) (439 472), personal name Liu Yu (劉彧), courtesy name Xiubing (休炳), nickname Rongqi (榮期), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song. He became emperor after his violent and impulsive nephew Emperor Qianfei was assassinated in 465, as… …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Shun of Liu Song — ((劉)宋順帝) (467 479), personal name Liu Zhun (劉準), courtesy name Zhongmou (仲謀), nickname Zhiguan (智觀), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song. He became emperor in 477 after his violent older brother Emperor Houfei was assassinated by his… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.