- Denial of the Armenian Genocide
Denial of the Armenian Genocide is the assertion that the
Armenian Genocidedid not occur in the manner or to the extent described by scholarship.
Armenian Genocideis widely acknowledged outside Turkey to have been one of the first modern, systematic genocides, [Ferguson, Niall. "The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West". New York: Penguin Press, 2006 p. 177 ISBN 1-5942-0100-5] [http://www.genocidewatch.org/TurkishPMIAGSOpenLetterreArmenia6-13-05.htm A Letter from The International Association of Genocide Scholars] June 13, 2005] as many Western sources point to the sheer scale of the death toll as evidence for a systematic, organized plan to eliminate the Armenians. [cite web|url = http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/R?r110:FLD001:S03144|title = Senate Resolution 106 - - Calling on the President to ensure that the foreign policy of the United States reflects appropriate understanding and sensitivity concerning issues related to Human Rights, Ethnic Cleansing, and Genocide Documented in the United States Record relating to the Armenian Genocide|publisher = Library of Congress]
Republic of Turkeydoes not accept that the Ottoman authorities attempted to exterminate the Armenian people.cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6045182.stm| title=Q&A Armenian 'genocide' |author= |authorlink= |publisher= British Broadcasting Corporation|accessdate=2006-12-29 |date= 2006-10-12] Turkey acknowledges that during World War Imany Armenians died, but counters that Turks died as well, and that massacres were committed on both sides as a result of inter-ethnic violence and the wider conflict of World War I. The denial of an Armenian Genocideis often criticized by genocide scholars and historians, in particular as a crucial symbolic and ideological process which follows every genocide after it has taken place which is intended to desensitize and to make possible the emergence of new forms of genocidal violence to peoples in the future. [ [http://www.ideajournal.com/articles.php?id=27 The Psychological Satisfaction of Denials of the Holocaust or Other Genocides by Non-Extremists or Bigots, and Even by Known Scholars] , by Israel Charny, "IDEA" journal, July 17, 2001, Vol.6, no.1]
According to historians, despite some deniers argue with some of the details or circumstances, "there can be no doubt about the fact of [Armenian] genocide itself. In this sence, the denial of the Armenian genocide is very similar to the
Holocaustof the Jews". [The Banality of Indifference: Zionism and the Armenian Genocide, By Yair Auron, Transaction Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0765808811, p. 53] Anyways, the use of specific terminologies regarding the issue are debated, such as the word "deportation". Deniers claim that some of the specific words do not fit the realities of the period (context should be considered) or they are not substantiated by the facts.
The term "Genocide"
The term "Genocide" has itself been subject to critical consideration by deniers.
Turkey uses exclusively the definition established by
United Nations. Turkey adhered to the Genocide Conventionin 1950, after two years United Nations General Assemblyvoted in 1948.cite web |url=http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/intro/genocide.html |title=WHAT IS GENOCIDE? |accessdate=2008-10-07 |publisher=FORSNET |date=2001 ] Turkish sources state: "the measures adopted regarding the Armenians in Eastern Anatolia was merely a replacement in another region within the Empire for security reasons". Turkish sources using Ottoman historical documents "on the other hand, the Party of Union and Progress came to power embracing the Armenians, and never developed an anti-Armenian doctrine even if Union and Progress turned to Turkism in time. [Taner Timur, 1915 ve Sonrası Türkler ve Ermeniler, (Ankara: 2001), s. 101.] " It is also historically evident that the Union and Progress was responsive to the needs, and desires of the Armenians citizens and they passed Armenian reform package. They also say, there is great amount of historical data exits to support "within the conditions of the day Ottoman parliament adopted the “Tehcir Law” (27 May 1915), the reasons for the taking of this decision, which was contemplated as provisional were: The Armenians living at regions near the war zones hinder the movements of the Turkish armed forces; harden the logistical support to the soldiers; share the same goals and collaborate with the enemy; attack the troops and innocent civilians within the country’s boundaries; and show the fortified regions to the enemy forces."Turkish-Armenian Relations in the Shadow of 1915, Review of ARMENIAN STUDIES, Number 10, Volume 4 - 2006] ". The Turkish sources claim "intent of the process" (deportation or relocation) was written in the law. They also claim there was vast amounts of evidence which supports Ottoman Empire acted according to what the written law stated and legislated according to conditions. In support, Ottoman Archivesare open to public and Turkish historians published five volumes of Ottoman Security dispatches between 1914-1918 related to Ottoman Armenian insurgent activities, as "Arşiv Belgeleriyle Ermeni Faaliyetleri 1914-1918" Vol I [cite book |title=Arşiv Belgeleriyle Ermeni Faaliyetleri 1914-1918 |volume=I |last=Tetik |first=Dr. Alb. Ahmet |year=2005 |publisher=Genelkurmay ATASE ve Genel Kurmay Denetleme Baskanligi Yayinlari |location=Anakara,Turkey |isbn= |url=http://www.tsk.mil.tr/8_TARIHTEN_KESITLER/8_1_Ermeni_Sorunu/konular/ermeni_faaliyetleri_pdf/Arsiv_Belgeleriyle_Ermeni_Faaliyetleri_Cilt_1.pdf] Vol II [cite book |title=Arşiv Belgeleriyle Ermeni Faaliyetleri 1914-1918 |volume=II |last=Tetik |first=Dr. Alb. Ahmet |year=2005 |publisher=Genelkurmay ATASE ve Genel Kurmay Denetleme Baskanligi Yayinlari |location=Anakara,Turkey |isbn= |url=http://www.tsk.mil.tr/8_TARIHTEN_KESITLER/8_1_Ermeni_Sorunu/konular/ermeni_faaliyetleri_pdf/Arsiv_Belgeleriyle_Ermeni_Faaliyetleri_Cilt_2.pdf] Vol III [cite book |title=Arşiv Belgeleriyle Ermeni Faaliyetleri 1914-1918 |volume=III |last=Tetik |first=Dr. Alb. Ahmet |year=2005 |publisher=Genelkurmay ATASE ve Genel Kurmay Denetleme Baskanligi Yayinlari |location=Anakara,Turkey |isbn= |url=http://www.tsk.mil.tr/8_TARIHTEN_KESITLER/8_1_Ermeni_Sorunu/konular/ermeni_faaliyetleri_pdf/Arsiv_Belgeleriyle_Ermeni_Faaliyetleri_Cilt_3.pdf] Vol IV [cite book |title=Arşiv Belgeleriyle Ermeni Faaliyetleri 1914-1918 |volume=IV |last=Tetik |first=Dr. Alb. Ahmet |year=2005 |publisher=Genelkurmay ATASE ve Genel Kurmay Denetleme Baskanligi Yayinlari |location=Anakara,Turkey |isbn= |url=http://www.tsk.mil.tr/8_TARIHTEN_KESITLER/8_1_Ermeni_Sorunu/konular/ermeni_faaliyetleri_pdf/Arsiv_Belgeleriyle_Ermeni_Faaliyetleri_Cilt_4.pdf] Vol V [cite book |title=Arşiv Belgeleriyle Ermeni Faaliyetleri 1914-1918 |volume=V |last=Tetik |first=Dr. Alb. Ahmet |year=2005 |publisher=Genelkurmay ATASE ve Genel Kurmay Denetleme Baskanligi Yayinlari |location=Anakara,Turkey |isbn= |url=http://www.tsk.mil.tr/8_TARIHTEN_KESITLER/8_1_Ermeni_Sorunu/konular/ermeni_faaliyetleri_pdf/Arsiv_Belgeleriyle_Ermeni_Faaliyetleri_Cilt_5.pdf] .
The Turkish sources claim that the most important part of the "Genocide Convention" is the "intent to destroy," rather than the concept of numbers [1 does not make it less tragic than 100] and which the claims presented [by Armenian historians] has to be established using the facts objectively in order to prove if this intention existed during the "relocation of the Armenians" [cite book |title=The Orly Trial, 19 February - 2 March 1985, Statement and Evidence Presented at the Trial |last=SOYSAL |first= Mumtaz |authorlink= Mumtaz Soysal |year=1985 |publisher=Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences |quote=But the third element is the most important: there has to be "an intent of destroying", in part or in whole the said group. This key-description helps to differentiate between genocide and other forms of homicide, which are the consequences of other motives such as in the case of wars, uprisings etc. Homicide becomes genocide when the latent or apparent intention of physical destruction is directed at members of any one of the national, ethnic, racial or religious groups simply because they happen to be members of that group. The concept of numbers only becomes significant when it can be taken as a sign of such an intention against the group. That is why, as Sartre said in speaking of genocide on the occasion of the Russell Tribunal on the Vietnam War, that one must study the facts objectively in order to prove if this intention exists, even in an implicit manner. ] The conceptual analysis of "intent" in systematic, organized plan to eliminate as a crime of genocide is related to two qualifications, which may be used for considering the arguments presented;
The convention includes two qualifications for a genocide to have taken place. For the crime of genocide to have taken place there must the "intent to destroy, in whole or in part, [a protected group] ". The qualifications are important under international law and have been clarified by the judgements of the
ICTYand the International Court of Justice. Under the convention the courts have adopted the common lawprinciple that both " actus reus" (guilty act) and " mens rea" (guilty mind) must be present for genocide to have been committed. This was highlighted by Alphons Orie in hist summary judgement of the ICTY Momcilo Krajisnikcase. [ [http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/2006/p1115-e.htm Press release of the judgement in the Momcilo Krajisnik case] , ICTY, The Hague, 27 September 2006] The summary judgement explains that:
The Krajisnik case made it clear that as the Genocide Convention specifically includes "intent to destroy", in whole or in part, a protected group, the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the suspect intended (or was part of a criminal conspiracy that intended) to destroy the group, and that this is different from
crimes against humanitywhere there does not have to be intent to destroy a group, just an action that kills many people. As quoted by Guy Horton in " [http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Horton-2005.pdf Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma] " April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360 ] This is why Krajisnik was found guilty of multiple instances of participation in crimes against humanity across Bosnia but not participating in a general Bosnian genocide. When other alleged genocides are debated, it is not enough to show that crimes against humanity were committed, because there must be intent to destroy a a substantial part of the targeted group. It can be very difficult years or even decades after the event to prove the intent "mens rea" (intent) component of genocide even if there is ample evidence that crimes against humanity were committed that fulfil the "actus reus" (the destruction of the group requirement). This may be because the decision to commit genocide was not well documented at the time, or that given the attached to genocide that the perpetrators of a genocide, or their descendants, have destroyed any paper trail that could prove genocide. [*Tosh, Caroline [http://iwpr.net/?p=tri&s=f&o=333772&apc_state=henftri333778 Genocide Acquittal Provokes Legal Debat] , TU No 491, [http://www.iwpr.net/index.php?p=-&apc_state=henh&s=o&o=top_aims.html Institute for War & Peace Reporting] 2 March 2007. "Larissa van den Herik, an assistant professor in public international law at Leiden University, notes ... 'Genocide and crimes against humanity are of equal gravity, yet everyone feels that genocide is worse and carries an extra stigma'".] This means that determining if a genocide took place in the past is often a matter of judgement based on incomplete information about the intent of the perpetrators and whether they intended to commit genocide.
Agreement among scholars on whether a genocide took place is further complicated because not all scholars use the the
Genocide Conventionas a definition of what constitutes genocide (see genocide definitions), which was a point raised by Rosalyn Higginsthe President of Bosnian Genocide Caseat the International Court of Justice at a post trial press interview. She noted that while there was substantial evidence of events in Bosnia may have amounted to war crimes or crimes against humanity, the ICJ had no jurisdiction to make findings in that regard, because the case dealt "exclusively with genocide in a limited legal sense and not in the broader sense sometimes given to this term." [cite web|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/02/26/international/i033600S38.DTL&type=politics|title=Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules|date= 2007-02-26|publisher= Associated Press] [cite news |url=http://www.sense-agency.com/en/stream.php?sta=3&pid=9273&kat=3
publisher=Sense Tribunal |title=Serbia found guilty of failure to prevent and punish genocide |date=
February 26, 2007]
Turkish historians have conceptual problems with a "Broad Genocide of Armenians" which is presented as; "(a)The Turks invaded Armenia and seized its land. (b)They applied a systematic massacre against Armenians since the 1877-1878 war. (c)They resorted to a plan against Armenians from 1915 onward [extending 1922] cite web |url=http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/intro/four_t.html |title=THE FOUR "T" PLAN |accessdate=2008-10-07 |publisher=FORSNET |date=2001] Regarding this definition of "Armenian Genocide" Turkish sources claim that "... [the sources who use this definition] has never hesitated to go to such extremes as ... [removed the middle section which included claims not linked to issue] to make the claims of genocide against Armenians heard and their demands known [but impossible to respond] ..." The roots of "broader sense" form of genocide definition lies in the unresolved conflict paradigm, this definition of genocide "remain in the clash of interest in the past and the present". If the Armenian Genocide begins with the events after 1877-1878 war, these events are more comprehensible if one looks with the concept of
rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire.
The term "deportation"
Currently, regarding the activities performed under
Tehcir Law, May 1915, the Republic of Turkeyrejects the use of the word "deportation" and "refugee".cite web|url=http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D313AAF6AA849816B2EF11C077A9979C33C4 |title=Views Against Genocide Allegations |publisher=Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism |accessdate=2006-12-29|date= 2006-10-12] Turkey uses the terminology " deportation" for expulsion of foreigners (the expulsion of natives is usually called banishment, exile, or transportation) or extradition.cite news|url=http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/Yonlendir.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EFB3C88D4C36927DEF
title=Terimler sozlugu |publisher=Turkish Language Association | authorlink=| accessdate=2006-12-29|date=
2006-10-12] Turkey instead uses the words "relocation" and "immigrant," respectively. Turkey claims that all the destination regions were within the Ottoman Empire's borders. According to revisionist historians, the Ottoman government recognized these "immigrants" as its citizens and took extensive measures to record the type, quantity, and value of their property, as well as the names of the owners and where they were sent.
The term "denial"
The term "denial" has itself been subject to critical consideration by deniers.
From the "Ottoman perspective", the term "denial of realities" applies to "conclusions" that are blind-sighted in the interpretation process, such as considering only one side of the casualties (Christian: Armenian, Greek, etc) while ignoring the other side (Muslim: Kurds, Azeris, etc). An example of this ignorance can be seen in the use of
chethes (irregular units) being the origin of trouble for the Armenian population (long history of Kurdish-Armenian relations). The assumption that the Kurdish chetes were under Ottoman control was presented as a "denial of realities." In truth, they say, a civil war (waged by irregulars on both sides) took place, rather than a planned annihilation. [cite book
author=W.E.D.Allen and Paul Muratoff
quote=...the irregular bands operating on either side had begun the work which famine and epidemics had completed. The remnants of the Armenian population had fled into Russian territory or had been deported by the Young Turk administration; the Moslems, scarcely more fortunate, had suffered equally from Armenian Atrocities: famine, epidemics and irregular slaughter, and the survivors had dispersed with what remained of their livestock into the interior of Asia Minor.] There are "recent studies", which used to fall into the "denial" category, that present lack of monolithic political system or non unity between
Three pashas. [Hasan Kayali "Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918" p195] The assumption is questioned that during this time the Committee of Union and Progresswas a monolithic political system or united political front performing empire level activities. The unity or power of the Three pashas, which were presented as organizers of the annihiltion of 1.5 million Armenians, is also questioned. The same arguments, presented in the rest of the article, extend to many other positions, such as covert operations of Russo-British intelligence services, the use of the Memoirs of Naim Bey, etc. "It is claimed that the "late response", "lack of communication" between the sides, the important part of the Armenian Archives, Ottoman Archives, even the third parties archives being classified were the source of problematic use of the word "denial."
From the "Armenian perspective" use proffers an alternative account of the events, the inevitable norm of education in Turkey is a defense of this account. Thus, by virtue of merely being educated in Turkey, an unawareness of any tenable alternative viewpoint may cause a Turkish national to be accused of "denying" something she or he has never had an opportunity to know in the first place. Turkish state revisionism is further helped by the fact that, as a result of the alphabet reform of 1928 (which changed the Turkish script from an Arabic alphabet to a Latin-based alphabet) the vast majority of Turks are unable to read Ottoman-period newspapers, letters, or diaries. [Akcam, Taner. "A Shameful Act". 2006, page 11.]
The Turkish government was very slow in answering the genocide charges, though nearly a century had passed since the events. ["The Ottoman Armenians: Victims of Great Power Diplomacy (Book Review)". Mango, Andrew. Asian Affairs, Jun88, Vol. 19 Issue 2.] In 1975 Turkish historian and biographer Şevket Süreyya Aydemir said: "The best course, I believe, is not to dwell on this subject and allow both sides to forget (calm) this part of history." This view was shared by the foreign ministry of Turkey at the time.
Zeki Kuneralp, a former Turkish ambassador, had a different explanation, according to him "The liabilities of not publishing the historical documents outweigh the advantages." [Cited by Pierre Caraman in "L'ouverture des archives d'Istanbul" in "Nouvel Observateur", January-February (1989) p. 145]
Only in the 1980s did the controversy become public through the work of Kamuran Gürün. Other Turkish institutions followed Gürün. The basic thesis of genocide was only then tested by gathering and organizing the decades-old records and data on the conflict and its casualties. Also at this time, political [Salahi Ransdam, "The Ottoman Armenians: Victims of great power diplomacy" 1987.] and military [Erickson, Edward J. "Bayonets on Musa Dagh: Ottoman Counterinsurgency Operations — 1915" in the "Journal of Strategic Studies" Vol. 28 Issue 3. (June 2005)] analysis of the crisis began. Since the initial exposure, academic analysis has proceeded to find the underlying conditions of the Empire and the Armenians, with the aim of understanding history to prepare for the future, rather than preserving national pride.
Arguments brought forward
World War Iwas unfolding in the Middle East and shattering the Ottoman Empire, some members of the two primary nationalist groups within the state, the Armenians and the " for explanation)]
In April 1915, shortly after the
Van resistance, an Armenian government was proclaimed in Van, the Administration for Western Armenia. Following these events, April 25was the onset of the Allied campaign to drive towards the Ottoman capitol (see Battle of Gallipoli). The day before Battle of Gallipoli, Talat Pashatook a decision on April 24 1915with the internal codes given by the archive code BOA. DH. ŞFR, nr.52/96,97,98. [Archive code BOA. DH. ŞFR, nr.52/96,97,98] Talat Pasha ordered the governors of the Ottoman Empireto (a) arrest the members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Hentchak and other groups involved with the Armenian national liberation movement, (b) collect documents from party houses and (c) destroy all arms seized in the process. Beginning April 24, there were Armenian notables deported from the Ottoman capital in 1915. The Ottoman Empire wanted to destroy the Armenian resistanceand the Turkish authorities today hold the position that the deaths incurred by Armenians as a whole were the result of the turmoil of World War Iand that the Ottoman Empirewas fighting against Russia, Armenian volunteer units, and the Armenian militia. The Turkish authorities further assert that claims of massacre which ignore the actions of the Armenian resistance movements, are not established historical fact, and therefore grounds for denial that an Armenian Genocideever took place.
Furthermore, they contend that there was a political movement towards creating a "Republic of Armenia". The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and the
Balkanizationprocess were in the same period, and may obfuscate the actual events.
They note that in
1915there was only one railway that connects west-east and that the path of what it considers relocation was not a conspiracy to exterminate Armenians. Turkish authorities strongly reject claims that the locations of the camps which are mentioned in some sources are a result of a conspiracy to bury Armenians in deserts. Deir ez-Zoris a district along the Euphrates and one of the unique places far away from any military activity; thus, Deir ez-Zor's selection as a burying site in a deserted location is rejected. They attribute the graves in these areas to difficulties of traveling under very hard conditions. The conditions of these camps reflected the condition of the Ottoman Empire. The Empire was facing the Gallipoli landings in the west, and the Caucasus Campaignin the east.
Under international law, ethnic cleansing of itself is not enough to show that genocide has taken place as it must be accompanied by the biological destruction of the group. [ECHR "Jorgic v. Germany Judgment",
July 12 2007. § 42 citing Prosecutor v. Krstic, IT-98-33-T, judgment of 2 August 2001, § 43 citing the judgment of 19 April 2004 rendered by the Appeals Chamber of the ICTY, IT-98-33-A §§ 25,33, 47, 190,580 ]
Regarding the "process of relocation" under the Tehcir Law, arguments disputing the similarities to the ethnic cleansing (Holocaust) are as follows: (a) there is no record of (neither from origination archives nor from destination archives in Syria) an effort to develop a systematic process and efficient means of killing, (b) there are no lists or other methods for tracing the Armenian population to assemble and kill as many people as possible, (c) there was no resource allocation to exterminate Armenians (biological, chemical warfare allocations), and the use of
morphineas a mass extermination agent is not accepted; in fact, there was a constant increase in food and support expenses and these efforts continued after the end of deportations, (d) there is no record of Armenians in forced deportations being treated as prisoners, (e) the claims regarding prisoners apply only to the leaders of the Armenian militia, but did not extend to ethnic profiling; the size of the security force needed to develop these claims was beyond the power of the Ottoman Empireduring 1915, (f) there is no record of prisons designed or built to match the claims of a Holocaust, (g) there were no public speeches organized by the central government targeting Armenians.Who|date=November 2007
ecurity of Deportees
The security of the immigrants were under the responsibility of the
Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman authorities present the facts that some companies had been attacked before they reached their settlement regions. [Ottoman Archive Coding Office, no. 59/244] They summarize these attacks; present the fact that the roads between Aleppo and Meskene resulted in many deaths. [Ottoman Archive Coding Office, no. 59/244] Other events were located at Diyarbekir to Zor and from Saruc to Halep through Menbic road. [Coding Office, no. 56/140; 55 - A/144.] Companies have also faced with local attacks from the local tribes in the Diyarbekir, Mamuretülaziz and Bitlis regions. [Coding Office, no 54/9; no 54/162.] Various eyewitness accounts of Armenian civilians being killed by the Ottoman soldiers they were under command of are usually discounted by revisionist historians.
The Turkish authorities present two positions regarding on this issue:
# "Investigation Commissions": during the migration process determined the officers, who showed reluctance or unlawful actions, by visiting to the regions that events occurred and following the decisions they observed the appropriate actions taken. [Ottoman Archive Coding Office; no 56/186] [Ottoman Archive Coding Office; no 56/355; no 58/38] [Ottoman Archive Coding Office, no 56/267] The appropriate actions were extended to the Court Martial and in accordance with the judgments at the Court Martial, guilty parts were sentenced to heavy punishments. [Ottoman Archive Coding Office, no 58/278; no 58/141; no. 55-A/156; no. 55-A/157; no 61/165; no 57/116; no 57/416; no 57/105; no 59/235; no 54-A/326; no 59/196]
# "End of the
World War I": the issue opened one more time during the Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919-20under the military occupation of Istanbul, which Ottoman courts generated one more analysis.
The Turkish authorities maintain the position that the Ottoman Empire did not exercise the degree of control which the opposing parties claim. Turkey accepts that there were Armenian deaths as a result of Ottoman decisions, but states that the responsible Ottoman bureaucrats and military personnel were tried.
Bernard Lewisbelieves that what he names the "tremendous massacres"Lewis, Bernard. " [http://www.armenian--genocide.com/2007/10/professor-bernard-lewis-condemns.html Distinguishing the Armenian Case from the Holocaust] ", April 14, 2002. National Press Club on C-SPAN2's Book TV.] were not "a deliberate preconceived decision of the Ottoman government." [Getler, Michael. " [http://www.pbs.org/ombudsman/2006/04/documenting_and_debating_a_genocide.html Documenting and Debating a 'Genocide'] ", "Ombudsman Column", PBS, April 21, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2006.] The Dutch historian Erik Zürcher believes that the reported killings during the application of Tehcir lawwere ordered not by the Ottoman government itself, but only a small circle. [cite book
first = Erik
last = Zürcher
title = Turkey: A Modern History
year = 2004
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=XUCC4whASl4C&pg=PA116&vq=%22the+ottoman+government%22&dq=turkey:+A+Modern+History&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U3W2lue_GmQ3aplkKJw2NAEBDmTwg
publisher = I.B Tauris
page = 116
location = New York
edition = 3E] He supported his claims, in particular, with the trials held by court martial involving several hundred soldiers guilty of massacres, as early as 1916. Zürcher believes that the killings are properly likened to the
Srebrenica massacres rather than the Holocaust. [cite news
title=Historians Warn French Parliament: Do Not Censor History]
Total population (sum of all millets) was 20,975,345 as published by
Stanford J. ShawStanford Jay Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw "History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey" Cambridge University page 239-241] ] There is no consensus between Armenian scholars and Turkish scholars on which casualties should be directly assigned to Ottoman Empire. Western historians say that the before and after WWI Armenian population difference should be used. The Ottoman Armenian populationbefore 1914 gains importance in this perspective. Western publications use partial statistics (conflict regions) like Turkish Armenia, Anatolia, Ottoman Armenia, Asiatic Turkey, 6 Armenian Villeyets, 9 Armenian Villeyets etc. Historians like Yusuf Halacoglu, claims that Ottoman Empire should only be responsible from "deportations" and brings forward lower figures of Armenian casualties.
Based on studies of the Ottoman census by Justin McCarthy and on contemporary estimates, it is said that far fewer than 1.5 million Armenians lived in the relevant areas before the war. [http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/4-McCarty(65-85).pdf, page 3.] Estimates of deaths are thus lowered, ranging from 600,000 to 200,000 between 1914 and the
Armistice of Mudros. In addition, it is said that these deaths are not all related to the deportations, nor should they all be attributed to the Ottoman authorities.
Yusuf Halacoglu, president the Turkish Historical Society (TTK), presented even lower figures of Armenian casualties. He estimates that with the deportations (excluding inter-ethnic violence) total of 56,000 Armenians perished during the period due to war conditions, and less than 10,000 were actually killed.Fact|date=November 2007 This study is still absent from Turkish foreign affairs publications.
Assertions brought forward
Ottoman Armenian history can not be understood in isolation especially without the consideration of
rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman sources use similar arguments to Armenian nationalismwhich they use to other non-Ottoman ethnic groups. They point to the famous patriotic speech “The Paper Ladle” of Catholicos Mgrdich Khrimianin which he advised Armenians to take the National awakening of Bulgariaas a model as the hopes of the Armenian people for self-determination were ignored. [Haig Ajemian, Hayotz Hayrig, page 511-3; translated by Fr. Vazken Movsesian] “The Paper Ladle” was a turning point at the Armenian national awakening in the Ottoman Empire. Nationalism did not only influence the Armenians; Kurdish-Armenian relationscaused trouble for both the Armenian and Muslim populations of the region. " The New York Times" quoted a Turkish embassy gazette in 1896 that stated: "It wasn't the Porte that caused the massacres in Armenia, but the Christian propaganda in Asia Minor where their cry, "Down with Islam," initiated the war of the crescent against the cross." [cite news|url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C02E2DD1738E233A25750C1A96F9C94679ED7CF|work=New York Times|title=Indignation in Germany: A Strong Anti-Turkey agitation begun in the empire.|volume=548|date=1896-09-13| accessdate = 2007-10-13]
The plight of Ottoman Muslims throughout the 19th and 20th centuries is also mentioned. According to the historian
Mark Mazower, Turkey resents the fact that the West is ignorant of the fate of millions of Muslims expelled from the Balkans and Russia, and would consider any apology towards Armenians as a confirmation of the anti-Turkish sentiment held by Western powers for centuries. Mazower recognizes a genocide of the Armenians, but he notes "Even today, no connection is made between the genocide of the Armenians and Muslim civilian losses: the millions of Muslims expelled from the Balkans and the Russian Empirethrough the long 19th centuryremain part of Europe's own forgotten past. Indeed, the official Turkish response is invariably to remind critics of this fact — an unconvincing justification for genocide, to be sure, but an expression of underlying resentment". [ [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v23/n03/mazo01_.html London Review of Books, vol.23, no. 3] ]
Regarding the famine and starvation arguments; Turkish authorities acknowledges that many Armenians died, but says Muslim millet (Turks) of the Empire died too. The most horrible cases, which happened to occur around the region that is currently Syria (part of Ottoman Empire until end of war), was covered in a detailed article (the whole of Greater Syria, and thus including Akkar) by Linda Schatkowski Schilcher.“The famine of 1915-1918 in greater Syria,” in John Spangnolo, ed., Problems of the Modern Middle East in Historical Perspectives (Reading, 1992), p.234-254.] This study lists what she views as eight basic factors, contributing to as many as 500,000 deaths of the Syrians in the
1915- 1918period: (a) The Entente powers' total blockage of the Syrian coast; (b) the inadequacy of the Ottoman supply strategy; deficient harvest and inclement weather; (c) diversion of supplies from Syria as a consequence of the Arab revolt; (d) the speculative frenzy of a number of unscrupulous local grain merchants; the callousness of German military official in Syria, and systematic hoarding by the population at large.
In general, beginning with World War I every situation of the Empire got worse every year, as most of the able man being in the front lines. Signing of the
Armistice of Mudrosby the Ottoman Empire was related with the breakdown of the public support under very bad conditions.
The Turkish authorities seek both historical and political reconciliation with Armenia, but has put forth certain conditions before reconciliation. Turkey closed its border with Armenia in
1993following the Nagorno-Karabakh Warbetween Armenia and Turkic-speaking Azerbaijan. The borders have remained closed because the Nagorno-Karabakh dispute has not been settled to this day, and also because of a dispute over a matter of history: the death of hundreds of thousands of Armenians in eastern Turkey during the dying days of the Ottoman Empire; whether to label it 'genocide' or not. [cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/5102564.stm| title=Fears of Turkey's 'invisible' Armenians| date= 22 June 2006| publisher=" BBC News"]
2005Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğaninvited Turkish, Armenian and international historians to form a commission to reevaluate the events of 1915 by using archives in Turkey, Armenia and other countries.Cite web|url = http://www.turkishembassy.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=612&Itemid=338|title = Turkey's Initiative to Resolve Armenian Allegations Regarding 1915|publisher = Embassy of Turkish Republic at Washington, D.C.|accessdate = 2007-04-23 ] Armenian president Robert Kocharianresponded, "It is the responsibility of governments to develop bilateral relations and we do not have the right to delegate that responsibility to historians. That is why we have proposed and propose again that, without pre-conditions, we establish normal relations between our two countries."Cite web|url = http://www.armeniaforeignministry.com/pr_06/061104_vo_gul.html|title = Minister Oskanian Comments on Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul's Recent Remarks|publisher = Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs|date = 2006-11-04|accessdate = 2007-04-23 ]
Documentation and historical study
As a scholarly study area, the field is highly divided, as the camps on both sides of this issue approach it very strongly.
Every original document of the
Tehcir Lawis open. The Ottoman Archives were taken over by the Governmental Archives Directorate of the Prime Ministry. The Ottoman Archives have been researched by many historians. Besides the research made by thousands of historians, these documents were translated into English and published in order to enlighten the public. [cite web|url=http://www.devletarsivleri.gov.tr/arsiv_malzemesi.htm |title="Regulations for the use of Ottoman Archives"|publisher= Ottoman Archives| authorlink=| accessdate=2006-12-29|date=2006-10-12] Dubious|date=March 2008
Turkish authorities point out that without doing a triangulation, even if the facts were reported correctly, the conclusions drawn can be false. It is also possible to look at secondary sources in the
Ottoman Archivesof the period such as budget, allocations, decisions/reasons of requests. There are also personal records such as Mehmed Talat Pasha's personal notes. They also point out the general attitude ( Sick man of Europe) of the time and how it deforms perceptions. They state that the conclusions reached toward genocideare highly biased.
Some very "central" (most cited) sources are actively questioned on the basis that they do not include a single reference from the
Ottoman ArchivesFact|date=August 2007, mainly occupying forces' sources of the period (British, French) on the basis of their Intelligence (information gathering)issues. There are concerns that these sources may promote propaganda. Enver Zia Karal(Ankara University), Salahi R. Sonyel(British historian and public activist), Ismail Binark(Director of Ottoman archives, Ankara), Sinasi Orel(director of a much publicized project on declassifying documents on Ottoman Armenians), Kamuran Gurun(former diplomat), Mim Kemal Oke, Justin McCarthy, and others have told that the "Blue Book" ("The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916") by James Bryce and Arnold J. Toynbeelacks credibility. [Toynbee characterised the Armenian massacres as genocide in much later works including "Acquaintances" (1967) and "Experiences" (1969). See [http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/type=rezbuecher&id=6897 Hans-Lukas Kieser] 's review of Halacoglu's work.]
Reverse engineering of activities aimed to provide evidence without covering opposing reasoning, such as "Map of Genocide", contain factual problems according to these historians. In this map, the methodology developed, related to "Centers of Massacre and Deportation" and adding data from three different sources (the data in these sources are also aggregate data), is questionable. This map is used as a source of validation among Western scholars.
They argue that there was a secret arrangement which can be traced through mismatches on orders and distributions of the forced deportations. There are many periphery-to-center transmissions on how to deal with emerging issues, such as allocating more than 10% of the destination population and its consequences to the local economy.
Talat Pasha Telegrams
Many references that cite genocidal intent use "The Talat Pasha telegrams, (The Naim-Andonian documents)", which are a series of documents by the Interior Minister
Mehmed Talat Pasha, to constitute concrete evidence that the deaths were implemented as a state policy. Pasha was notoriously tied to the "Kill every Armenian man, woman, and child without concern" order in these documents (see Aram Andonian's page for more on this topic). The genocidal intent of Mehmed Talat Pasha and even the correctness of this famous sentence is highly dependent on the authenticity of these documents.
According to the "Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity", the denial of Armenian genocide is "the most patent example of a state's denial of its past".cite encyclopedia
editor = Dinah Shelton
year = 2005
publisher = Macmillan Reference
article = Denial
encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity
page = 244
volume = 1
first = Martin
last = Imbleau
url = http://books.google.com/books?ei=IkiGSMiAGJXIigHkpb2aCw&id=5dsYAAAAIAAJ&dq=Encyclopedia+of+Genocide+and+Crimes+Against+Humanity&q=%22patent+example%22&pgis=1#search
isbn = 0028658485]
Colin Tatz, Professor of Macquarie University, considers the nature of Turkish denial industry as "pernicious, outrageous and continued": "Here is a modern state, totally dedicated, at home and abroad, to extraordinary actions to have every hint or mention of an Armenian genocide removed, contradicted, explained, countered, justified, mitigated, rationalised, trivialised and relativised." [With Intent to Destroy: Reflecting on Genocide, by Colin Martin Tatz, 2003, Verso, 222 p., ISBN 1859845509 , p. 129] In their book "Criminological Perspectives", E. McLaughlin, J. Muncie and G. Hughes conclude: "If the Turkish government can deny that the Armenian genocide happened; if revisionist historians and neo-Nazis deny that Holocaust took place; if powerful states all around the world today can systematically deny the systematic violations of human rights they are carrying out - then we know that we're in bad shape". [Criminological Perspectives: Essential Readings, Eugene McLaughlin, John Muncie, Gordon Hughes, Open University, SAGE, 2003, 656 p., ISBN 0761941444, p. 559]
In 1990, psychologist
Robert Jay Liftonreceived a letter from the Turkish Ambassador to the United States, questioning his inclusion of references to the Armenian Genocide in one of his books. The ambassador inadvertently included a draft of a letter, presented by scholar Heath Lowry, advising the ambassador on how to prevent mention of the Armenian Genocide in scholarly works. Lowry was later named to a chair at Princeton University, which had been endowed with a $750,000 grant from the Republic of Turkey. The incident has been the subject of numerous reports as to ethics in scholarship. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A03E5DD1F39F931A35755C0A960958260&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/People/L/Lifton,%20Robert%20Jay "Armenian Genocide Cannot Be Denied"] , "New York Times", June 2, 1996]
Another source marks: "In order to institutionalize this campaign of denial and try to invest it with an aura of legitimacy, a "think-tank" was established in Ankara in April 2001. Operating under the name "Institute for Armenian Research" as a subsidiary of The Center For Eurasian Studies, with a staff of nine, this new outfit is now proactively engaged in contesting all claims of genocide by organizing a series of conferences, lectures, and interviews, and above all, through the medium of publications, including a quarterly". [America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915, by J. M. Winter, Paul Kennedy, Antoine Prost, Emmanuel Sivan, preface by V. Dadrian, 2003, Cambridge University Press, 332 p., ISBN 0521829585, p. 54]
Open University of Israelscholar Yair Auronhas addressed the various means employed by the Turkish government to obscure the reality of the Armenian Genocide: [The Banality of Denial, by Yair Auron, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2003, ISBN 076580834X, p.47]
Since the 1980s, the Turkish government has supported the establishment of "institutes" affiliated with respected universities, whose apparent purpose is to further research on Turkish history and culture, but which also tend to act in ways that further denial.
University of California, Los Angelesscholar Leo Kuperin a review on Ervin Staub's "The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence" research, marks: ["Review (The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. by Ervin Staub)", Leo Kuper // Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 19, No. 5. (Septempber 1990), p. 683]
The Armenian genocide is a contemporary current issue, given the persistent aggressive denial of the crime by the Turkish government-not withstanding its own judgment in courts martial after the first World War, that its leading ministers had deliberately planned and carried out the annihilation of Armenians, with the participation of many regional administrators.
According to American scolars Roger W. Smith,
Eric Markusenand Robert Jay Lifton,cite journal
author = Smith, Roger W.; Markusen, Eric; Lifton, Robert Jay
month = Spring
year = 1995
title = Professional Ethics and the Denial of Armenian Genocide
journal = Holocaust and Genocide Studies
volume = 9
issue = 1
pages = 1–22
doi = 10.1093/hgs/9.1.1]
The government of Turkey has channeled funds into a supposedly objective research institute in the United States, which in turn paid the salary of a historian who served that government in its campaign to discredit scholarship on the Armenian genocide.
In an open letter by the "Danish Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies and the denial and relativization of the Armenian genocide", historians
Torben Jorgensenand Matthias Bjornlundwrote: [ [http://cgi.stanford.edu/group/wais/cgi-bin/index.php?p=2313 Genocide Denial in the state of Denmark] . Open letter by Torben Jorgensen and Matthias Bjornlund, World Association of International Studies, Stanford University, California.]
When it comes to the historical reality of the Armenian genocide, there is no “Armenian” or “Turkish” side of the “question,” any more than there is a “Jewish” or a “German” side of the historical reality of the Holocaust: There is a scientific side, and an unscientific side acknowledgment or denial. In the case of the denial of the Armenian genocide, it is even founded on a massive effort of falsification, distortion, cleansing of archives, and direct threats initiated or supported by the Turkish state, making any “dialogue” with Turkish deniers highly problematic.
Philip L. Kohland Clare Fawcett write that the "Armenian cultural remains in neighboring Turkey are frequently dismissed or referred to as "Ottoman period" monuments", and that the continued denial of the state-sponsored genocide is "related to these practices". [Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology. Edited by Philip L. Kohl and Clare Fawcett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 341 p., ISBN 0521480655, p. 170]
Taner Akcam, Turkey "tried to erase the traces of a recent past that had become undesirable" through a series of reforms, so the collective memory "was replaced by an official history written by a few authorised academics, which became the sole recognised reference. Events prior to 1928 and the writings of past generations became a closed book." [Akcam, Taner ( 2000-09-17). [http://www.flash-bulletin.de/2000/eSeptember17.htm#3 The long denied Armenian Genocide: Turkey's carefully forgotten history] , "Le Monde Diplomatique" ( [http://mondediplo.com/2001/09/11armenian original, for subscribers] ).]
Some countries, including
Argentina, Switzerlandand Uruguayhave adopted laws that punish genocide denial. In October 2006, Francepassed a bill which if approved by the Senate and president, will make Armenian Genocide denial a crime.
Issues regarding deniers
The first person convicted by a court of law for denying the Armenian genocide is Turkish politician
Doğu Perinçek, found guilty of racial discriminationby a Swiss district court in Lausannein March 2007. Perinçek appealed the verdict. After the court's decision, he said, "I defend my right to freedom of expression." "I have not denied genocide because there was no genocide," he argued. Ferai Tinç, a foreign affairs columnist with Turkey's Hurriyetnewspaper, added, "we find these type of [penal] articles against freedom of opinion dangerous because we are struggling in our country to achieve freedom of thought."cite news|title= Turkish politician fined over genocide denial| date= 2007-03-09 | publisher= Swissinfowith agencies| url=http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/front/detail/Turkish_politician_fined_over_genocide_denial.html?siteSect=105&sid=7603245] In December 2007, the Swiss Federal Court has confirmed the sentence given to Perinçek. [ [http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/front/Court_confirms_verdict_against_Perin_ek.html?siteSect=104&sid=8549273&cKey=1198071731000&ty=nd Court confirms verdict against Perinçek] , SwissInfo, December 19, 2007]
In November 1993 American historian
Bernard Lewissaid in an interview that "the reality of the Armenian genocideresults from nothing more than the imagination of the Armenian people."Herzberg, Nathaniel. "Bernard Lewis Condemned For Having Denied The Reality Of The Armenian Genocide", "Le Monde", p. 11, June 23, 1995.] In 1995 the French court interpreted his remarks as a denial of the Armenian Genocide and fined him one franc, and the publication of court verdict at Lewis' cost in Le Monde. [ [http://users.ids.net/~gregan/lewis.html The Bernard Lewis Trial ] ] The court ruled that while Lewis has the right to his views, they did damage to a third party and that "it is only by hiding elements which go against his thesis that the defendant was able to state that there was no 'serious proof' of the Armenian Genocide; consequently, he failed in his duties of objectivity and prudence by expressing himself without qualification on such a sensitive subject."
Advertisement and propaganda
Time DVD debacle
The Ankara Chamber of Commerce included DVDs, accusing the Armenian people of slaughtering Turks, with their paid tourism advertisements in the June 6, 2005 edition of the magazine TIME Europe. Time Europe later apologized for allowing the inclusion of the DVDs and published a critical letter signed by five French organizations. [cite news
title=Turkish Tourism DVD
head=Where the System Broke Down
last=Jouanneau] The February 12, 2007 edition of Time Europe included a full-page announcement and a DVD of a documentary by French director Laurence Jourdan, with an interview with
Yves Ternon. [cite journal
title=TIME adopts policy on Armenian Genocide, distributes documentary
The denialist view on Armenian genocide is represented in Internet both by Turkish official and unofficial organizations. Among the web-sites representing this view are:
* [http://www.ataturk.org Ataturk organization]
* [http://www.turkishcoalitionofamerica.org Turkish Coalition of America]
* [http://www.tallarmeniantale.com Tall Armenian Tale]
* [http://www.armeniangenocidedebate.com Armenian Genocide Debate]
Grand National Assembly of Turkey[http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/armenian.htm Report:]
** [http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/1-Izgi%20(1-21).pdf Turks and Armenians: The Ottoman Experience]
** [http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/3-Oztuna(43-64).pdf The Political Milieu of the Armenian Question]
** [http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/6-Halacoglu(109-142).pdf Realities Behind the Relocation]
** [http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/11-Gunduz%20Aktan%20(263-314).pdf The Armenian Problem and International Law]
** [http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/12-Ataov(315-344).pdf The Jewish Holocaust and the Armenians]
Turkish Ministry of Culture[http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D313AAF6AA849816B2EF3754CB9777885187 Report:]
** [http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D313AAF6AA849816B2EF1DACD7356F6C2568 Turco-Armenian Relations]
** [http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D313AAF6AA849816B2EFDCB77ADD0FAA48D5 How the Armenian Issue Came About]
** [http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D313AAF6AA849816B2EFB7F123639AE70158 April 24, 1915]
** [http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D313AAF6AA849816B2EF1D1CDA4024FA3062 Relocation]
Ottoman Archives[http://www.devletarsivleri.gov.tr/ Document Center]
** [http://www.devletarsivleri.gov.tr/kitap/ Ottoman Armenian Archives Index]
** [http://www.devletarsivleri.gov.tr/yayin/osmanli/Armenians_inottoman/ottoman_armenian.htm Armenian Documents]
*Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey [http://www.mfa.gov.tr/MFA/Publications/MFAPublications/ArmenianAllegations/ArmenianClaimsandHistoricalFacts.htm Report:]
** [http://www.turkishembassy.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=560&Itemid=275 Ambassador Nabi Şensoy about "The Armenian Genocide" on the PBS]
* Center for Eurasian Strategic Studies [http://www.eraren.org/index.php?Page=&Lisan=en Main Index]
* [http://www.tetedeturc.com/home/ Tete de Turc] . French site with lots of articles opposing the genocide thesis.
* [http://www.washingtontimes.com/commentary/20050502-094118-2216r.htm To reconcile Turks and Armenians] , O. Faruk Logoglu, Washington Times (former ambassador of Turkey to the United States)
* [http://www.meforum.org/article/748 Revisiting Armenian Genocide by Guenter Lewy] Guenter Lewy is professor emeritus of political science, University of Massachusetts, and the author of The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide (University of Utah Press, 2005).
* [http://www.turkla.com/yazar.php?mid=525&yid=4 Connecting the Dots on the "Alleged" Armenian Genocide]
* [http://www.turkla.com/yazar.php?mid=453&yid=4 British Sources Refuting the AAG]
* [http://www.turkla.com/yazar.php?mid=451&yid=4 American Sources that Refute the AAG]
* [http://www.turkla.com/yazar.php?mid=462&yid=4 Israeli and Jewish Sources that Refute the AAG]
* [http://www.turkla.com/yazar.php?mid=509&yid=4 Turkish Last Names: Honest History Tellers]
* [http://www.turkla.com/yazar.php?mid=490&yid=4 Armenian Terrorism: Then and Now]
* [http://www.american.edu/cgp/track2/home.htm Track Two Diplomacy Program in Turkey and the Caucasus] by Center for Global Studies, American University:: [http://www.american.edu/cgp/track2/data/ArmeniaTurkeyFinalReportTESEV.doc Mutual Perceptions Research (Armenia/Turkey)] (*.doc file) "The Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation (TESEV) and the Armenian Sociological Association (HASA) have organized a Mutual Perceptions Research Project. Each group is carrying out sociological research to identify key issues of cultural understanding between the neighboring countries, including the perception of Turks by Armenians and of Armenians by Turks. The study focuses on the perceptions of the majority populations in each country. The combined results will constitute study findings. Representatives from each team met in Yerevan and fieldwork was undertaken in both countries. The results of the research were presented at an international seminar jointly organized by TESEV and HASA in
Tbilisi, Georgia (country)."
Recognition of the Armenian Genocide
Kurdish recognition of the Armenian genocide
* The Banality of Denial, by
Yair Auron, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2003, ISBN 076580834X, 338 pp.
* Investigation into the negation of a genocide, by
Yves Ternon, Brackets, 1989
* Revolution and Genocide, by Robert Melson, 1992, 386 p.
* Encyclopedia of Genocide, ed. by
Israel Charny, 1999
* The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies, by Kurt Jonassohn, 1990, 480 p.
* A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, by Ward Churchill, 1997, City Lights Books, ISBN 0872863239
* The Crime of Destruction and the Law of Genocide, by Caroline Fournet, 2007, Ashgate Publishing, 182 p., ISBN 0754670015
* Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals, by Gary Jonathan Bass, Princeton University Press, pp. 106-146
* A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, Samantha Power, NY: Basic Books, 2002, pp. 1-16
* Remembrance and Denial: The Case of the Armenian Genocide, by
Richard G. Hovannisian, 1998
* The Key Elements in the Turkish Denial of the Armenian Genocide, by
Vahakn Dadrian, 1999
* [http://www.ideajournal.com/articles.php?id=27 The Psychological Satisfaction of Denials of the Holocaust or Other Genocides by Non-Extremists or Bigots, and Even by Known Scholars] , by Israel W. Charny, "IDEA" journal, July 17, 2001, Vol.6, no.1
* Professional ethics and the denial of the Armenian genocide, by Smith, Roger W.; Markusen, Eric; and Lifton, Robert Jay // Holocaust and Genocide Studies, # 9 (1), 1995, p. 1-22
* [http://www.flash-bulletin.de/2000/eSeptember17.htm Le Monde Diplomatique - The long denied Armenian Genocide: Turkey's carefully forgotten history] , by
Taner Akcam, Le Monde Diplomatique, 2000
* [http://www.teachgenocide.com/bkgrnd/denial.htm Denial of the Armenian Genocide, Armenian Genocide Resource Library for Teachers]
* [http://www.genocidewatch.org/news/TURKEY.htm Armenian genocide denial by Turkey] , Genocide Watch
* [http://www.noplacefordenial.com/ A source of news and information on the No Place for Hate/Anti-Defamation League Armenian Genocide denial issue]
* [http://www.zoryaninstitute.org/Table_Of_Contents/genocide_biblio_denial.htm Selected Bibliography on Denial of the Armenian Genocide] ,
Zoryan Institute, 2001.
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