List of cities with defensive walls


List of cities with defensive walls

The following cities have, or have had, defensive walls.

Europe

Albania

* Berat
* Butrint
* Krujë

Austria

* Vienna (destroyed and became the Ringstraße)
* Bruck an der Leitha

Azerbaijan

* Baku, retains most of its city walls that separate the historic Inner City from the newer parts of the city developed after 19-th century.

Belgium

* Binche The city of Binche sports the most intact set of city walls of Belgium. Built in 1230 AD, they are 2.1 kilometers long and sport about 30 towers. There were six gates, but these have been demolished in the 19th century.
* Brussels Of the first city wall, built in the 13th century, a small stretch of curtain wall and several isolated towers still remain. Of the second wall, only the Halle gate remains. The inner ring road of Brussels now occupies the location of this second wall.
* DiestTo the north of the city centre, one can still find two polygonous fronts featuring a land gate; a watergate and a ravelin. An outer wall in front of this wall fragment sports two casemated caponieres. To the east, the shape of several bastions have remained intact. An outer work, to the east of the fortifications, is incorporated in a swimming pool complex. The Citadel remains mostly intact, although the side facing the city was demolished to make room for barracks. There is a small fortress to the north of the city centre.
* Leuven Several towers and fragments of the 12th century first wall of Leuven can be found throughout the city centre. Of the second wall, only the ground floor of a watchtower and the base of a watergate over the Dijle river still stand. The second wall was changed into a park in the 19th century, this park was largely destroyed and replaced by a ring road in the 20th century.
* LiègeSeveral towers and fragments of the medieval city wall remain on the slopes to the north of the old town. The south side of the citadel, featuring three bastions and two ravelins, remains intact. The rest of the citadel was demolished and now the site houses a large hospital. A ring of detatched fortresses still encloses the city.
* MonsSeveral fragments of the first city wall of mons have been preserved. Of the later defences, only two bastion-like structures remain to the south of the city centre, but the location of the fortifications can still be seen in the zig-zagging street pattern on the east side of the city.
* Namur Nothing remains of the defences of the city itself, with the exception of the enormous arsenal building. The mighty citadel that grew out of the medieval count's castle, ramains mostly intact and can be visited.
* Tongeren Important parts of the 13th century wall, including several towers and a gate, remain. Outside the medieval town, one can still find remnants of the first Roman wall, which enclosed a much larger area than the medieval wall. Of the much smaller second Roman wall, no above-ground remnants remain.
* Ypres A wall with 3 unusually flat bastions defends the east side of the city. To the south a medieval gate and the lower portions of two medieval towers can be found. Both towers are defended by a ravelin.
* ZoutleeuwRemnants of the first 12th century city wall and a gate can be found incorporated in the old city hall and the adjacent house. Outside the city, a bridge over the river Gete incorporates a partial reconstruction of a 14th century watergate belonging to the second wall. To the south of the city, several low hills in the landscape indicate the position of a spanish-built citadel

Croatia

* Dubrovnik has well-preserved city fortifications including towers, gate, rampart walk and two citadels guarding the docks.
* Krk city walls which obtained their current appearance between the 12th and the 15th century but the town itself was fortified since Roman period
* Ston: Walls built in 14th-16th century, at the isthmus of the Pelješac peninsula, to the north of Dubrovnik; 890 meters long town wall and 5 km "Great Wall" outside the town Ston.
* Karlovac city walls, built in 1579 as a six-point star with bastions.
* The town of Split retains much of its ancient wall.
* Zadar retains about half of its wall

Cyprus

* Famagusta has well preserved city fortifications
* Nicosia the heart of the city is enclosed by 16th century Venetian walls

Czech Republic

* Písek
* Prague
* Tábor

Estonia

* Tallinn old town has a 2 km long town wall with 26 defence towers.

France

* Aigues-Mortes
* Arles (partial remains)
* Avignon
* Boulogne-sur-Mer (complete enclosure of old town)
* Caen
* Carcassonne
* Concarneau's old town ("ville close")
* Dinan (nearly complete ramparts with a large 14th century keep known as the "Donjon de la duchesse Anne" )
* Guérande (nearly complete ramparts with four fortified gates)
* Hennebont's old town: (partial remains of ramparts and large fortified "châtelet")
* La Couvertoirade
* La Rochelle
* Langres
* Le Quesnoy
* Paris
* Perouges
* Saint-Malo's old town
* Saint-Martin-de-Ré
* Villeneuve-sur-Yonne

Georgia

*Mestia (The "Svan towers".)
*Tusheti

Germany

* Ahrweiler
* Annaberg-Buchholz
* Amberg
* Andernach
* Bad Münstereifel
* Bad Neustadt an der Saale
* Bautzen
* Berching
* Berlin had a defensive wall around the city from about 1250 until the mid-17th century, and a customs wall from the mid-18th to the mid-19th century. The Berlin Wall that existed from 1961 to 1989 was claimed by the authorities of East Germany to be defensive, but in fact it was rather intended to prevent unauthorized emigration.
* Bernau bei Berlin
* Blankenburg (Harz)
* Boppard
* Brandenburg
* Büdingen
* Dettelbach
* Dinkelsbühl
* Dollnstein
* Donauwörth
* Ebern
* Eibelstadt
* Eichstätt
* Fladungen
* Forchheim
* Freiberg
* Freinsheim
* Frickenhausen
* Fritzlar
* Gerolzhofen
* Greding
* Heidingsfeld, today part of Würzburg
* Ingolstadt
* Iphofen
* Jena
* Karlstadt am Main
* Kaufbeuren
* Korbach
* Kronach
* Landsberg am Lech
* Mainbernheim
* Memmingen
* Merkendorf
* Mühlhausen
* Müncheberg
* Münnerstadt
* Nabburg
* Neubrandenburg
* Neuburg an der Donau
* Nördlingen
* Nürnberg
* Oberwesel
* Ochsenfurt
* Oldenburg
* Ornbau
* Pappenheim
* Potsdam
* Rodach
* Rostock
* Röttingen
* Rothenburg ob der Tauber
* Rottweil
* Schongau, Bavaria
* Seßlach
* Soest
* Sommerhausen
* Stralsund
* Templin
* Ulm an der Donau
* Vellberg
* Warburg (Westfalia)
* Wemding
* Weißenburg (Bavaria)
* Wittstock
* Wolframs-Eschenbach
* Würzburg
* Zeil am Main
* Zerbst
* Zons
* Zwickau

Greece

* Thessaloniki
* Iraklion
* Rhodes
* Monemvassia
* Ioannina

Hungary

* Buda

Republic of Ireland

* Athenry
* Athlone
* Carlingford
* Cashel
* Clonmel
* Cork
* Drogheda
* Fethard
* Galway
* Kilkenny
* Kilmallock
* Limerick
* New Ross
* Trim
* Waterford
* Wexford
* Youghal in County Cork still retains part of the town walls.

Italy

* Ferrara
* Florence
* Genoa has partial fortifications still standing.
* Lucca
* Montagnana
* Palmanova has fortress plan and structure, called a star fort it is a nine pointed citadel [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/


]
* Pisa
* Prato
* Rome has walls since the Roman empire
* Siena
* [http://www.tesionline.com/intl/thesis.jsp?idt=22741 Vaste]

Latvia

* Riga (Walls no longer extant)
* Cēsis

Lithuania

* Vilnius (Can be seen in some places)
* Kaunas (Partially built)

Republic of Macedonia

* Ohrid Ancient city wall surrounds the old part of Ohrid, which is called Varos.

Malta

* Cospicua, "Città Cottonera"
* Valletta
* Mdina, "Città Notabile"
* The Citadel, (Victoria, Gozo)
* Birgu, "Città Vittoriosa"
* Senglea, "Città Invicta"

Montenegro

* Kotor
* Bar
* Budva
* Herceg Novi

Netherlands

1: Fortifications (Almost) completely intact2: Sizable parts of the fortifications remain intact3: (Parts of the) walls and moats are preserved as parks 4: One or more individual structures (Bastions, gates, towers, etc) remain.5: Location of the fortifications can be traced in the street plan or location of (former) moats6: No trace remains7: The fortifications were reconstructed in recent times

* 's-Hertogenbosch 2
* Aardenburg 6
* Amersfoort 4
* Amsterdam 4, 5
* Arnhem 4, 5
* Asperen 4, 5
* Axel 6
* Batenburg 5
* Bergen op Zoom 4
* Biervliet 5
* Bolsward 5
* Bourtange 7
* Breda 4, 5
* Bredevoort 3, 5
* Brielle 1
* Brouwershaven 2, 3
* Buren 4, 5
* Culemborg 4, 5
* Delden 5
* Delft 4, 5
* Doesburg 2, 3
* Dokkum 1
* Doetinchem 5
* Dordrecht 5
* Eindhoven 6
* Elburg 2, 4
* Franeker 5
* Gennep 4
* Geertruidenberg 2
* Goes 5
* Gorinchem 1
* Gouda 5
* Grave 5
* Groenlo 3, 4, 5
* Groningen 3, 5
* Harderwijk 3, 4, 5
* Harlingen 3, 5
* Hasselt 3
* Hattem 4, 5
* Hellevoetsluis 1
* Helmond 6
* Heukelum 5
* Heusden 7
* Hulst 1
* IJzendijke 4, 5
* Ijsselstein 4
* Kampen 3, 4
* Klundert 2, 5
* Leerdam 2, 4, 5
* Leeuwarden 3, 5
* Leiden 3, 4, 5
* Lochem 5
* Maastricht 2, 3, 4, 5
* Megen 4
* Middelburg 3, 4
* Montfoort 4, 5
* Muiden 2
* Naarden 1
* Nieuweschans 5, 7
* Nijmegen 3, 4, 5
* Oldenzaal 5
* Ootmarsum 5
* Oudeschans 2, 3, 5, 7
* Oudewater 5
* Philippine 5
* Ravenstein 3, 4
* Retranchement 1
* Rhenen 4, 5
* Rijssen 5
* Roermond 4
* Rotterdam 6
* Sas van Gent 4
* Sittard 2
* Sluis 1
* Sloten 2
* Steenbergen 5
* Steenwijk 3, 5
* Stevensweert 5
* Terneuzen 6
* Tholen 3
* Tiel 4, 5
* Utrecht 3, 4, 5
* Valkenburg aan de Geul 4
* Veere 1
* Venlo 4
* Vianen 4, 5
* Vlissingen 4
* Wageningen 3, 5
* Weesp 1 (only 4 of the planned 7 bastions were ever built)
* Weert 5
* Willemstad 1
* Wijk bij Duurstede 3, 4
* Woerden 3, 5
* Woudrichem 1
* Zaltbommel 3
* Zierikzee 3, 4
* Zutphen 3, 4, 5
* Zwolle 3, 4

Poland

* Chełmno - almost whole length of walls (2.2 km), with 17 watch towers and city gate, 13th-14th cent.
* Lębork - city ruins from the Medieval era
* Lubań - partially preserved
* Kraków - only the barbican, Floriańska Gate, two watch towers and some traces preserved
* Paczków - very well preserved walls with 19 towers and 3 gates
* Pyrzyce - until World War II best preserved city walls in Pomerania region, from 14th cent.
* Stargard Szczeciński - significant parts survived with 3 gates (including unique water gate - Brama Młyńska); one of the most interesting city walls in Poland
* Szydłów - city walls with Krakowska Gate and watch towers built in 14th cent.
* Toruń - several watch towers, three city gates and some sections (the longest and most impressive from Vistula) from 13th-15th centuries
* Warsaw - partially preserved, partially restored after World War II, barbican restored
* Zamość - complete renaissance and 19th century walls preserved
* Przemyśl - partially preserved ruins.

Portugal

* Óbidos

Romania

* Bistriţa
* Braşov
* Cluj-Napoca
* Mediaş
* Sebeş
* Sibiu
* Sighişoara

Russia

*Astrakhan
*Derbent
*Kazan
*Kolomna
*Moscow
*Nizhny Novgorod
*Novgorod
*Pskov
*Rostov
*Smolensk
*Solovki
*Suzdal
*Tobolsk
*Tula
*Zaraysk

erbia

* Belgrade Kalemegdan/Калемегдан
* Novi Sad Petrovaradin
* Bač
* Manasija Resava
* Niš
* Pirot
* Smederevo
* Golubac
* Maglič

lovakia

*Bardejov
*Bratislava, today only few structures have survived from original fortifications.
*Skalica
*Trnava

lovenia

*Kranj evidence of 1st century fortifications with parts of medieval fortifications with four of the original 8 towers preserved
*Ljubljana
*Piran 7th century fortification expanded between 1470 and 1533

pain

* Ávila
* Barcelona has portions of a Roman wall.
* Girona
* León
* Lugo has a complete ringwall, most of which dates back to Roman times. It is protected by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
* Pamplona
* Niebla, Huelva
* Zaragoza
* Toledo

weden

* City wall of Visby
* Gothenburg has a part of the western city wall left, the bastion Carolus Rex at Esperanto platsen (Esperanto square) and most of the city moat is still left.
* Stockholm has a small remainder of the medieval city wall preserved.

witzerland

* Bellinzona (Dominated by its three castles: Castelgrande, Castello di Montebello and Castello di Sasso Corbaro)
* Gruyères
* Lucerne: The wall on the northern bank of Reuss River is well preserved and amongst the principle landmarks of the city.

Turkey

* Troy. The ancient city of Troy was famous for its defensive walls. There is archaeological evidence that Troy VII, generally identified as the stage of the of the legendary Trojan War of Homer's Iliad, usually dated between 1194 BC1184 BC, had walls with a carefully built stone base over four meters thick and some nine meters high in places, which was surmounted by a larger superstructure with towers in mudbrick. The walls in Homer's epic are so mighty that the siege of Troy by Achaeans lasts more than nine years, and only could be finished with the trickery of the Trojan Horse. Sections of the stone base of Trojan walls still survive on the archaeological site in present day "Hisarlık", in Çanakkale province.

* Istanbul. The system of walls around (as it was then known) Constantinople built in 412 by the Roman emperor Theodosius II was a complex stone barrier that stretched 6.5 kilometers and is often called the Wall of Theodosius. This barrier stood impregnable for ten centuries and resisted several violent sieges until 1453 when the Ottomans succeeded in breaching the walls. There was a new element in the battlefield: the Ottoman army had powder cannon and the walls offered limited resistance to them.

United Kingdom

England

* Alnwick
* Bath - built in the Middle Ages, though only one fragment remains today.
* Berwick-upon-Tweed
* Bridgnorth- the North Gate is still present, the site of the former Postern Gate still very visible; and parts of the wall now form garden walls in various parts of the town.
* Canterbury
* Carlisle
* Chester - the city walls are one of the city's biggest tourist attractions. They were originally built by the Romans.
* Chichester
* Colchester - the town was surrounded by a wall built by the Romans after Boudica had sacked the town. Approximately half of the walls remain.
* Coventry - the walls were demolished in 1662. Two gates survive, connected by a section of wall that runs through Lady Herbert's garden. Other small fragments dotted around the city centre, mainly hidden by modern buildings, include the remains of a bastion near Upper Well Street. Several fragments have been incorporated into newer buildings.
* Exeter
* Great Yarmouth - about two-thirds of the wall remains. Of the original eighteen towers, eleven survive.
* Hartlepool
* Hereford
* Kingston upon Hull
* Leicester
* Lincoln - fragmentary remains
* London - fragments of London Wall, the wall that once surrounded the Roman town of Londinium, are still visible just outside the Museum of London and at Tower Hill in the City of London.
* Ludlow
* Newcastle upon Tyne - much of the town wall was demolished during the late 18th and early 19th centuries but several sections still remain.
* Norwich
* Oxford - major fragments are preserved in the gardens of New College and Merton College and as part of the exterior wall of Pembroke College on Brewer Street.
* Rye
* Shrewsbury - one section remains along the 'Town Walls' road
* Silchester - the nearby deserted Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum has a complete set of walls.
* Southampton
* Wallingford
* Wareham
* Warwick
* Winchelsea
* Winchester
* York - the extensive remains of the city walls are both a shortcut above the streets and, as in many places, a tourist attraction.

Northern Ireland

* Bangor, County Down
* Carrickfergus
* Derry walls withstood a siege during the Siege of Derry and are amongst the best preserved in Europe.

cotland

* Edinburgh's city wall (part of which survives as the Flodden Wall) was so restrictive that it led to the development of an underground slum to accommodate its high population density. More remains of the now abandoned slum than does of the wall, of which only fragmentary sections remain.Fact|date=July 2007
* Stirling

Wales

* Caernarfon
* Conwy
* Tenby

Asia

Afghanistan

* Balkh, the ancient city

China

* Chinese cities occasionally have remnants of city walls that were built in the Ming Dynasty and designed to withstand artillery bombardment. Chinese cities generally outgrew their walls, which fell into disrepair in the Qing dynasty. The city of Xi'an has well-preserved walls with a water filled moat that is a tourist attraction incorporating small parks surrounding a busy and modern area of the city.
* The walls of Beijing were demolished during the 1960s to open large streets around the city. A metro line also follows the location of the former city walls.
* Beijing, see City Wall of Beijing
* Nanjing, see City Wall of Nanjing
* Jingzhou
* Pingyao
* Xi'an
* Walled villages can still be found in Mainland China and Hong Kong.
* Dali City, Yunnan

India

* Dholavira
* Warangal
* Jaipur
* Jodhpur
* Udaipur
* Raigad
* Mumbai (old city of Bombay)
* Lucknow
* Ahmedabad
* Agra
* Delhi

Iran

* Bam
* Isfahan
* Shiraz
* Tabriz

Iraq

* Babylon
* Baghdad
* Basra

Israel

* Acre - 18th century modern Ottoman fortification able to withstand cannons attack. The wall has been restored and now includes rampart for tourists.
*Jerusalem's Old City walls

Lebanon

* Beirut
* Byblos
* Sidon

Pakistan

Almost every old city in Pakistan had a defensive wall. Much of these walls were destroyed by the British in order to defortify the cites. Few cities which were fortified are:

* Walled City of Lahore
* Multan
* Peshawar

Philippines

* Intramuros - partially preserved, partially restored after WWII. Original walls are still well preserved.
* Fort San Pedro - in Cebu
* Fort San Antonio Abad - in Manila
* Fort Pillar- a Spanish defence fort in the island of Mindanao

yria

* Aleppo
* Damascus
* Homs

Thailand

* Ayutthaya
* Chiang Mai was surrounded by a moat and city walls when it was established by King Mangrai the Great in 1296. They were extensively rebuilt in the early 19th century. Large parts of the city walls and city gates of the Chiang Mai survived till the present.
* Chiang Saen
* Kamphaeng Phet
* Nan, Thailand
* Phimai
* Phrae
* Si Satchanalai
* Sukhothai

Uzbekistan

* Bukhara
* Khiva
* Samarkand

Vietnam

* Huế

West Bank

* Jericho

Yemen

* Sana'a
* Shibam

Africa

Algeria

* Algiers
* Ghardaïa
* Timimoun

Egypt

* Cairo
* Al-Fustat
* Damietta

see List of Egypt castles, forts, fortifications and city walls

Libya

* Tripoli

Mali

* Timbuktu

Morocco

* Casablanca
* Marrakech
* Tangier

Niger

* Zinder, Niger was well known for its city wall, the remains of which can still be seen

Nigeria

*Kano, in Nigeria, is also well known for its city walls, the remains of which can still be seen around the city.

Tunisia

* Kairouan
* Tunis

North / South America and the Caribbean

Canada

* The Ramparts of Quebec City are the only fortified city walls in the Americas north of Mexico that still exist.
* Montreal, Quebec Remnants of Montreal's nearly demolished city wall remain surrounding the Old Port neighborhood.

Cuba

* La Habana

Dominican Republic

*Santo Domingo was a fortified city from the 16th century to the early 20th century. Parts of the wall are still visible in the Colonial Zone. One of the main gates is very well preserved and centuries ago was named "The Gate of the Count" after the Count of Peñalba, who stopped the invasion of Penn and Venables in 1655.

Mexico

* Campeche
* Tulum

Peru

* Lima
* Trujillo

Puerto Rico

* San Juan

United States

* Rampart Street, in New Orleans, is named for the rampart, or wall, that protected the French Quarter from invading English and Native Americans during the city's early days. Dismantled during Spanish Rule.
* Wall Street, located in the financial district in Lower Manhattan, in New York City, is named after the wooden fortification that ran along the northern border of original Dutch colonie. Contrairy to popular myth, it was used to keep out wolves and other wild animals, and not the Native Americans who were still living in the area.
* St. Augustine, Florida
* Charleston, South Carolina (Walls no longer extant)

ee also

* Defensive wall
* City gate
* Fortification
* List of walls
* Wall
* Stone wall
* Medieval fortification


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