- Ruthenian Catholic Church
The Ruthenian Catholic Church is a
sui iuris(i.e., self-governing) Catholic Church(see particular Church), which uses the Divine Liturgyof the Constantinopolitan Byzantine Eastern Rite. Its roots are among the Rusynswho lived in the region called Carpathian Ruthenia, in and around the Carpathian Mountains. This is the area where the borders of present-day Hungary, Slovakiaand Ukrainemeet.
Ruthenian Catholics are descended from those to whom
Saints Cyril and Methodius brought Christianity and the Byzantine Rite in their missionary outreach to the Slavic peoplesin the ninth century. [ [http://www.dreamwater.org/edu/passaic/history.htm Dreamwater Free Web Space: ERROR 404 ] ]
The inhabitants of the region were forced to take refuge in the mountains by the invasion of the Magyars in the 10th century. With the 1646 A.D.
Union of Uzhhorod, the Ruthenian Church reunited with the rest of the Catholic Church but was to retain its Byzantine rite and liturgical traditions, its bishops would be elected by a council composed of Basilian monks and eparchial clergy. [ [http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/JP2UZHHO.HTM John Paul II 18 April 1996 Apostolic Letter ] ]
The region became, in part, incorporated in
Czechoslovakiaafter World War I. Annexation to the Soviet Unionafter World War IIled to persecution of the Ruthenian Catholic Church. [ [http://www.faswebdesign.com/ECPA/Byzantine/Ruthenian.html Ruthenian Church ] ] However, since the collapse of Communismthe Ruthenian Catholic Church in Eastern Europe has seen a resurgence in numbers of faithful and priests. [ [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/U/Z/UzhhorodUnionof1646.htm Encyclopedia of Ukraine] ]
Relations with Latin-Rite Catholics in the United States
In the 19th and 20th centuries, various Byzantine-Rite Catholics arrived in the
United States of America, particularly in coalmining towns. [ [http://www.byzantines.net/st-anne/whorwe.htm Byzantines] ] The predominant Latin-Rite Catholic hierarchy did not always receive them well, being disturbed in particular at what they saw as the innovation, for the United States, of a married Catholic clergy. At their request, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith applied on 1 May 1897to the United States["Collectanea" No. 1966] rules already set out in a letter of 2 May 1890to François-Marie-Benjamin Richard, the Archbishop of Paris. ["Acta Sanctae Sedis", vol. 1891/92, p.390] These rules stated that only celibates or widowed priests coming without their children should be permitted in the United States. This rule was restated with special reference to Catholics of the Ruthenian Church by the 1 March 1929decree "Cum data fuerit", which was renewed for a further ten years in 1939. Dissatisfaction by many Ruthenian Catholics in the United States gave rise to the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese. (See also Archbishop John Ireland).
Relations with Latin-Rite Catholics have improved, especially since the
Second Vatican Council, at which the Ruthenian Church influenced decisions regarding language in the liturgy. [ [http://www.byzantines.net/StCyril/byzantine.htm Byzantine] ] (Unlike the former custom in the Latin Church, the Ruthenian Church always celebrated the Divine Liturgyin the Church Slavonic language, an ancient Slavic language.) The Council also reiterated: "The Catholic Church holds in high esteem the institutions, liturgical rites, ecclesiastical traditions and the established standards of the Christian life of the Eastern Churches, for in them, distinguished as they are for their venerable antiquity, there remains conspicuous the tradition that has been handed down from the Apostles through the Fathers and that forms part of the divinely revealed and undivided heritage of the universal Church." [ [http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decree_19641121_orientalium-ecclesiarum_en.html Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches, 1] ]
The Ruthenian Catholic Church today
The Ruthenian Church now consists of the Metropolia of Pittsburgh — comprising the
Byzantine Catholic Archeparchy of Pittsburgh[ [http://www.byzcath.org/pitt/pittsbgh.htm Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh] ] (originally established in 1924) with its three suffragan eparchies of Parma, [ [http://www.byzcath.org/par/parma.htm Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Parma] ] (1969) Passaic, [ [http://www.byzcath.org/pas/passaic.htm Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Passaic] ] (1963) and Van Nuys (1981) — the Eparchy of Mukachevein Ukraine (dating from 1771 and immediately subject to the Holy See), and the Apostolic Exarchate of the Czech Republic(founded in 1996).
One problem preventing organization of the Ruthenian Catholic Church under a single synod is the desire of some of the priests and faithful of the Eparchy of Mukacheve that it should be part of the
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. [ [http://www.rusyn.org/?root=rusyns&rusyns=religion&article=94 Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo] ]
parishes stress acceptance of the Popeand of the Catholic Church and its teachings (with an Eastern expression). [http://hometown.aol.com/evnizer/myhomepage/index.html] The Second Vatican Councildirected this Church to remove much of the "Latinization" in an attempt to return to its Eastern Christian identity. This has been met with some success. In June 1999 the Council of Hierarchs of the Byzantine Metropolitan Church Sui Iuris of Pittsburgh U.S.A. promulgated the norms of particular law to govern itself. In January 2007 the Council of Hierarchs promulgated revised versions of the Divine Liturgies of St. John Chrysostom and St. Basil the Great.
Members of the Byzantine (Ruthenian) Catholic Church of the United States of America are not limited to immigrants from Eastern Europe or their descendants.
Byzantine Discalced Carmelites
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
History of Christianity in Ukraine
Union of Brest
Union of Uzhhorod
Josaphata Hordashevska- Foundress and Missionary
* [http://www.stmichaelstoledo.org/ St. Michael Byzantine Catholic Church Toledo]
* [http://www.byzantinetucson.com/ St. Melany Byzantine Catholic Church Tucson, AZ USA]
* [http://www.byzcath.org/ Byzantine Catholic Church in America]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06744a.htm Greek Catholics in America, Catholic Encyclopedia]
* [http://www.the-tidings.com/2005/0114/stmaryside.htm Cathedral of St. Mary (Byzantine-Ruthenian Church)]
* [http://www.simkovich.org/religion.htm History of the Ruthenian Catholics in the Carpathian Mountains]
* [http://www.clubs.psu.edu/up/byzcath/ Penn State University Byzantine Catholic Campus Ministry]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/pius_xii/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_23121945_orientales-omnes-ecclesias_en.html Orientales Omnes Ecclesias: Encyclical of Pope Pius XII]
* [http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decree_19641121_orientalium-ecclesiarum_en.html Orientalium Ecclesiarum: Second Vatican Council]
* [http://www.byzcath.org/lists/parlist.htm Directory of Byzantine-Ruthenian Parishes]
* [http://www.byzantines.net/epiphany/ouridentity.htm Our Identity]
* [http://www.faswebdesign.com/ECPA/Byzantine/Ruthenian.html Ruthenian Church]
* [http://www.byzcath.org/chant/ Ruthenian Liturgical Resources]
* [http://www.saintelias.com/Links_elia/Links_elia.html St. Elias Church]
* [http://www.dreamwater.org/edu/passaic/history.htm What Is the Byzantine-Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church?]
* [http://www.byzantines.net/StNicholas-Orlando/WhoWeAre.htm Who are we?]
* [http://www.gcatholic.com/dioceses/data/riteRt.htm Catholic Dioceses in the World - By Rite - Ruthenian Church]
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