Ritornello


Ritornello

In Baroque music, "ritornello" was the word for a recurring passage for orchestra in the first or final movement of a solo concerto or aria (also in works for chorus). In ritornello form, the tutti opens with a theme called the ritornello (refrain). This theme, always played by the tutti, returns in different keys throughout the movement. However, it usually returns in incomplete fragments. It was favoured by composers such as Bach, Vivaldi and Handel and was used frequently in concertos, chamber works and vocal and choral pieces, though most prominently in the solo concerto where it created a ‘tutti-solo-tutti-solo-tutti’ pattern, with the ritornello being the ‘tutti’ section. When the classical music era started, the ritornello form was altered to resemble sonata form, though it later transformed to become rondo form.

The final section of the fourteenth century madrigal was also called the "ritornello" and the ritornello technique was employed by Giovanni Gabrieli in his 16th century motets. The Ritornello form can be found in many Baroque and Classical period music such as J.S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3. Other pieces in ritornello form include a sonata in F Major by Joseph Haydn (using the form at a late date, as a classical period composer).

Beginning with the late Classical and extending through the duration of the Romantic era, the use of the ritornello construction faded with the advent of the far more standard classical concerto; however, with the advent of the 20th century and the general feeling of malaise within the composition field regarding the limits of form, the ritornello experienced an uptake in interest.


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  • Ritornello — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda En terminos musicales, Ritornello o ritornelo, en castellano [1] , es la repetición de una sección o fragmento de una obra. Los signos que se utilizan para indicar la parte que se repite son que significa abrir… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ritornello — (ital., Wiederkehr, Wiederholungsschritt; 1) in Arien u. Concertsätzen für Soloproductionen ein Theil des Stückes, welcher während des Pausirens der Solostimme von den andern Instrumenten wiederholt wird. Dies geschieht bisweilen auch zu Anfange… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • ritornello — /ritor nɛl:o/ s.m. [der. di ritornare ]. 1. (metr., mus.) [strofa poetica o brano musicale che si ripetono invariati nel corso di una composizione] ▶◀ intercalare, refrain, ripresa. 2. (fig.) [discorso ripetuto monotonamente troppe volte: ha… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • ritornello — → ritornelo …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • ritornello — [rit΄ər nel′ō; ] It [ rē΄tō̂r nel′lō̂] n. pl. ritornellos or ritornelli [rē΄tō̂r nel′lē] [It, dim. of ritorno, a return < ritornare, to return < ri (< L re ), RE + tornare (< L), to TURN] Music 1. an instrumental interlude before… …   English World dictionary

  • ritornello — /rit euhr nel oh/; It. /rddee tawrdd nel law/, n., pl. ritornellos, ritornelli / lee/. Music. 1. an orchestral interlude between arias, scenes, or acts in 17th century opera. 2. a tutti section in a concerto grosso, aria, etc. [1665 75; < It, dim …   Universalium

  • Ritornello — Ritornelle Rit or*nelle , Ritornello Ri tor*nel lo, n. [It. ritornello, dim. of ritorno return, fr. ritornare to return: cf. F. ritournelle.] (Mus.) (a) A short return or repetition; a concluding symphony to an air, often consisting of the burden …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ritornello — ri·tor·nél·lo s.m. 1. AD TS mus. frase musicale, spec. orecchiabile, ripetuta in una composizione a intervalli regolari: cantare, fischiettare un ritornello Sinonimi: refrain. 2a. TS mus. sullo spartito, segno che indica la ripetizione di un… …   Dizionario italiano

  • ritornello — ritornei англ. [ритонэ/л] Ritornell нем. [риторнэ/ль] ritornello ит. [риторнэ/ллё] ritournelle фр. [ритурнэ/ль] ритурнель …   Словарь иностранных музыкальных терминов

  • ritornello — noun (plural ritornelli or nellos) Etymology: Italian, diminutive of ritorno return, from ritornare to return, from ri re + tornare to turn, from Latin, to turn on a lathe more at turn Date: 1675 1. a. a short recurrent instrumental passage in a… …   New Collegiate Dictionary