- Tom Mann
Tom Mann (
15 April 1856- 13 March 1941) was a noted British trade unionist. Largely self-educated, Mann became a successful organiser and a popular public speakerin the labour movement.
Mann was born in Bell Green, now a
suburbof Coventry, the son of a clerkwho worked at a colliery. He attended school from the ages of six to nine, then began work doing odd jobs on the colliery farm. A year later he became a trapper, a labour-intensive job that involved clearing blockages from the narrow airways in the mining shafts. In 1870, the colliery was forced to close and the family moved to Birmingham. Mann soon found work as an engineering apprentice. He attended public meetings addressed by Annie Besantand John Bright, and this began his political awareness. He completed his apprenticeship in 1877 and moved to London, however he was unable to find work as an engineer and took a series of unskilled jobs.
In 1879, Mann found work in an engineering shop. Here he was introduced to
socialismby the foreman, and decided to improve his own education. His reading included the works of William Morris, Henry Georgeand John Ruskin. In 1881 he joined the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, and took part in his first strike. In 1884, he joined the Social Democratic Federation(SDF) in Battersea. Here he met John Burnsand Henry Hyde Champion, who encouraged him to publish a pamphletcalling for the working dayto be limited to eight hours. Mann formed an organisation, the Eight Hour League, which successfully pressured the TUC to adopt the eight-hour day as a key goal.
Activist and leader
After reading the "
Communist Manifesto" in 1886, Mann became a communist. He now believed the main purpose of the labour movement should be to overthrow capitalism, rather than just to ameliorate the condition of workers under capitalism. He moved to Newcastle in 1877 and organised the SDF in the north of England. He managed Keir Hardie's electoral campaign in Lanarkbefore returning to London in 1888, where he worked in support of the Bryant and May match factory strike. With Burns and Champion, he began producing a journal, the " Labour Elector", in 1888.
Along with Burns and
Ben Tillett, Mann was one of the leading figures in the London Dock Strike in 1889. He was responsible for organising relief for the strikers and their families. With the support of other unions and various organisations, the strike was successful. Following the strike, Mann was elected President of the newly-formed Dock, Wharf, Riverside and General Labourers' Union, with Tillett as General Secretary. Tillett and Mann wrote a pamphlet called " New Unionism", which advanced the utopian ideal of a co-operative commonwealth. Mann was also elected to the London Trades and Labour Council and as secretary of the National Reform Union, and was a member of the Royal Commissionon Labour from 1891 to 1893. In 1894, he was a founding member of the Independent Labour Partyand became the party Secretary in 1894. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the party in the 1895 General Election. In 1896 he was beaten in the election for Secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers. He helped create the International Transport Workers' Federation, and was its first President. He was deported from a number of European countries for organising trade unions.
Mann's religious belief was as strong as his politics. He was an
Anglicanand organised support from Christian organisations like the Salvation Armyduring a number of strikes. In 1893 there were rumours that he intended to become a minister. He advocated the co-operativemodel of economic organisation, but resisted alliance between the ILP and other socialist organisations in Britain, like the Fabians. In 1895, the Fabian Beatrice Webbcriticised Mann's absolutism and described his goal derogatorily as, "a body of men all professing exactly the same creed and all working in exact uniformity to exactly the same end". Philip Snowden, a member of the ILP, liked Mann but was critical of his inability to stay with any one party or organisation for more than a few years.
Australia and Liverpool
In 1901, Mann emigrated to
Australiato see if that country's broader electoral franchise would allow more "drastic modification of capitalism". Settling in Melbournehe was active in Australian trade unions and became an organiser for the Australian Labor Party. However, he grew disillusioned with the party, believing it was being corrupted by the nature of government and concerned only with winning elections. He felt that the federal Labour MPs were unable and unwilling to change society, and their prominence within the movement was stifling and over-shadowing organised labour. He resigned from the ALP and founded the Victorian Socialist Party.
Returning to Britain in 1910, Mann wrote "The Way to Win", a pamphlet which argued that socialism could only be achieved through trade unionism and co-operation, and that parliamentary democracy was inherently corrupt. He founded the
Industrial Syndicalist Education League, and worked as an organiser for Ben Tillett. He led the 1911 Liverpool General Transport Strike. In 1912 he was convicted under the Incitement to Mutiny Act 1797of publishing a leaflet entitled "Don't Shoot", addressed to strike-breaking soldiers; his prison sentence was quashed after public pressure. He was opposed to Britain's involvement in the first World War on socialist and religious grounds and addressed pacifist rallies. In 1917, he joined the successor to the Social Democratic Federation, the British Socialist Party, which had affiliated to the Labour Party the previous year.
In 1919 he again ran for election as Secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, and was this time successful. He held the post until 1921, when he retired at the age of sixty-five. He welcomed the Russian
October Revolutionin 1917 and the Communist government, and called for soviets to be formed in the United Kingdom; in 1920 he was one of many members of the British Socialist Party who were inspired by the Revolution to break with Labour and form the Communist Party of Great Britain. Mann was chairman of the National Minority Movement, an organisation formed to increase Communist influence in the trade unions, from its formation in 1924 to 1929.
Tom Mann continued to actively champion socialism, communism and co-operation until his death in 1941. He published further pamphlets and regularly addressed public meetings in Britain and abroad, and he was arrested for sedition on several more occasions. He continued to be a popular figure in the labour movement, attracting large audiences to rallies and benefits. During the
Spanish Civil Warhe wanted to fight on the Republican side, but was by that time far too old. A unit of the International Brigade, the Tom Mann Centuria, was named in his honour.
*Hyman, Richard "Workers’ Union, 1898-1929" Oxford University Press 1971 ISBN-10: 0198282524
*Pollitt, Harry "Tom Mann: A Tribute" 1941
*Torr, Dona "Tom Mann" Lawrence & Wishart, 1944
*Torr, Dona "Tom Mann and his times Volume 1" Lawrence & Wishart, 1956
* [http://www.marxists.org./archive/mann-tom/index.htm Tom Mann Archive] Marxists Internet Archive
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Tom Mann — Tom Mann. Tom Mann (1856 1941) était un célèbre syndicaliste britannique. En grande partie autodidacte, il devint un organisateur talentueux et un orateur populaire du mouvement ouvrier. Sommaire … Wikipédia en Français
Tom Mann — (* 15. April 1856 in Bell Green; † 13. März 1941) war ein britischer Gewerkschafter und sozialistischer Politiker. Der Autodidakt war einer der bekanntesten und populärsten Vertreter der Arbeiterbewegung … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tom Mann — Tom Mann. Tom Mann (Foleshill, Warwickshire, 15 de abril de 1856 13 de marzo de 1941) fue un sindicalista y líder socialista y comunista británico, hijo de un librero. Solamente pudo pasar tres años escolarizado, marchando inmediatamente a… … Wikipedia Español
Mann (Familienname) — Mann ist ein deutscher Familienname. Der Name geht zurück auf Mann und mittelalterliche Nebenbedeutungen des Begriffs (tüchtiger Kerl, Lehnsmann, Vasall, Ministeriale) sowie auf Ableitungen aus den altdeutschen Rufnamen Maganhart, Mannhart,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Mann — 1. A blind man may perchance hit the mark. – Tauben und Hühner Zeitung (Berlin 1862), Nr. 6, S. 46. 2. A Mann a Wort oder a Hundsfott. (Ulm.) 3. A Mann wie a Maus ün a Weib wie a Haus is noch nit gleich. (Jüd. deutsch. Warschau.) Will sagen, dass … Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon
Mann (surname) — This article is about the surname Mann. For other uses, see Mann. Mann is surname of Germanic origin. The word means man , person , husband . The first uses of the name date to approximately the 9th century. Contents … Wikipedia
Tom und Locke — ist der Titel einer Jugendkrimiserie von Stefan Wolf (Pseudonym von Rolf Kalmuczak), dem Autor der populären TKKG Reihe. Sie erschien als Buchreihe in den 1980er Jahren im Pelikan Verlag und als Hörspielserie bei Europa (heute ein Teil von Sony… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Mann Made — Studio album by Manfred Mann Released October 1965 ( … Wikipedia
Tom Cruise — en décembre 2008. Données clés Nom de naissance Thomas Cruise Mapother … Wikipédia en Français
Tom Conway — (* 15. September 1904 in Sankt Petersburg, Russland; † 22. April 1967 in Culver City, Los Angeles County) war ein britischer Schauspieler und Hörspielsprecher. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Filmografie … Deutsch Wikipedia