- Professional Chess Association
The Professional Chess Association (PCA), which existed between 1993 and 1996, was a rival organisation to
FIDE, the international chessorganization. The PCA was created in 1993 by Garry Kasparovand Nigel Shortfor the marketing and organization of their chess world championship.
Nigel Shortwon the Candidates Tournamentand so qualified as challenger to Garry Kasparovfor the World Chess Championship. [ [http://www.mark-weeks.com/chess/9193$cix.htm 1991-93 Candidates Matches] , Mark Weeks' Chess Pages]
By FIDE regulation, the bids for the World Championship final should have been decided by three parties - FIDE, the World Champion (Kasparov) and the Challenger (Short). According to Kasparov and Short, FIDE president
Florencio Campomanesbroke these rules by simply announcing the venue of winning bid as being Manchester. FIDE derived a substantial part of its income from the prize fund of the World Championship.
In response to this, Kasparov and Short formed the PCA, appointing Bob Rice as Commissioner. They played their world championship match under its auspices in October 1993. match took place in the
Savoy Theatrein London, under the sponsorship of The Times. Kasparov won clearly 12.5-7.5 and became PCA World Chess Champion.
FIDE stripped Kasparov of the FIDE World Championship title, and instead held a rival match between
Anatoly Karpovand Jan Timman, the two final players Short had defeated to win the Candidates Tournament. Karpov won that match, to become FIDE World Chess Champion. For the first time in chess history there were two world champions, the FIDE world champion Karpov and the PCA world champion Kasparov.
From 1993 to 1995, the PCA held an
Interzonaltournament and Candidates matches, in the style of the FIDE world championship qualifiers. FIDE also had its own cycle of qualifiers, with many of the same players playing in both. The PCA candidates cycle was won by the Indian GM Viswanathan Anand.
Kasparov defended his PCA World Championship title against Anand in the
World Trade Centerin a match starting September 11, 1995. Kasparov won the 20 game match 10.5 - 7.5.
Demise and aftermath
The PCA lost its main sponsor,
Intel, in 1996, [ [http://groups.google.com.au/group/comp.os.os2.advocacy/browse_thread/thread/ef970315cae13745/2f7089236fd34f08 Intel: The Grudge Inside?] , Usenetpost to comp.os.os2.advocacy, 18-Feb-1996, citing report from the Chicago Tribune, archived at Google Groups.] and folded soon after. This left Kasparov unable to organise a proper qualifying cycle for his title. He finally played (and lost) a match to a hand picked challenger, Vladimir Kramnik, in 2000 ( Classical World Chess Championship 2000). This match was played under the auspices of Braingames, which also appears to have folded.
When Kramnik defended his title at the
Classical World Chess Championship 2004, he gave the title the name "Classical", to emphasise the continuity that his title had with the tradition of defeating the previous titleholder. Since this is the same title as the Kasparov's PCA World title, the PCA World title is sometimes retrospectively called the "Classical" title.
The PCA split from FIDE was finally healed with the
FIDE World Chess Championship 2006, a re-unification match between Kramnik and 2005 FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov, which was won by Kramnik.
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