- Teatro di San Carlo
The Teatro di San Carlo is an
opera housein Naples, Italy. It is the oldest continuously active such venue in Europe and it is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Named after the Bourbon Charles III of Naples ("Carlo III" in Italian), the theatre was inaugurated on the
4 November 1737— the king's name day— with a performance of Domenico Sarro’s "Achille in Sciro", an opera based on the play by the famous poet and dramatist who went by the name of Metastasio. Sarro also conducted the orchestra in two ballets as intermezzi, created by Grossatesta. At the time, it was the largest opera house in the world, seating 3,300.
The theatre designed by the architects
Giovanni Antonio Medranoand Angelo Carasalefor the monarch since Charles wanted to endow Naples with a new and larger theatre to replace the old and dilapidated Teatro San Bartolomeo of 1621.
The new theatre was much admired for its architecture, its gold decorations, and the sumptuous blue upholstery (blue and gold being the official colours of the Bourbons).
12 February 1816the San Carlo was destroyed by fire. However, it was re-designed by the architect Antonio Niccoliniand rebuilt within ten months on order of King Ferdinand IV, another Bourbon monarch and son of Charles III.
12 January 1817, the rebuilt theatre was inaugurated with Johann Simon Mayr’s " Il sogno di Partenope". Stendhalattended the second night of the inauguration and wrote: “There is nothing in all Europe, I won’t say comparable to this theatre, but which gives the slightest idea of what it is like..., it dazzles the eyes, it enraptures the soul...”. It was designed as a traditional horseshoe-shaped auditorium with 1,444 seats, and the proscenium is 33.5m wide and 30m high. The stage is 34.5m deep.
In 1845 there was additional refurbishment and, by 1854, the theatre’s interior appearance changed to the now-traditional red and gold. Apart from the creation of the orchestra pit suggested by Verdi in 1872, the installation of electricity in 1890, the subsequent abolition of the central chandelier and the construction of the new foyer and a new wing for dressing rooms, the theatre underwent no substantial changes until the bombing of the Second World War in 1943. However, the theatre was quickly repaired by the occupying Allied forces, and it re-opened within six months on 16 December 1943.
The great age of Neapolitan opera
At the time, Neapolitan opera enjoyed great success all over Europe, not only in the field of
opera buffabut also in that of opera seria. The Neapolitan school of opera composers included Feo, Porpora, Traetta, Piccinni, Vinci, Anfossi, Durante, Jommelli, Cimarosa, Paisiello, Zingarelli, and Gazzaniga. Naples became the capital of European music and even foreign composers considered the performance of their compositions at the San Carlo theatre as the goal of their career. These composers included Hasse (who later settled in Naples) Haydn, Johann Christian Bachand Gluck.
Similarly the most prominent singers performed and consolidated their fame at the San Carlo, such as Lucrezia Anguiari, called “La Cochetta.” Other prominent singers who performed at San Carlo included the renowned castrati
Giovanni Manzuoli, Caffarelli (Gaetano Majorano), Farinelli(Carlo Broschi), Gizziello(Gioacchino Conti) and Gian Battista Velluti, the last castrato. Caffarelli, Farinelli, and Gizziello were products of the local conservatories of Naples
Composers in residence
From 1815 to 1822,
Gioacchino Rossiniwas house composer and artistic director of the royal opera houses, including the San Carlo, and he wrote ten operas during this time. These were " Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra" (1815), " La Gazzetta", "Otello, ossia il Moro di Venezia" (1816), " Armida" (1817), " Mosè in Egitto", " Ricciardo e Zoraide" (1818), " Ermione", " Bianca e Falliero", " Eduardo e Cristina", " La donna del lago" (1819), " Maometto secondo" (1820), and " Zelmira" (1822).
Regular singers of the period included
Manuel Garciaand his daughter Maria Malibran, Clorinda Corradi, Giuditta Pasta, Isabella Colbran, Giovanni Battista Rubini, Domenico Donzelli and the two great French rivals Adolphe Nourritand Gilbert Duprez—the inventor of the C from the chest.
After the composition of "Zelmira", Rossini left Naples with Colbran who had previously been the lover of the theatre’s impresario,
Domenico Barbaja. The couple were married shortly thereafter.
To replace Rossini, Barbaja first signed up
Giovanni Paciniand then another rising star of Italian opera: Gaetano Donizetti. As artistic director of the royal opera houses, Donizetti remained in Naples from 1822 until 1838, composing sixteen operas for the theatre, among which " Maria Stuarda" (1834), " Roberto Devereux" (1837), " Poliuto" (1838) and the famous " Lucia di Lammermoor" (1835), written for soprano Tacchinardi-Persiani and for tenor Duprez. Vincenzo Bellini, Sicilian by birth, also staged his first work, " Bianca e Gernando", at the San Carlo. Giuseppe Verdiwas also associated with the theatre. In 1841, his "Oberto Conte di San Bonifacio" was performed there and in 1845 he wrote his first opera for the theatre, "Alzira"; a second, " Luisa Miller", followed in 1849. His third should have been "Gustavo III" but it was forbidden at the last minute by the censor; it was later performed in Rome with the changed title of " Un ballo in maschera".
Among the conductors and composers appointed by the Teatro San Carlo is the famous and eccentric French harpist and composer
Nicolas Bochsa(1789-1856) who was accompanied by his "friend" the prima donnaAnna Bishop with whom he was touring the world. He conducted several operas (1844-1845) in the San Carlo with Anna Bishop as prima donna. [See [http://bochsa.site.voila.fr Nicolas Bochsa : Harpiste, compositeur, escroc] fr icon]
By the end of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century,
Giacomo Pucciniand other composers of verismooperas, such as the great Pietro Mascagni, Leoncavallo, Giordano, and Cilea, staged their works there.
Music of Naples
*Allison, John (ed.), "Great Opera Houses of the World", supplement to "Opera" Magazine, London 2003
*Beauvert, Thierry, "Opera Houses of the World", The Vendome Press, New York, 1995. ISBN 0-86565-978-8
*Zeitz, Karyl Lynn, "Opera: the Guide to Western Europe’s Great Houses", Santa Fe, New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1991. ISBN 0-945465-81-5
* [http://www.teatrosancarlo.it Teatro di San Carlo official website] en icon it icon
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