Australian hip hop


Australian hip hop

Australian hip hop music began in the early 1980s; originally it was primarily influenced by hip hop music and culture imported via radio and television from the United States of America. However, since the 1990s, a distinctive local style has developed. Australian hip hop is an underground music scene with only a few commercial hits in the last decade. Albums and singles are released by mostly independent record labels, often owned and run by the artists themselves.[1]

Contents

History

In 1982, the video "Buffalo Gals", was shown on a television music show called Sound Unlimited. The show was staged in a Manhattan basketball court and featured images of graffiti and break dancers. This left an impression on many teenagers and many started attempting the dance moves they saw on the show.[2]

The first Australian hip hop record released was "16 Tons" / "Humber Mania Time" by Mighty Big Crime released by Virgin Records and Criteria Productions in 1987 (Catalogue number VOZC 026).[3] The single was a Beastie Boys derivative[4] and the Melbourne based duo soon disbanded.[5] Although it is claimed by Gerry Bloustein in her book, Musical Visions, that the first 'true hip hop' release was, "Combined Talent" / "My Destiny" in 1988 by Just Us (consisting of Maltese DJ Case and Mentor).[6]

Also in 1987/1988 former punk band turned hip-hop act, "Skippy the Butcher" performed at venues around Melbourne, most notably a residence at The Razor club around the end of 1988. Following this they joined in the first tour of RUN-DMC, playing support at the Festival Hall and Metro concerts in November 1988. After recording one 5 track EP; "Full Blown Rap" [1] at the ABC studios in Elsternwick, Melbourne the group disbanded.

In the late 1980s, Sound Unlimited Posse became the first Australian hip hop group signed to a major record label (Sony BMG), releasing A Postcard from the Edge of the Under-side in 1992, the first major-label Australian rap album.[6] The group initially received some criticism for their instrumental style and commercial success, particularly from other Sydney-based hip hop outfits. In 1991 a local Sydney Rap Solo Artist, KIC, only 16 years old was signed to Sony/COLUMBIA records becoming the youngest to sign to a major label. His first debut single 'Bring Me On' was an instant hit in Australia and reached the top ten charts in Singapore and Hong Kong in 1994. Also in 1992, the independent label Random Records released Def Wish Cast's album Knights of the Underground Table. After this there were a string of independent CDs and tapes released by various artists from the Western Suburbs of Sydney, an area traditionally regarded as working class, underprivileged, and crime-ridden, with a large population of immigrant inhabitants.[7]

After Sound Unlimited split in 1994, there was little commercial activity within Australian hip hop. However, underground artists continued to play plenty of small live shows and release independent recordings.

By the early 2000s, the Australian Record Industry Association began to recognise the growth of interest within Australia and then in 2004 introduced a new category in their annual awards, 'Best Urban Release' (artists working primarily within the urban genre, e.g.: R&B, hip hop, soul, funk, reggae and dancehall). The inaugural award was won by Koolism for their album, Random Thoughts.[8] At the 2006 and 2007 Awards it was won by Hilltop Hoods for their album The Hard Road and its orchestral remix album The Hard Road: Restrung respectively.[9][10] The Hard Road also became the first Australian Hip Hop Album to take the No. 1 position in the ARIA Charts in 2006. In 2008 the ARIA Award was won by Bliss n Eso for their album Flying Colours.

Style

Since its inception, Australian hip hop has been very influenced by the urban African-American styles.[1] Like many hip hop scenes outside the United States, some Australian hip hop artists were also heavily influenced by reggae as well.[11] One artist describes his own style has having been "influenced by London reggae rap rather than North American rap, conceding the Afro-Caribbean 'roots' of that scene, but carefully distancing himself from charges of imitation or of subjection to a putative American cultural imperialism."[12] as general Australian hip hop is more similar to American hip hop as stylish, but the diversity of American hip hop is very different than Australian. In the United States hip hop artists are predominantly black, and Latino American. Possibly due to demographic differences, this contrasts with Australian hip hop artists, a majority of whom are white or from other cultural backgrounds indicative to Australia.

Though not at the forefront of Australian hip hop scene, Aboriginal rappers such as Brothablack, the South West Syndicate, Local Knowledge, Lez Beckett, Native Ryme Syndicate produce songs that address the situation of Indigenous Australians.[2][13] One of their musical influences is the American hip hop group Public Enemy.[14] Since the early 1980s, many crews have focused on their presentation in the eyes of their competitors, portraying their skills as better and their turf as tougher. Another performer is Munkimuk, he works around Australia on community educational hip-hop projects[13] such as 1999s Desert Rap with Brothablack from South West Syndicate and Morganics, organised with Tony Collins from Triple J, of which ABC TV made a documentary.[15] Munkimuk also hosts a nationally syndicated weekly radio program "Indij Hip Hop Show" produced from Koori Radio in Sydney.

In Australia, dance moves associated with hip hop, like locking and popping has been one of the main things that has drawn public interest in hip hop, and contributed to its popularity.[16] These dance moves that make Australian hip hop so intriguing to Australians, however, has being criticized as not original and another sign of proof that Australia suffers from not having a hip hop cultural identity of its own.[17] As a result, it is hard to pinpoint what in Australian hip hop makes the hip hop Australian.

Some[citation needed] say that Australian hip hop is an example of how the country has been Americanized. However others[citation needed] argue that Australian hip hop has been localised with the use of the Australian accent, Australian slang, political views, references to localities, dealings with the Australian cultural identity, etc. This is demonstrated in the lyrics of early Western Sydney artists such as 046, Def Wish Cast and the White Boys. Additionally the non-Anglo immigrants of theses areas were attracted to hip hop because of it features in lyrics and content of racial opposition such as in African American hip hop.[7] The American influence in Australian music and film has actually made its biggest impact in the 21st century with the internet. The internet has made American film, music, language and fashion popular worldwide .[18]

In the industry this debate is a sore point with many Australian hip hop artists denying any association with American hip hop. One way of asserting their authenticity is by making clear that, for them, hip hop is not about race. This distinguishes Australian rap, the performers and enthusiasts of which are mostly white males, from U.S rap, which is very much associated with African American culture and style. Although one cannot deny that hip hop originated in the U.S. and that U.S. hip hop has major influences on hip hop scenes around the globe, in emphasizing the lack of racial issues in Australian hip hop, Australian rappers imply that their hip hop scene developed separately from America's and is its own entity. In the lyrics of Def Wish Cast it is "down under, comin' up."[2][19] But, despite the absence of a racial undertone Australian hip hop shares the same sexualization found in its U.S. equivalent. Maxwell believes that the teens of the area find it "exotic".[19] One problem is that Aussie hip hop does not play a large role in the grand scheme of things and many of the artists now it saying "once you leave our shores you realise how small a part we play".[20] This tends to create a problem for the style of Aussie music as they may not be able to create their own identity and have to follow the more traditional Western hip hop fads.

As it progressed, Australian hip hop has taken on a greater diversity with influences from New Zealand and United Kingdom, but also by developing its own unique flavour with a focus on the Aussie battler, jovial, larrikin lyrics and the heavy use of samples and sound bites. There are, however, many instances of artists and their works that use their lyrics to analyse and discuss society, politics and how Australian suburbia interacts with the Australian culture amongst other such subjects.[citation needed] A theme that is becoming more and more prevalent throughout the work of various Australian MCs is that of their individual emotional struggles throughout life.

Media exposure

Radio

The Australian hip hop scene/industry has numerous ways of how it is promoted and how it grows. The radio, particularly community radio, plays a huge role in the spread of hip hop in Australia as this is all explained in further detail below. As aforementioned, and according to Henderson April, in his article,[21] he outlines the fact that youth in Australia have had such a great impact on spreading hip hop, and one of the ways they do it is by adopting and incorporating new styles of music and dances they acquire from other countries or groups. The radio, internet radios and social network web pages are some of the sources or act as their libraries of information. According to some other sources such as [22] DJs in the hip hop scene of Australia find radio stations as a strong promoting tool for their music. Additionally, the Australian Government funds some projects/ organization with a major motive of promoting music nationwide. For example, among the above named sources, the later describes Australian Music Radio Airplay Project (AMRAP), being a project funded by the federal government to promote music. Among the music promoted or among the genres of music aired on some of the federal Government funded radios is hip hop. The radio is additionally a crucial factor in the growth and spread of hip hop in Australia because it is easily accessed and affordable to have in Australia.

In Melbourne radio station 106.7 3PBSFM featured the radio show Steppin' 2 da A.M with DJ Krisy the show ran for over 5 years and featured almost the entire Australian hip hop scene including regular dj Spots by DJ Ransom,DJ FX and many more.

Also in Melbourne after Steppin 2 da A.M ended was a show called The Formula with hosts Stewbakka,Bias B and DJ FX that run for many years, when 'The formula' show ended the Hosts started a show at 3RRR Triple R called 'Werdburner' with Hosts Stewbakka and Bias B.

On 3PBSFM in Melbourne was a show called 'Hitt'n Switches' with Hosts Reason, Pegs, Minas, Newsense and DJ FX on the Turntables this show ran for many years and had a strong following with many australian hip hop artists doing interviews and live to air freestyles.

3PBS Still hosts 2 hip hop show's with 'Rampage' hosted by Zack covering oldshool hip hop from the beginnings of 1979 until the golden era of the late 80s and early 90s as well as 'Hippopotamus Rex' with Ronan that covers hip hop world wide.

Iconic Melbourne radio station Triple R featured the dedicated hip-hop program "Wordburner" for many years, replacing it in 2007 with Son Zu and Doc Felix's program "Top Billin". Additionally Gavan Purdy's long running program "Can You Dig It" features a substantial hip-hop component.

Influential youth radio station Triple J introduced the Hip Hop Show, a weekly program initially hosted by Nicole Foote, then rapper Maya Jupiter and now (2008) by Hau from Koolism.

In Tasmania, Launceston station City Park Radio (7LTN) featured the weekly hip hop show Ghettoblast, which was begun in 1985 by Ben Little and continued for about 17 years, manned by a rotating crew of devotees including Large B, Kingy, DJ D-Swift, Dice, Dready, Bust One and others. Before it ceased in 2002, Ghettoblast was for many years considered the longest running hip hop show in Australia. (Brisbane's Phat Tape has since taken over that honour). Meanwhile, in Hobart, J Robin and P Bourke had a dance music show on 7THE called Black Satin & Plastic in the mid-late 80s, which featured a lot of hip hop. In 1988, Dope DJ Double D (later DJ D-Swift), inspired by Black Satin & Plastic, started occasional midnight-to-dawn hip hop shows on 7THE, before starting the weekly Live from the Terrordome in 1989, which lasted 2–3 years.

The Edge (96.1 FM) in Sydney plays primarily hip hop and R&B, with a segment called 'The Tasman Connector' hosted by Ksera showcasing Australian and New Zealand hip hop and has the only nightly Urban countdown 'Ksera & The Dirty Dozen' winner of the 2006 UMA for best urban radio show. In 2009 Australian Radio Network who own The Edge 961 acknowledged the urban audience not being serviced by commercial radio and launched on-line Kseraradio.com which streams 24/7 via the website and simulcasts on The Edge from 9pm seven nights a week (changing to 4-6pm from 2010). The Edge 961 is the only commercial radio station in Australia to play predominantly urban music. As of July 2009, The Edge is on digital radio in Melbourne, Adelaide & Brisbane, under the name of "Edge Digital", however Ksera's show is not broadcast on Digital.

2SER (107.3FM) in Sydney has a weekly program, "Droppin Science", which features hip hop from 1979 to the present day.[23] 2SER was also home to The Mothership Connection which lasted over a decade until 2003, initially hosted by Miguel D'Souza then Mark Pollard with Crazy Mike, Size 13 and Myme also contributing. More recently Big Dave has been hosting episodes of Jailbreak on 2SER playing Aussie hip hop recorded by Australian prison inmates.

4ZZZ (102.1 FM) in Brisbane has a weekly program, "Phat Tape", every Friday from 8pm till 10pm. Phat Tape is the longest running hip hop radio show in Australia, current hosts are Chubba Dubbed, Complex, Dj Dcide and Sean B.

Three D Radio (93.7FM) in Adelaide, South Australia, currently runs two hip hop programs, "Best Kept Secret" Friday nights (previously Thursdays 11pm-1am) from 7:30-9pm & "Permanent Midnight" Fridays 4-5pm, both shows showcasing both classic and fresh out the box hip hop, from local and overseas artists. Recently the shows have featured live interviews and freestyles from the likes of Percee P, Evidence, M-Phazes, Cypress Hill, Kool Keith, Paris, Montage One, T-Kash, DJ True Justice, K.E.V., Dialect & Despair, Social Change, Delta, Motion, Pagen Elypsis, Adroit Effusive & C-Rayz Walz.

Fresh FM (92.7FM) in Adelaide, "The Jump-Off" a weekly hip hop show is hosted by Dj Kronic, Kronic often features local rapper Six-Three.

RTRFM (92.1FM) in Perth, has two weekly hip hop programs, "All City" Friday nights from 11pm-1am which covers hip hop and beats from around the world and "Down Underground" which features local and Australia hip hop.[24]

SYN (90.7FM) in Melbourne has one show, Strictly OZ, which is a 100% Australian HipHop Show hosted by Cook & Lil Marc playing the best of Australian HipHop, First went to Air Sep 30th 2009 . Discussing HipHop News and Gigs & Tours & Interviews, recently had ( Brad Strut, Diafrix, Phrase, Downsyde & Pez & 360, Bliss N Eso, Bias B, Maundz, Funkoars). Every Wednesday night from 10pm. Recently in 2011 Strictly OZ HipHop show has moved stations to KISS FM 87.6-88.0fm Melbourne every Sunday night from 7:30-9:00 playing 100% Australian HipHop.

Radio Metro (105.7FM) on the Gold Coast, Queensland has a weekly hip hop and R&B radio show called Mixtape Mondays hosted by local producers, The Architects,[25] that focuses on playing American urban music, as well as exposing Australian hip hop artists and DJ's.

JACradio (jacradio.com.au), the University of Queensland's student-run digital radio station, features "The 4 Elements",[26][27] a weekly hip hop show. The show is hosted by Journalism student and hip hop enthusiast Taj Davis and plays hip hop from around the world, but focuses primarily on Brisbane and Australian based artists.

2VOX-FM, a community radio station in Wollongong, NSW, had a long-running Hip Hop show called "The Big Payback" that was launched in 1990 by Hadjir Naghdy and local Wollongong hip hop identity, MC Skoop. The show went to air on Sat nights from 8 to 10pm before switching to a Tuesday night. It focused on both international and local Australian acts. A variety of presenters followed until it was removed from the programming schedule in 2010.

Television

The first appearance[citation needed] of an Australian hip hop act on Australian Television was in November 1988 when Skippy The Butcher performed live on the ABC's "The Factory" connected to the Run DMC tour. The first Australian hip hop documentary, Basic Equipment, was made in 1996 and released in 1997. It was narrated by Paul Westgate (aka Sereck) from Def Wish Cast and examined the Sydney hip hop culture. The documentary was made by Paul Fenech (creator of SBS' Pizza series). It featured MC Trey, Def Wish Cast, DJ Bonez, DJ Ask and more.[28]

In August, 2006 the ABC program Compass showed a documentary entitled The Mistery [sic] of Hip Hop which explored the cultural movement and popularity of hip hop in Australia. The film followed one of the "founding fathers" of the Sydney Hip-Hop scene Matthew "Mistery" Peet. Mistery works full time as graffiti artist and is also emcee/rapper in the group Brethren. The 28 minute documentary looked at the "four elements of hip hop": breakdancing, DJing, rapping, and graffiti. It featured interviews from the then host of Triple J's hip-hop show Maya Jupiter, the other half of the group Brethren: Wizdm and DJ Kool Herc.[29][30]

In December, 2007 ABC Television aired the documentary Words from the City, which included interviews with a number of high profile Australian hip hop artists from around the country including: Hilltop Hoods, Koolism, Downsyde, TZU, MC Layla, Bliss n Eso, MC Trey, Wire MC and Maya Jupiter.[31]

Film

In 2004, independent film-maker Oriel Guthrie debuted her documentary Skip Hop at the Melbourne International Film Festival. The film includes live footage of freestyle battles and prominent gigs around Australia, as well as interviews with Def Wish Cast, DJ Peril, Hilltop Hoods, Koolism, Blades Of Hades, Maya Jupiter, The Herd and Wicked Force Breakers.[32]

Out4Fame presents 2003 MC Battle For Supremacy was the first (documented) national MC tournament and was responsible for kick starting the careers of many MC's across Australia. The following year MC's were invited to enter the tournament for the chance to compete in New Zealand. MC's whom have competed in Battle For Supremacy tournaments include Weapon X, 360, Anecdote, Nfa, Justice, Dragonfly, Bobby Bal Boa, Kaos, Tyna, Surreal, Cyphanetics, Delta.Oriel Guthrie also documented the 2004 and 2005 events and released them on DVDs. MC Justice went on to win the 2005 Scribble Jam MC Battle, USA. The first Australian to win the competition

Publications

Australia has an illustrious history with printed publications including one of the first hip hop magazines in the world,[33] Vapors (1988), put together by Blaze (who also established the first hip hop shop in Sydney). Other notable zines include Hype (a pre-eminent graffiti magazine with a worldwide following through the late 1980s and 1990s) it was the first full colour graffiti magazine in the world, Zest, Raptanite, Arfek, Damn Kids, Artillery, Blitzkrieg, Slingshot and others. The first full colour hip hop magazine in the Southern Hemisphere was Stealth Magazine. It debuted in 1999 and has published over 14 issues since, and was distributed worldwide via Tower Records.

Following the popular Out4Fame: Battle For Supremacy tournaments, Out4Fame Magazine was launched as a free publication. Although the magazine achieved limited success within the local scene copies of the magazine soon became collectors items as the tournaments gained popularity. Out4Fame Magazine was later relaunched as Out4Fame presents ACCLAIM Magazine, later to simply become ACCLAIM Magazine. With Out4Fame being removed from the free publication market this created a gap for a new publication to be founded & Australia soon saw the release of the first Peak Street Magazine (Issue Zero). Peak Street Magazine has since release 2 further issues, generally 6 months apart, and held one art exhibition 'Sleep is the Cousin of Death' in which artists were invited to paint on 12" records drawing inspiration from the famous Nas lyric. A limited release publication was produced for the exhibition showcasing the art within.

Notable artists

Record labels

  • Obese Records — Their CEO is MC Pegz; artists include Illy, Dialectrix, and M-Phazes
  • Basic Equipment — Co-run by Sereck of Def Wish Cast; artists include Def Wish Cast
  • Big Village Records - Formed in 2010 and currently based in Sydney; rostered artists include Daily Meds, True Vibenation, Loose Change, Tuka, Jeswon, Ellesquire, Tenth Dan & Reverse Polarities.
  • Crookneck Records - Melbourne-based label; artists include A-Love, Mnemonic Ascent, Lazy Grey and DJ Ransom
  • Rebelbase - (Now Defunct) Established in Melbourne in 1993 Founders Zulu King Excel (Universal Zulu Nation) and partner E.K. - Artists included Dedli Cii, Ruffenexet, Ron B Me aka Fisun, Snuff, DJ FX, Damzel, RKS.
  • Elefant Traks — Run by members of The Herd; artists include Urthboy, Astronomy Class, Hermitude, The Herd and Horrorshow
  • Golden Era Records - A label established by Hilltop Hoods in 2008; Artists include Hilltop Hoods, Vents and Funkoars.
  • Hydrofunk Records — Run by members of the Resin Dogs; artists include Resin Dogs and Def Wish Cast.
  • IF? Records — Originally Melbourne-based, now in Tokyo; artists include Zen Paradox and Little Nobody.
  • Inavada Records - Established in Sydney in 2002; artists include Fdel, Koolism, Katalyst and Flow Dynamics.
  • Illusive Sounds - Melbourne-based recording label formed in February 2003; artists include Bliss n Eso, Downsyde, Diafrix and Weapon X and Ken Hell.
  • Krosswerdz Recordings - Artists include Mistery and Wizdm from Brethren also includes Dean DVS G., and Oakbridge.
  • Marlin Records - A Melbourne based recording label; artists include Phrase and Daniel Merriweather.
  • Method Recordings - A Melbourne label, part of the Shock Records group; artists include Illzilla, The Last Kinection, Elf Tranzporter, Hykoo, Infallible.
  • Nurcha Records (now defunct)[34] — Founded by Shrekk in 2005 and based in Sydney, until it closed in January 2009. The artist roster included Mind Over Matter, Last Credit, Phatchance Coptic Soldier, Double & Big Lu and Natural Causes.
  • Payback Records - Melbourne based label founded by Nathan Lovett-Murray and Cappa Atkinson. Artists include Tjimba and the Yung Warriors, Little G and [ Mr Morggs ].
  • Soulmate Records - Melbourne based label with a roster consisting of emcee's: 360, Pez, [Syntax] and producers: Stat D and Ante Escobar.
  • Unda K9 Records - Established in Sydney, founded by Lui in 2002; artists include Bukkcity, Tycotic, 13th Son, Syntax, DirtBox Kings, Herb and DJ Crusador.
  • Soul Clap Records - Carrying on the tradition created by The Lounge Room and continued by Next Level Records, whose premises Soul Clap took over in 2006.
  • Sub Conscious Records - Based in Sydney and founded by the hip-hop duo Sceptic & Dseeva in 2007. Roster includes artists such as DJ Skae, Dark Matter, Grouce, Kaye One, Nihilist, and the posthumous recordings of Doose One.
  • Deck Records - Established in Melbourne, 2011, founded by Deck (Producer) with artists L-Katraz and Lil' Sunny.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kalantzis-Cope, Phillip (2002-09-19). "Hip Hop – a way of life". http://www.cbonline.org.au/index.cfm?pageId=12,38,3,454. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  2. ^ a b c Maxwell, Ian. "Sydney Stylee: Hip-Hop Down Under Comin' Up." In Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA, ed. Tony Mitchell, 259-79. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
  3. ^ "16 Tons". Music Stack. http://www.musicstack.com/item/1295726/mighty+big+crime/16+tons_fsz_humber. Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  4. ^ creepshow magazine CRINGEWORTHY
  5. ^ "The Null Device". 2001-04-12. http://dev.null.org/blog/tags/mighty%20big%20crime. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  6. ^ a b Bloustein, Gerry (1999). Musical Visions. ISBN 1862545006. http://books.google.com/books?id=CYDNMtSGivcC&pg=PA88&lpg=PA88&dq=%22mighty+big+crime%22. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  7. ^ a b Mitchell, Tony (1998-03-18). "Australian Hip Hop as a ‘global’ Subculture". http://www.cia.com.au/peril/youth/tonym2.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  8. ^ "2004: 18th Annual ARIA Awards". ARIA. http://www.ariaawards.com.au/history-by-year.php?year=2004. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  9. ^ "2006: 20th Annual ARIA Awards". ARIA. http://www.ariaawards.com.au/history-by-year.php?year=2006. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  10. ^ "2007: 21st Annual ARIA Awards". ARIA. http://www.ariaawards.com.au/history-by-year.php?year=2007. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  11. ^ Marshall, Wayne (2005-12-29). "downunder underground". http://wayneandwax.blogspot.com/2005/12/downunder-underground.html. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  12. ^ Maxwell, Ian. Phat Beats, Dope Rhymes: Hip Hop Down Under Comin’ Upper. p. 203. http://books.google.com/books?id=do3tdWJECucC&lpg=PP1&dq=phat%20beats&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  13. ^ a b Tony Mitchell, The New Corroboree, 1 April 2006, The Age
  14. ^ Shapiro, Michael J. 2004. "Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject." Routledge.
  15. ^ Aboriginal Hip-hop: a modern day corroboree, at Local Noise
  16. ^ Henderson, April K. "Dancing Between Islands: Hip-Hop and the Samoan Diaspora" p.180-197
  17. ^ Park, M. & G. Northwood. "Australian Dance Culture." http://www.snarl.org/texts/features/dancecult2.htm. Accessed 18 Apr. 2008.
  18. ^ "The American and British Influence on Australian Music". Red Apple Education Ltd. http://www.skwirk.com.au/p-c_s-14_u-189_t-510_c-1895/american-and-british-cultural-influence-1990s/nsw/history/australia-s-social-and-cultural-history-in-post-war-period/social-and-cultural-features-of-the-1990s. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  19. ^ a b Mitchell, Tony. "World Music and the Popular Music Industry: An Australian View." Ethnomusicology, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 309-338.
  20. ^ Australian Music Online :: Interviews :: Talking Aussie hip-hop with Urthboy
  21. ^ Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 180-199. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 200
  22. ^ Amrap : Resources & Links
  23. ^ 2SER - Droppin Science
  24. ^ RTRFM - "Down Underground"
  25. ^ Mixtape Mondays MySpace Page
  26. ^ The 4 Elements hip hop show's JACradio page
  27. ^ The 4 Elements hip hop show's myspace page
  28. ^ "Basic Equipment". Screen Australia. http://www.afc.gov.au/filmsandawards/filmdbsearch.aspx?view=title&title=HIPHOP&keyword=film&area=all. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  29. ^ Compass program summary - 'The Mistery of Hip Hop' at abc.net.au
  30. ^ Compass program summary - 'The Mistery of Hip Hop' on YouTube
  31. ^ ABC TV guide December 2007
  32. ^ Nation Library of Australia - listing 'Skip Hop'
  33. ^ Out4Fame Magazine, Issue #25, 2004, page 32 "DJ Peril's Tales from the Old School - interview with DJ Blaze"
  34. ^ "What Happened To Nurcha?". Nurcha Records. 2009-03-10. http://www.nurcharecords.com/nurcha.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 

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