Frederick Gowland Hopkins


Frederick Gowland Hopkins

Infobox_Scientist
name = Frederick Gowland Hopkins


caption =
birth_date = birth date|1861|6|20|mf=y
birth_place = Eastbourne, Sussex, England
death_date = death date and age|1947|5|16|1861|6|20
death_place = Cambridge, England
nationality = United Kingdom
field = Biochemistry
work_institution = University of Cambridge
alma_mate r = University of London
Guy's Hospital
doctoral_advisor = Thomas Stevenson
doctoral_students = J.B.S. Haldane
Judah Hirsch Quastel
Malcolm Dixon
known_for = vitamins, tryptophan
prizes = Nobel Prize (1929)
religion = Agnostic [ [http://traumwerk.stanford.edu:3455/ChristineFinn/59 Christine Finn: Chapter One ] ]

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins OM FRS (June 20, 1861 Eastbourne, Sussex - May 16, 1947 Cambridge) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins. He also discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901.

Biography

Hopkins was educated at the City of London School completing his further study with the University of London External Programme and the medical school at Guy's Hospital.Joseph Needham, "Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, O.M., F.R.S. (1861-1947)," "Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London", Vol. 17, No. 2. (Dec., 1962), pp. 117-162 [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0035-9149%28196212%2917%3A2%3C117%3ASFGHOF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G] ] He then taught physiology and toxicology at Guy's Hospital from 1894 to 1898, and became Professor of Biochemistry at Cambridge University in 1914, where his students included neurochemistry pioneer Judah Hirsch Quastel.

He was awarded the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (together with Christiaan Eijkman) for his discovery that certain trace substances -- now known as "vitamins" -- are essential for the maintenance of good health. He also discovered that muscle contraction can lead to the accumulation of lactic acid.

Hopkins was knighted in 1925. He is the father of the archaeologist Jacquetta Hawkes (and hence the father-in-law of the writer J. B. Priestley) and also the cousin of Gerald Manley Hopkins. Although he had no formal doctoral advisor, his equivalent mentor was Thomas Stevenson.

Timeline

* June 30, 1861: Born in Eastbourne, Sussex, England.
* 1890: Gains B.Sc. degree from University of London.
* 1894: Medical degree from Guy's Hospital, London.
* 1898: Married to Jessie Anne Stevens.
* 1898-1910: Lecturer in Chemical Physiology, Cambridge University.
* 1905: Elected Fellow of the Royal Society (Britain's most prestigious scientific organization).
* 1910: Appointed Fellow and Praelector in Biochemistry, Trinity College, Cambridge.
* 1912: Publishes "Feeding Experiments Illustrating the Importance of Accessory Food Factors in Normal Dietaries", demonstrating the need for vitamins in diet.
* 1914-1943: First ever Professor of Biochemistry at Cambridge University.
* 1918: Awarded Royal Medal of the Royal Society.
* 1925: Knighted by King George V.
* 1926: Awarded Copley Medal of the Royal Society.
* 1929: Wins Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology.
* 1930-1935: President of the Royal Society.
* 1933: President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
* 1935: Awarded the Order of Merit (Britain's most exclusive civilian honor).
* May 16, 1947: Dies in Cambridge, England.

Notes

References

External links

* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1929/hopkins-bio.html Nobel Prize biography]
* [http://www.imagery-imagination.com/hopkins.htm Biography by N.J.T. Thomas]
* [http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mainzv/Web_Genealogy/h-list.htm Chemical genealogy]

Persondata
NAME= Hopkins, Frederick
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION= English Biochemist
DATE OF BIRTH= June 20, 1861
PLACE OF BIRTH= Eastbourne, Sussex, England
DATE OF DEATH= May 16, 1947
PLACE OF DEATH= Cambridge, England


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Frederick Gowland Hopkins — Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (* 20. Juni 1861 in Eastbourne, Sussex; † 16. Mai 1947 in Cambridge) war ein englischer Biochemiker und Mediziner. Hopkins gilt als Begründer der Vitaminforschung. In der Milch entdeckte er die Vitamine A und B. Bei… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins — noun English biochemist who did pioneering work that led to the discovery of vitamins (1861 1947) • Syn: ↑Hopkins • Instance Hypernyms: ↑biochemist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Frederick G. Hopkins — Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (* 20. Juni 1861 in Eastbourne, Sussex; † 16. Mai 1947 in Cambridge) war ein englischer Biochemiker und Mediziner. Hopkins gilt als Begründer der Vitaminforschung. In der Milch entdeckte er die Vitamine …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hopkins , Sir Frederick Gowland — (1861–1947) British biochemist Hopkins was the son of a bookseller and publisher and a distant cousin of the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins. He was born at Eastbourne and, after attending the City of London School, was apprenticed as a chemist in a… …   Scientists

  • Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland — born June 20, 1861, Eastbourne, East Sussex, Eng. died May 16, 1947, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire British biochemist. He discovered the amino acid tryptophan (1901) and showed that it and certain others are essential in the diet and cannot be made… …   Universalium

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