Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority


Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority
Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority
logo
Slogan Serving Buffalo Niagara
Founded 1967
Headquarters Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center
181 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY
Service area Erie and Niagara Counties, New York
Service type Public Transit
Fleet Bus, Light rail, Rapid transit
Fuel type Diesel, Diesel-electric hybrid, Electricity
Operator NFTA Metro Bus and Rail
Web site Official Website

The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) is a public authority responsible for the public transportation oversight of Erie and Niagara counties in the State of New York. The NFTA oversees a number of subsidiaries, including the NFTA Metro bus and rail system, the Greater Buffalo Niagara International Airport, the Niagara Falls International Airport, and NFTA Small Boat Harbor. The NFTA Metro bus and rail system operates various vehicles using the brand names: NFTA Metro Bus, NFTA Metro Rail, NFTA Metrolink, and NFTA PAL (Para-transit Access Line).

In addition, the NFTA also owns and manages the Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center in Downtown Buffalo (which serves as the agency's headquarters); the Niagara Falls Transportation Center on Military Road (near the Factory Outlet Mall),the Portage Road Transit Center in Niagara Falls; and a number of strategically located bus loops and transit centers in the Buffalo-Niagara region. Many of these loops have been in continuous operation since the days of the International Railway Company, an earlier predecessor to the NFTA.

Agency-wide, the NFTA employs 1,543 full time and part-time employees and carries 94,000 passengers per day with their NFTA Metro subsidiary, with 8.9 million miles traveled every year.

There are three divisions that operate as the NFTA organization, the NFTA Metro division, the NFTA Airports division and the NFTA Properties division.

Contents

History

Before the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, the first bus operations in Buffalo dates back to 1923 under the private operator International Bus Company. The International Railway (also under the same parent company of the International Traction Company) operated the vast network of streetcar routes in Erie and Niagara counties. In 1947 the proposed Niagara Frontier Rapid Transit Commission received ownership of the International Railway Company, and gave way to the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transit System, Incorporated in 1950.

The Niagara Frontier Transit System was replaced by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority Corp (NFTA) in 1967, as part of New York State's efforts in the late 1960s and early 1970s at creating public agencies that would oversee the development and continuation of public transportation in a number of key urban areas of the state; other such agencies include the Rochester Genesee Regional Transportation Authority (RGRTA), the Central New York Regional Transportation Authority (Centro), and the Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA). NFTA purchased the street transportation rights from seven other private agencies, which include the Buffalo Transit Company, Dunkirk and Fredonia (D&F) Transportation Company, Grand Island Transit, Inc., Lockport Bus Lines, Ridge Road Express, Tonawanda/North Tonawanda Transit, and the Niagara Falls Municipal Transit System.[1]

Governing body and executive director

The NFTA's operations are overseen by an 11 member Board of Commissioners,[2] that the Executive Director reports to. The NFTA board has members that are recommended by the Governor of the State of New York, and one by the New York State Senate. Most appointments are for five year terms, but some commissioners were installed part-way into a term, replacing the previous commissioners.

The present executive director is Kimberly Minkel, previously the Director of Health, Safety, and Environmental Quality.[3] Kimberly Minkel will also carry the recognition as the first female executive director of the NFTA.

Name Title Term began Current term ends Recommended by Notes
Henry M. Sloma Acting Chairman 6 May 1998,
20 March 2001 (R),
22 June 2005 (R)
30 June 2010 Governor
Eunice A. Lewin Treasurer 11 June 2002,
30 June 2006 (R)
30 June 2011 Governor
Peter G. Demakos Secretary 13 June 2000,
30 June 2003 (R),
30 June 2008 (R)
30 June 2013 Governor
Vincent G. Crehan - 18 July 2008 30 June 2016 New York State Senate
Mark D. Croce - 12 May 2009 30 June 2013 Governor
James J. Eagan - 23 July 2008 30 June 2011 Governor
Carmen Granto - 6 December 2004 30 June 2009 Governor
Kevin J. Helfer - 11 December 2006 30 June 2011 Governor
Michael P. Hughes - 15 December 2008 30 June 2013 Governor
Adam W. Perry - 29 January 2008 30 June 2012 Governor
Howard Zemsky - 11 April 2008 30 June 2012 Governor

(R) re-appointment date

NFTA Airports Division

for further reading, please see Buffalo Niagara International Airport and/or Niagara Falls International Airport.

NFTA Metro Division

The "wave" is NFTA Metro's current logo.

Benefit (service) area

NFTA's Metro system serves mostly the highly urbanized areas of Erie and Niagara counties with service throughout the day; the cities served include Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Lockport, Lackawanna, Tonawanda and North Tonawanda. Service to less populated areas during prime ridership hours extend to Alden, Amherst, Boston, Cheektowaga, Grand Island, Hamburg, Lancaster, Elma, Evans, Orchard Park, Tonawanda (Township) and West Seneca in Erie County; Cambria, Lewiston, Niagara, Pendleton and Wheatfield in Niagara County.

Transit fleet

NFTA Gillig T40 number 1101 on display at Walden Galleria for Earth Day 2011.

Retired fleet

The NFTA, upon its beginnings, inherited a large number of buses of different varieties of General Motors New Look buses from the private carriers that were absorbed into the agency. In addition, a small fleet of Highway Products' Twin Coaches and Mack buses that were nearing the end of their life span were also added to the fleet.

The first major purchase of new buses by the NFTA began in 1975 with AM General's "Metropolitan" series buses. These buses were withdrawn from service in 1987 due to severe structural issues. A purchase of recently-mothballed GMC buses from the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system (DART) and Flxible buses from Rochester's Regional Transit Service filled most of the gap left by the removal of the AM General buses.

The next major purchase of new buses came from GMC, in their RTS-II Series. These buses were purchased between 1978 and 1983. In 1987, due to the premature retirement of the AM General buses, the NFTA purchased a number of used, earlier series RTS series buses from Dallas' DART system. These buses provided comfortable padded seats, normally not seen on standard NFTA transit coaches. These buses operated for a number of years, and were a deal to the NFTA in that the coach bodies previously did not suffer damage from road salt, sometimes referred to as "salt-free" miles, extending their usefulness a number of years because of the frames having a later start being introduced to road salt.

In 1985, the NFTA purchased seven suburban-configuration buses from Orion Bus Industries (OBI) to begin replacing older inherited GMC buses from the beginnings of the NFTA. This marked the last purchase of non-lift equipped buses, and first non-American purchase of new buses. Over the next seven years, OBI received more business from the NFTA with purchases of two different models, the Orion I series, and the Orion V, which the NFTA later purchased in 1993 as their first natural gas powered buses.

In 1992 and 1994, the NFTA purchased from two manufacturers, new to the NFTA; Motor Coach Industries and New Flyer Industries.

Current fleet

Currently, the NFTA operates a fleet of approximately 324 transit buses (all of which are wheelchair-accessible and ADA compliant), 64 paratransit and Metrolink cutaway vans and 27 light rail cars, operating up to 22 hours daily on 78 distinct routes.[4]

The current bus fleet contains buses purchased from manufacturers such as American Ikarus, Nova Bus, and Gillig. The buses are split between three bus depots; Gisel-Wolford station (also known as Babcock/William), located on Babcock Street at Howard Street in the east side of Buffalo; Cold Spring station, located at the corner of Main Street and Michigan Avenue in the middle of the city; and Frontier station, located at the corner of Military Road and Kenmore Avenue at the south-west tip of the Village of Kenmore.

The light rail fleet operates from the South Park terminal, located at the foot of Main Street in Downtown Buffalo.

Fleet List

Fleet Number(s) Year BldrA Model DivB Notes
101-127 1983 TCC SP
  • Metrorail cars
  • The entire fleet is being rehabilitated at Gray Manufacturing Industries in Hornell, New York a few cars at a time.[5]
104[6] 1967 GMC SDM-5302 w/d
  • Former Grand Island Transit 104, acquired in 1975
114[7] 1970 GMC S8M-5303A w/d
  • Former Grand Island Transit 114, acquired in 1975
166, 168[8] 1960 GMC SDM-4501 w/d
  • Former Grand Island Transit 66 & 68, acquired in 1975
201-222[9]
Handicapped/disabled access
1991 OBI/BIA 05.501 w/d
  • First wider (102") buses ordered directly by NFTA Metro.
  • First buses equipped with front door wheelchair lifts.
300-319[10] 1958 GMC TDH-5106 w/d
  • Former Buffalo Transit, Inc. Buses
301-305 ca. 1987
(built 1970)
Flx 111CD-D5 w/d
  • Purchased second-hand from RGRTA (Rochester) to fill gaps in buses, due to the emergency retirement of the fleet of AMG buses. Bus original fleet numbers in Rochester were 530, 569, 575, 560 and 572.
311-319[11] 1968 GMC T6H-4521 w/d
  • Former Niagara Falls Municipal Transit System buses
311-317 ca. 1987
(built 1968)
GMC T6H-4521 w/d
  • Purchased second-hand from Broome County Transit (Binghamton, NY) to fill gaps in buses, due to the emergency retirement of the fleet of AMG buses. Bus original fleet numbers in Binghamton were 802, 804, 807, 809-812.
321-367 ca. 1987
(built 1978)
GMC TH-8201
"RTS-01"
w/d
  • Purchased second-hand from DART (Dallas, TX) to fill gaps in buses, due to the emergency retirement of the fleet of AMG buses. Bus original fleet numbers in Dallas were 701-747.
401-417[12]
Handicapped/disabled access
1992 MCI TC40-102A "Classic" w/d
501-505[9]
Handicapped/disabled access
1993 OBI/BIA 05.501 CNG "Orion V" w/d
  • First buses using compressed natural gas (CNG)
526-540[11] 1968 GMC T6H-4521 w/d
  • Former Niagara Falls Municipal Transit System buses
601-607[13] 1985 OBI/BIA 01.509 "Orion I" w/d
  • Last new non-wheelchair lift-equipped buses purchased.
701-773[13]
Handicapped/disabled access
1986 OBI/BIA 01.508 "Orion I" w/d
  • Buses 703, 756, 768 and 772 were sold to RGRTA (Rochester), buses 720, 729, 741 and 757 were sold to BC Transit (Binghamton), and one to Poughkeepsie Transit.
  • First buses equipped with interior "Stop Requested" sign when bell is pulled.
801-816[13]
Handicapped/disabled access
1988 OBI/BIA 01.508 "Orion I" w/d
  • First electronic "flip-dot" destination signs.
851-852[13]
Handicapped/disabled access
1988 OBI/BIA 01.502 "Orion I" w/d
  • Used on 29-Wohlers route.
  • Last buses purchased with "curtain" style destination roll signs.
  • 30 long
861-867[13]
Handicapped/disabled access
1990 OBI/BIA 01.507 "Orion I" w/d
  • 861-862 were assigned to Main/Michigan for 29-Wohlers route.
  • 863-867 were assigned to Fr for use in Niagara Falls.
  • 35 long
901-912[13]
Handicapped/disabled access
1989 OBI/BIA 01.508 "Orion I" w/d
  • First buses with "air ride" drivers seats.
921-925[13]
Handicapped/disabled access
1990 OBI/BIA 01.508 "Orion I" w/d
  • Last OBI I buses.
  • Bus 925 was fitted with "hopper" type windows rather than sliding windows.
  • First buses, along with 861-867 with fabric covered inserts in the passenger seats.
1001-1011
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2010 Gillig Low Floor T40 Hybrid CS
  • Diesel-Electric
  • Entered service April 1st 2010
  • All 1000-series buses mark a return to full fiberglass passenger seating
1012-1065
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2010 Gillig Low Floor T40 Diesel Fr: 12-28, 60-65
BW: 29-49
CS: 50-59
  • First buses delivered to NFTA under the new EPA 2010 Emissions standards.
1066-1067
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2011 Gillig 40 Low Floor Trolley Replica Fr
  • Initially offered in 29 or 35 feet, the NFTA was the first agency to receive the 40 foot version
  • While primarily used for the 55T Niagara Falls tourist line, these buses will see occasional service on certain regular NFTA routes, such as the 3-Grant and 20-Elmwood.
1101-1130
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2011 Gillig Low Floor T40 Hybrid CS
  • Diesel-Electric
2001-2021[14]
Handicapped/disabled access
2000 Nova LFS CS
  • First "Low Floor" buses for NFTA.
  • First buses in the current blue-silver "wave" livery.
  • First production buses able to announce major stops along route.
  • 2002 is out of service after an accident with a garbage truck.
2101-2141
Handicapped/disabled access
2001 Gillig Advantage T40 Fr: 01-20
BW: 21-41
  • First buses to be equipped with amber colored LED destination signs
  • 2118 was withdrawn after catching fire in front of Seneca High School. The same fire also destroyed bus 9538.[citation needed]
2201-2242
Handicapped/disabled access
2002 Gillig Advantage T40 Fr
  • 2242 is out of service due to extensive front end damage.
2401-2422
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2004 Gillig Advantage T29 Fr: 01-06, 17-22
BW: 07-11
CS: 12-16
  • At present, these are the only 29-foot (8.8 m) buses in the fleet.
  • First buses fitted with bicycle racks on the front.
2501-2515
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2005 Gillig Advantage T40 BW
  • 2506 involved in accident with a tractor-trailer that severely damaged its frame. Bus is not salvageable.[citation needed]
2601-2630
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2006 Gillig Advantage T40 Hybrid BW
  • First batch of "Hybrid" buses, using combination diesel/electric technology. Energy is returned to batteries upon braking.
2701-2713
Handicapped/disabled access Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg
2007 Gillig Advantage T40 Hybrid Fr
  • Diesel-Electric
3001-3012
Handicapped/disabled access
1975 HP TC-31B
"Twin Coach"
w/d
  • Former Lockport Bus Lines buses
  • First buses equipped with wheelchair lifts.
3051-3063[15] 1976 GMC S8H-5304A w/d
  • Suburban (front door only) configuration used on suburban services.
  • High back vinyl seats, raised floor and overhead baggage racks.
4001-4070 1975-1976 AMG 9640A "Metropolitan" w/d
  • Remainder of buses retired prematurely due to serious structural issues, and were replaced temporarily in 1987 with surplus Flx buses from Rochester and GMC RTS-01 series buses from Dallas.
4071-4099[16] 1975-1976 AMG 9635A "Metropolitan" w/d
  • Remainder of buses retired prematurely due to serious structural issues, and were replaced temporarily in 1987 with surplus Flx buses from Rochester and GMC RTS-01 series buses from Dallas.
5001-5065[17] 1978-1979 GMC T8H-603
"RTS-03"
w/d
  • The NFTA was the first recipient of this model, serial numbers were 001-065.[18]
5066-5078[19]
Handicapped/disabled access
1980 GMC T8H-603
"RTS-03"
w/d
  • First order of buses with installed wheelchair lifts (at rear of bus), following new Federal ADA compliance laws for all new bus purchases.
  • Last buses with yellow/black/white livery.
6001-6110[20]
Handicapped/disabled access
1983 GMC T8J-604
"RTS-04"
w/d
  • First buses with earth tone (orange/gold/brown) livery.
6200-6244[21] 1957 Mack C49-DT w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit System buses
6300-6359[21] 1958 Mack C49-DT w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit System buses
  • First order built with Mack "New Look" front.[22]
7001-7030[10] 1954 GMC TDH-5106 w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit Buses
7100-7114[10] 1957 GMC TDH-5106 w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit buses
7401-7459[23] 1960–1961 GMC TDH-5301 w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit System buses
7501-7549[24] 1963 GMC TDH-5304 w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit System buses
7600-7684[24] 1966 GMC TDH-5304 w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit System buses
7685-7719[24] 1967 GMC TDH-5304 w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit System buses
7720-7794[25] 1968 GMC T6H-5306 w/d
  • Former Niagara Frontier Transit System buses
  • 7754 retained as "heritage" bus
9301-9375[26]
Handicapped/disabled access
1994 NFI D40HF w/d
  • 9318 painted in International Railway Company colors: dark green with cream and rust accents, and gold crest logo and the name "INTERNATIONAL" on the sides. Later repainted in the blue/silver livery.
9501-9567[27]
Handicapped/disabled access
1995 AI 416 BW
  • Built in early 1996.
  • Many are retired.
9601-9641[28]
Handicapped/disabled access
1996 Nova TC40-102A
"Classic"
CS
  • Some retired.
  • A few buses are still painted in the "earth tone" livery.
A: Builder
AI American Ikarus Anniston, Alabama
AMG AM General South Bend, Indiana
Flx The Flxible Company Loudonville, Ohio
Gillig Gillig Corporation Hayward, California
GMC General Motors Corporation Pontiac, Michigan
HP Highway Products, Inc. Kent, Ohio
Mack Mack Trucks Allentown, Pennsylvania
MCI Motor Coach Industries Roswell, New Mexico
NFI New Flyer Industries Winnipeg, Manitoba
Nova NovaBus Corporation Saint-Eustache, Quebec
OBI/BIA Orion Bus Industries/Bus Industries of America Oriskany, New York
TCC Tokyu Car Corporation Yokohama, Japan
B: Division assigned
BW Babcock/William
CS Cold Spring
Fr Frontier
SP South Park
w/d withdrawn

Handicapped/disabled access wheelchair-accessible and ADA compliant

Sinnbild Radfahrer.svg equipped with bicycle racks

Bus routes

for descriptions of current routes, see NFTA Metro Bus Routes

Many of the routes in the City of Buffalo operate along nearly the same alignment of the previous International Railway Company's streetcar lines. After the elimination of streetcar service, many adjustments have been made in routing through Downtown Buffalo to allow better connections between routes connecting the city's east side and west side, with many of the routes operating through at least one of two of the major transfer points: the Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center at the corner of North Division and Ellicott Streets, and on Court Street between Niagara Square and Main Streets. The Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center is also the transfer point for inter-city bus service using Greyhound, Coach USA, or Greyhound Lines of Canada.

Although not exact, it is of note that the routes follow a certain numbering schematic.

  • 1-49: Erie County routes
  • 50-59: Niagara County routes
  • 60-89: express routes
  • 90-99: special services (Buffalo Bills, Darien Lake, etc.)
  • 100-121: Buffalo Public School trips
  • 200-216: Metro Link routes

It has been normal practice for each route to be given a separate timetable, which includes a map of the route on the front, fare and pass information on the back panel, and information on the times and days service is offered. Not all stops are listed in the timetables, but passengers can expect to see at least major transfer points and busy intersections.

When boarding a bus or light rail car, the rider should note the following:

  • The front of the vehicle destination sign shows the route number, the routing letter (for routes with multiple branches) and the destination (usually a community or the major street where the trip terminates).
  • The side of the bus will carry the route number and the route name, to assure the passenger they are boarding the correct route. On occasion, a bus may also show a second message, such as "via Expressway" or "via Thruway".

The service planning department of the NFTA monitors ridership levels, historical data from previous years and looks for the most efficient way to offer services on an approximately quarterly basis. With this, timetables are generally updated four times a year; in March, June, September and December. When Buffalo Public Schools are on break or summer recess, there may be decreases in the service levels to accommodate for decreased ridership. Beginning Labor Day weekend, service reverts back to the normal levels.

Past/previous routes

On occasion, the service planning department finds that services could be improved by combining routes serving similar areas, and removal of routes that don't meet minimum expectations of the NFTA service standards policy. Before a route is eliminated or changed, a public input meeting and then a public hearing are generally held to allow passengers that may be displaced or inconvenienced a chance to defend the services that they receive.

  • 9 Parkside Zoo
  • 10 West Utica
  • 17 Central Terminal
  • 17 Kensington Suburban
  • 18 Jefferson-Parkside
  • 21 Michigan - Forest
  • 27 Ridge Road
  • 28 Sheridan
  • 30 Kenmore
  • 31 Ogden - Tifft/ Ogden-Bailey
  • 33 Tonawanda/North Tonawanda
  • 35 Hamburg via Abbott
  • 37 Hamburg via Camp
  • 38 Angola
  • 39 Parker
  • 41 Sheridan - Harlem
  • 42 North Campus Shuttle
  • 43 Mall Shuttle
  • 46 ECMC Shuttle
  • 51 Buffalo Av (Niagara Falls)
  • 51 Military - Summit
  • 53 Niagara (Niagara Falls)
  • 56 River Road
  • 58 Lockport Niagara Falls
  • 71 Holland
  • 73 Lancaster
  • 80 ECC Shuttle
  • 82 Outer Harbor Shuttle
  • 105 Central Express
  • 114 Central North
  • 117 Kensington
  • 202 Metrolink Shuttle
  • 203 Erie County Home Express
  • 207 Elmwood Circulator
  • 208 Grant Circulator
  • A University [29]
  • B Highland [29]
  • C Ontario [29]
  • D Pierce [29]
  • E Pine Avenue [29]
  • F Niagara St. [29]
  • G Buffalo Av. [29]

Planned/future routes

Hublink (MetroLink)

The NFTA's original "Hublink" concept, now renamed "MetroLink", created a network of routes (numbered in the 200 and 300 series range) linking multiple transit centers together, using cutaway vans. A minimum service standard was created, where buses were to operate on a frequent schedule through the day, moving passengers across the region. Additionally, circulatory routes were to be created linking passengers with community-based services for a number of high-density areas that cannot support normal city bus transit service.

Though refined from the earlier plans, some routes came to reality.

Routes 200 and 201 were the first two routes; route 200 operating across the width of the City of North Tonawanda to get to Creekside Park and Ride lot and then Niagara Falls Boulevard to Niagara Falls International Airport, and route 200 serving the City of Lockport on a circulatory route serving the Lockport Memorial Hospital, the senior citizen's center, and Downtown Lockport. Both routes are also scheduled to connect to conventional service routes at their end terminals or transit centers they arrive at along the route.

2010 restructuring

In the middle part of 2009, the NFTA hired Transportation Management and Design,Inc. to begin a "Transit Service Restructuring and Fare Study", that would involve some of the largest changes that the riding public has seen since the last major restructuring of March 1993.

Some of the new proposals included reducing the number of fare zones to a single zone and creating a uniform boarding fare without additional fees for crossing particular fare zone lines, elimination of bus-to-bus transfers, and modifying the pricing of cash fares, monthly and daily passes. The proposals were passed, and went into effect on September 1, 2010.

On the scheduling side, more emphasis would be taken on urban services, primarily within the City of Buffalo. Service on primary corridors, such as those serving densely patronized routes could find an increase in service levels during non-peak hours, promoting spontaneous usage. Lightly patronized routes may find reductions to fit ridership statistics, and allow the agency to more effectively use the buses on heavier patronized routes. In addition, weekend service was improved significantly on many city routes with Sunday service nearly tripled on certain portions of some routes.

Approval of the plan was reached between TMD, Inc. and the NFTA executive board in late June, 2010, and the changes were implemented with a special later autumn schedule change on October 31, 2010.[30] In the following two months until the next scheduled schedule change, the NFTA Metro service planning department made minor tweaks to the schedules, based on driver input, customer complaints and other sources, most notably adding services where necessary due to excessive passenger loads. With these changes, NFTA Metro lessened the impact during the next schedule change, since major problems were dealt with in a more timely manner.

Connecting services

Although the NFTA system does not connect with another public transportation agency, the NFTA makes connections throughout the region with a number of other modes of transportation.

Air

Although the NFTA has previously offered service into the region's airports, it has made further efforts to improve these services to passengers arriving and departing.

The region's primary commercial airport, the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, connects with NFTA Metro services on a number of lines, including; routes 24-Genesee, 27-Erie County Home Shuttle, 47-Youngs Road, 68-George Urban Express, 204-Downtown/Airport Express, and 210-Buffalo Airport/Niagara Falls Express.

The Niagara Falls International Airport serves a number of charter airlines. It is served by routes 55-Pine Avenue, 57-Tonawandas, and 200-North Tonawanda/Wheatfield.

Amtrak

The Buffalo-Niagara region has three Amtrak stations, with two located in Erie County, and one in Niagara County,

The Depew Station, located on Dick Road, between Broadway and Walden Avenues is served weekdays only by route 46-Lancaster. Of all regional stations, this is the only station that serves the Lake Shore Limited train, to and from Chicago.

The Exchange Street Station, located on Exchange Street, just east of Washington Street in Downtown Buffalo is served directly by route 24-Genesee, and is a short walk from the Metro Rail and a number of other bus routes that serve Washington Street. A disadvantage of the station, however, is its limited hours, necessitating passengers to wait outside for arriving and departing trains. Of the three region's stations, this station is the only one to receive daily public transportation service daily.

The Niagara Falls station, near the corner of Hyde Park Avenue and Lockport Road is served by weekdays and Saturdays by route 52-Hyde Park.

Bus (inter-city)

Most buses that service Downtown Buffalo operate within a couple blocks of the Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center, located at the north-east corner of Ellicott and North Division streets. The BMTC hosts bus services operated by Greyhound, Coach USA, Coach Canada, Megabus, various Trailways franchisees and Lake Front Lines. The BMTC also houses at one of its gates, the starting point of routes 40-Grand Island and 60-Niagara Falls Express buses, operated by the NFTA.

Fares/payments

Cash and passes

The NFTA operates on an "exact fare" system, in which drivers and operators do not make change.

There are three types of payments a passenger may make to ride the bus.

  • A single boarding charge of $1.75 may be made, per boarding ($.75 for seniors, disabled, and children under 12).
  • A day pass (allowing unlimited boardings per day) can be purchased for $4.00 per day ($2.00 for seniors, disabled and children).
  • A monthly pass (allowing unlimited boarding per calendar month) can be purchased for $64.00 ($32.00 for seniors, disabled, and children).

The current fare structure became effective from September 1, 2010 after operating with a zone fare system, in which passengers paid fares depending on the number of zones traveled per ride. In addition, transfers, which allowed passengers to continue their journey on multiple routes was discontinued, leaving a pay-per-boarding rate. The only exception to this rule is transferring between bus/rail or rail/bus, using a "proof-of-payment" coupon provided at the payment source.

Of particular note, the previous fare set-up was a four zone system, which replaced a more complex 12 fare zone system in September of 1988, the earlier in place since the NFTA assumed operations from the previous Niagara Frontier Transportation System.

College cooperative agreements

In recent years, the NFTA has aggressively pursued agreements with many local colleges and universities, using their "NFTA Unlimited Access" program. Under the program, students are offered semester passes that allow the user unrestricted travel on any NFTA regularly scheduled service, with the exception of Buffalo Bills Shuttles and Darien Lake Express service.

Erie Community College was the at the forefront of this service, and originally provided students a tri-campus shuttle linking the three campuses through the ECC Downtown Campus. Route 80 operated for approximately two calendar years, but service was eliminated, and students were given the opportunity to use alternate service on local bus routes. As of September 4, 2011, the NFTA will be re-introducing the service, though modified, using smaller Metro Link buses on its route 211.

Other colleges and universities that are currently included in the program are:

Buffalo State College, Medaille College and Canisius College also benefit from a special shuttle operating Friday and Saturday nights into Downtown Buffalo's Entertainment and Theater Districts, using Elmwood, the Scajaquada Expressway and Main Street. This route is designated as a "route 20E" service, and operates during school semesters only. It operates Thursday and Saturday nights during times that regular Metro service doesn't operate.

Source-NFTA Website

Properties (stations/garages/barns)

Bus and rail depots

All buses are stored at three depots:

  • Cold Spring Terminal (Main & Michigan, Buffalo)
  • Frontier Terminal (Kenmore & Military, Buffalo)
  • Gisel/Wolford Terminal (Babcock nr. William, Buffalo)

Metro Rail trains are stored at one depot:

  • South Park Terminal (South Park nr Main, Downtown Buffalo)

Past Depots:

  • Broadway Barns (Broadway & Greene, Buffalo)
  • Buffalo & 13th (Buffalo & 13th, Niagara Falls)
  • Forest (Forest at Abbotsford, Buffalo)
  • Hertel & Military (Military & Hertel, Buffalo)
  • Main & Virginia (Main & Virginia Streets, Buffalo)
  • Walden & Lathrop (Walden & Lathrop Streets, Buffalo)

Transportation (Intermodal) centers

Most buses operating to the city centers operate to or near:

  • Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center Ellicott & North Division, in Downtown Buffalo - built in 1977; also NFTA's headquarters
  • Portage Road Transit Center on Portage near Cedar, near Downtown Niagara Falls
  • Niagara Falls Transportation Center 2250 Factory Outlet Blvd near Military, Niagara Falls - opened December 24, 2007

Suburban transit centers

In addition, a number of transit centers were created in suburban locations to allow passengers to transfer between other routes in a coordinated location. Suburban transit centers operate with more amenities than typical loops used on many city routes. Suburban transit centers tend to be located on properties like shopping centers, and include separate shelters for each stop, pay telephones, schedule information, and possible restroom areas for drivers and agency employees.

  • Appletree Business Park off Bennett Road on south end of property
  • Athol Springs on Big Tree Road @ NYS 5
  • Southgate Plaza near Citibank
  • Niagara Falls International Airport on Niagara Falls Boulevard
  • Thruway Plaza off Harlem Road on west end of plaza property
  • Tonawanda at the southwest corner of Niagara & Main in the City of Tonawanda
  • Victory at corner of South Park at Ridge Road, Lackawanna

Bus loops and terminals

Many loops serving as terminals for NFTA bus routes are properties that were originally created for the International Railway's streetcars to turn around in. The International Railway Company (IRC) was the primary predecessor to the Niagara Frontier Transit System (c. 1950), and ultimately, the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (c. ~1972).

Metro Rail stations

[v · Legend
Unknown BSicon "utINTa"
University originally South Campus
Unknown BSicon "utÜST"
Unknown BSicon "utINT"
LaSalle
Unknown BSicon "uetABZlg"
Tonawanda turn-out
Urban tunnel station on track
Amherst Street
Unknown BSicon "utÜST"
Urban tunnel station on track
Humboldt-Hospital
Unknown BSicon "utINT"
Delavan/Canisius College originally Delavan-College
Unknown BSicon "utINT"
Utica
Urban tunnel station on track
Summer-Best
Urban tunnel station on track
Allen/Medical Campus originally Allen-Hospital
Unknown BSicon "utÜST"
Urban straight track + Unknown BSicon "ugKHSTa" + Unknown BSicon "PORTALg"
Theater
Unknown BSicon "ugHST"
Fountain Plaza originally Huron
Unknown BSicon "ugHST"
Lafayette Square
Unknown BSicon "ugHST"
Church
Unknown BSicon "ugHST"
Seneca
Unknown BSicon "ugAKRZu"
I-190
Unknown BSicon "ugÜST"
Unknown BSicon "ugHST"
Erie Canal Harbor originally Auditorium
Urban straight track + Unknown BSicon "ugKHSTe"
Special Events (certain times only)
Urban non-passenger end station
Rail Maintenance Yard
Unknown BSicon "utINT"
station with off-street bus loop
Unknown BSicon "ugHST"
fare-free section
Stations with bus loops
Stations without bus loops
  • Erie Canal Harbor (previously Auditorium), Main Street, between Scott & Exchange, Downtown Buffalo
  • Seneca, Main Street, between Seneca & Swan, Downtown Buffalo
  • Church, Main Street, between Church & Eagle, Downtown Buffalo
  • Lafayette Square, Main Street, between Lafayette Square & Mohawk, Downtown Buffalo
  • Fountain Plaza (previously Huron), Main Street, between Huron & Chippawa, Downtown Buffalo
  • Theater, Main Street, between Chippawa & Tupper, Downtown Buffalo
  • Allen-Medical Campus (previously Allen-Hospital), Main Street, at Allen Street
  • Summer-Best, Main Street at Best Street
  • Humboldt/Hospital, Main Street at Kensington Avenue
  • Amherst, Main Street & Amherst Street & Parker Avenue

These stations use surrounding streets as boarding areas for buses.

Active bus loops

  • Andrews Loop northwest corner of Genesee Street and Andrews, Cheektowaga
  • City Line (Wildwood) Loop on Seneca at Buffalo City Line
  • Ellicott Loop bounded by North Division, South Division, Ellicott and Oak Streets, Buffalo
  • Fernwood Loop at the foot of Rossler at Clinton Street, Buffalo
  • Goethe Loop southeast corner of Lovejoy Avenue and Goethe Street, Buffalo
  • Huntley Loop on Kensington near Huntley, Buffalo/Cheektowaga
  • Jersey Left on exit from Main Street at Bailey Avenue, Buffalo
  • Michael Loop southeast corner of Broadway and Michael Street, Sloan
  • Orchard Loop on southeast corner of Delaware at Orchard, Tonawanda
  • Paramount Loop on Colvin at Paramount, Tonawanda
  • Southside Loop northeast corner of Bailey Avenue and Abbott Road, Buffalo
  • Vulcan (Baxter) Loop northeast corner of Vulcan and Baxter Street, Buffalo
  • Walden/Bailey (St. Mary's) Loop on Walden, west of Bailey Avenue

Inactive bus loops

  • Blanche Loop southwest corner of Elmwood at Kenmore, Buffalo/Kenmore border
  • Coburg Loop southeast corner of Kenmore at Coburg St., Buffalo: currently being used as parking for the Family Dollar store, which was previously a Rite Aid Pharmacy. This loop was created as a terminal for the now deceased route 9-Parkside/Zoo bus and the short-turn (City Line) terminus for the 11A Colvin route, when service was eliminated from Virgil Loop, further west on Kenmore Avenue, near Delaware.
  • Delmar Loop on Oliver at Ward, North Tonawanda
  • Ensminger Loop on Esminger Road, near Sheridan Parkside Dr., Town of Tonawanda
  • Greenwood Loop on Abbott Road, near Greenwood, Lackawanna/Blasdell
  • Highgate Loop on Bailey Av, near Highgate St., Buffalo: service was extended on route 13-Kensington to University Station, and route 32-Amherst service to Kensington and Huntley Streets. Currently used as parking for beauty supply company next door.
  • Irwin Loop at corner of Niagara Falls Boulevard and Irwin
  • Jefferson Loop at corner of Main St. and Jefferson, Buffalo: service was moved to Delavan-Canisius College Station with the opening of the Metro Rail line. The loop was removed, and part of the previous Blue Cross/Blue Shield building sits on its site.
  • Nason Loop at the Botanical Gardens
  • Pacific Loop on Hertel, east of Pacific St, Buffalo: service was moved to Vista Marina Apartments, then Watergate Apartments.
  • Pine Hill Loop on Genesee near Pine Ridge Road, Cheektowaga
  • Preston Loop on East Delavan, near Preston St, Buffalo
  • Robbins Loop on Porter at Robbins Road, Niagara Falls
  • Seabrook Loop on Kenmore Av at Vulcan, Buffalo (used by Buffalo Public Schools)
  • Virgil Loop on Kenmore at Virgil St, Buffalo
  • Windermere Loop on Main Street at Kenmore Ave., Buffalo/Amherst border: Windermere loop existed in a few different configurations over the course of time, in which it originally sat in the area of the current University Plaza during the streetcar era; on Kenmore Ave (before Main) next door to the FIRST location of May Jen restaurant, and again at the corner of Main & Kenmore next to the Walgreens Pharmacy. With the reconfiguration of the corner of Main and Kenmore, the new intersection cuts through the approximate area, forever removing any trace that the loop had even existed. The Jersey "Left" loop has taken over as the terminal point for routes that serviced Windermere Loop.

Metro Rail (light rail rapid transit)

For further reading, please see: Buffalo Metro Rail and List of Buffalo Metro Rail Stations

Light rail and rapid transit

Buffalo's first street railway began operations in 1832 with horse car routes on Pearl Street and Terrace operating to the Canada Ferry terminal. In 1860, the Buffalo Street Railway Company was established. Electric streetcars began operating in Buffalo in 1889 and the last horse car retired in 1894. In Niagara Falls village, the first electric cars began in 1883, In 1902, the International Railway Company was created from the merger of the Buffalo's first street railway operator and Buffalo Street Railway Company. The trolley service ended in 1950 and would not resume until construction of the present LRT began in 1979, opening on May 1, 1986.

The current 6.4 mile (10.3 km) line makes stops at: Erie Canal Harbor, Seneca, Church, Lafayette Square, Fountain Plaza, Theater, Allen-Medical Campus, Summer-Best, Utica, Delavan-Canisius College, Humboldt-Hospital, Amherst Street, LaSalle, and University. An additional station, called "Special Events" Station, sits just south of the current Erie Canal Harbor Station allowing passengers a shorter walk to the First Niagara Center. This station is only served during major events, such as hockey, concerts and sports related functions.

Future plans for the Metro Rail

For further reading, please see: Citizens Regional Transit Corporation

The Citizens Regional Transit Corporation (CRTC) has continuously lobbied local and state politians to provide funding or support for extensions to the current one-line system.

A proposed Airport Corridor line follows the Division Street area, cutting through to the old New York Central Terminal around Jefferson Avenue, following old track bed through the CSX line between Walden and Broadway to Thruway Plaza, Galleria Mall and Buffalo Niagara Airport.

A proposed Tonawanda Corridor line follows the old Erie RR right-of-way (ROW) from LaSalle Station through to the Town and City of Tonawanda, and the City of North Tonawanda. This line has a number of branches; one operating through North Buffalo to Elmwood (known as the North Buffalo Branch), to Niagara Falls following the old New York Central Railroad's "Beeliner" service (known as the Niagara River Corridor) and to the North Campus of the University at Buffalo, using abandoned railroad right-of-ways (known as the Youngmann Branch).

These and many other proposals have hit various roadblocks, but the CRTC has not wavered in their support for these extensions. Lately, to the happiness of the groups members, a number of important political figures have shown their support.

LRV fleet details

  • Manufacturer: Tokyu Car Corporation, Japan
  • Fleet size:: 26 (one car {125} damaged in transit upon delivery in 1983)
  • Fleet No.:: 101-127
  • Length: 66 feet 10 inches (20370 mm)
  • Width: 8 feet 6.5 inches (2603 mm)
  • Weight: 35.5 tons
  • Normal capacity: 140 (including 51 seated)
  • Control: 4 chopper controlled Westinghouse motors (at 650V DC)
  • Track gauge: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (standard gauge)
Fleet refurbishment

Two cars (fleet numbers 114 and 123) were sent to Gray Manufacturing Industries in Hornell, New York in February of 2010 to undergo a complete refurbishment from top to bottom. GMI expects to return a car once each month, making the entire project last approximately two years to complete.

Among the items being refurbished, passengers will experience new seating, stanchions, electronic signage and new audio systems. Operation-wise, the shells of the car will be placed on refurbished trucks, with new wheels, gear boxes, overhauled traction motors, new pantographs, brakes and air compression systems.[31]

Corporate identity

Coloring and print media

The current color scheme (navy, grey and burgundy) first appeared on the 2000 series (Nova Bus LFS) coaches in early 2001. The color scheme met with approval on most sides. According to a past Buffalo News article, the colors and logo were chosen to link the area's "water" image with the company. The force of the Niagara River, and Niagara Falls contribute to the idea of the "wave" design that was chosen.[32]

With the arrival of the 6000 series GMC RTS-04 buses in 1984, the NFTA's Metro system operated its vehicles using a color scheme of brown, yellow and orange, referred to as "earth tone" or "candy corn". This color scheme is easiest to recognize at present on many of the Nova Bus "Classic" series coaches. As of 2011, this color scheme can now be found on only a handful of buses, as most of the buses featuring it have been either been re-painted in the new color scheme or retired. Alternatively, many of the Metro Rail trains still have retained the old color scheme. It has been expected that the remaining rail cars will be painted in the newer livery during their mid-life overhaul, currently being performed.

Previous to 1984, the Niagara Frontier Transit Metro System had painted their fleet with a yellow and black scheme (during the 1970s), and maintained the red and cream color scheme used by the Niagara Frontier Transit System (1950-1960s). The International Railway Company, the predecessor to the Niagara Frontier Transportation System used either an orange and cream,[33] or forest green and vermilion scheme for their vehicles.

The NFTA used a circular logo during the 1970s for the parent corporation, showing a nested combination of a bus, airplane, and ship. For the NFTA Metro system, a simple typeface, similar to blippo spelled out "metro bus". Towards the end of the 1990s a modified "M" in the same typeface, except with a "swoosh" style to the left of the letter. In 2000, the NFTA replaced its logo type with one similar to "Impact" in the italicized version. This style is present on all NFTA correspondence, including the NFTA Metro Bus and Rail system, the Greater Buffalo Niagara International Airport, the Niagara Falls International Airport, the NFTA Small Boat Harbor among others.

Present and past slogans

  • "Serving Buffalo/Niagara"
  • "Serving the Niagara Region"
  • "Let Metro Take You Where You Want to Go!" (past)
  • "The System Works" (past)
  • "You and I Go Places Together" (past)
  • "We're Going Your Way!" (past)

Noteworthy dates and events

  • April 1, 1974: The NFTA takeover of the Niagara Frontier Transit System, Inc. occurred on this date.[34]
  • October 9, 1984: Metro Rail begins service in the Downtown Central Business District, between Auditorium and Theater Stations.[34]
  • May 18, 1985: Metro Rail officially opens for regular service between Downtown and Amherst Street Stations. Due to construction issues at LaSalle Station, LaSalle and South Campus stations opened later, on November 10, 1986.[34]
  • April 1, 1990: The NFTA experiences a two-day shutdown due to budgeting and funding issues with state and local governments. Prior to this closure, the NFTA distributed "red" schedules for the first time, clearly giving passengers a preview of pending service cuts to the Metro System. The most severe plan had the closure of the Metro Rail line entirely, as well as all service eliminated after 7:00pm weekdays, and no service offered on Saturdays, Sundays or major holidays. Due to this alarming preview and subsequent closure, emergency funding was established by elected Erie County officials, and service resumed later in the day following (Monday, April 2, 1990) without cuts to service.[35]
  • March 24, 1993: The "New" Metro System was introduced, creating a streamlined version of the previous Metro system, increasing bus frequencies, adding a number of new routes, and new destinations not previously served by bus. With this new service, a number of branches with low ridership were eliminated, and the service was redirected to supplement the new service.[36][37]
  • December 14, 1995: 17 year old Cynthia Wiggins was hit by a ten-ton dump truck after exiting a route 6-Sycamore bus, crossing a seven lane roadway (Walden Avenue) across from the Walden Galleria Mall. She died of her injuries on January 2nd, 1996. Her death sparked a number of lawsuits against the NFTA, the Pyramid Corporation (the owner of the mall) and many others, charging racial discrimination due to the inability of the NFTA to have their buses enter the mall. This lawsuit was eventually settled, in which the Pyramid Corporation paid $2 million and the dump truck driver ($250,000) to Cynthia Wiggins' four year old son. Effective with the December, 1997 schedule changes, NFTA buses were finally allowed to enter the Walden Galleria Mall, Boulevard Mall and the Eastern Hills Mall, previously not allowed by mall management.[38][39]
  • October 26, 1999: Longtime Metro Bus driver Gilbert Rogers was fatally injured in an accident across Genesee Street at the Buffalo Niagara International Airport. The bus was reported to collide with a westbound tractor-trailer loaded with crushed stone shortly before 7:00am. John R. Battle, Chief of the NFTA police was quoted that "...it appears that the bus driver had the right-of-way and that the truck driver was unable to stop his vehicle at the intersection. There's a lot of momentum when you have a truck loaded with that much stone." Witnesses told police that the truck had already began wobbling and losing some of its stones as it approached the intersection, which was controlled by a traffic light. The driver of the truck pleaded guilty later and was fined $1,100.00, but was spared jail time. As part of the plea deal, prosecution dismissed charges of unreasonable speed and an overweight vehicle.[40][41][42]
  • December 23, 2007: NFTA Metro introduced the newly built Niagara Falls Transportation Center in the Town of Niagara, on the grounds of the Niagara Falls Factory Outlet Mall. This resulted in a number of routing and schedule changes to all Niagara Falls routes, so that buses can take advantage of serving the new transportation center. The building was the first new build of a transportation in more than 30 years by the NFTA. It was also built in the Town of Niagara, compared to Downtown Niagara Falls so that it was more central in Niagara County.[43]
  • May 25, 2008: NFTA Metro implemented a new bus route (#210-Airport-Niagara Falls Express) between the Greater Buffalo Niagara International Airport and the Niagara Transit Center and Downtown Niagara Falls. Created to coincide with the start of the peak tourist season in Niagara Falls, this trip takes 50 minutes from end to end.[44]
  • September 5, 2008: Reminiscent of the Cynthia Wiggins lawsuit of 1995, the NFTA is banned by the owners of the Quaker Crossing shopping complex in Orchard Park. Allegations of the ban being racially motivated were denied by the mall owners, who instead cited safety concerns for pedestrians walking in the plaza. In the interim, the NFTA began operating buses over Amanda and Amelia Lanes, roadways that bisect the plaza.[45]
  • October 31, 2010: NFTA Metro embarked on a sweeping change to its service network, following a multi-year study by TMI, Inc. The resulting changes included dropping zone fare charges for a uniform boarding fare regardless of the distance travelled, either removing or reducing service from low patronized areas in favor of improving service during mid-days, and weekends. Passengers experienced these changes during a time when it normally is not adjusted, due to the scope of the changes made.

Employee unions of the NFTA

The NFTA recognizes and negotiates with a number of unions representing various employees of the NFTA.[46] As of 2008, there are 13 different unions that negotiate contracts with the NFTA.[47]

The largest union, the Amalgamated Transit Union represents the drivers of the NFTA Metro division. Their branch is known as Amalgamated Transit Union, Local 1342.[48]

Another union, the International Longshoremen's Association represents service and maintenance workers at the Buffalo Niagara International Airport, the Niagara Falls International Airport, Port of Buffalo, Metropolitan Transportation Center, Operations Center in Buffalo, Facilities Maintenance Center, Buffalo Transportation Center and the Niagara Falls Transportation Center. Their branch is known as the International Longshoremen's Association, Local 1949.

The members of the NFTA Police force are represented by the NFTA Police Benevolent Association.

References

  1. ^ Bregger, D. David. Images of America: Buffalo's Historic Streetcars and Buses. 
  2. ^ "Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority - Board of Commissioners". Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority. http://www.nfta.com/boc.asp. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  3. ^ "Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority - NFTA Management Team". Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority. http://www.nfta.com/management_team.asp. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  4. ^ "NFTA Budget, 2012 fiscal year". Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority. p. 2.3. http://nfta.com/PDFs/budget2012.pdf. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  5. ^ Gee, Derek. "NFTA Metro Rail Cars Rebuilt". Buffalo News. http://galleries.buffalonews.com/photo.php?gname=gallery_1258759970.txt&item=1. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  6. ^ "GMC SDM-5302 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/sdm5302.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  7. ^ "GMC S8M-533A Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/s8m533a.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "GMC SDM-4501 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/sdm4501.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  9. ^ a b "OBI Bus Industries - OBI V Production List". Alan Gryfe. http://www.angelfire.com/ca/TORONTO/builders/orion5.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c "GMC TDH-5106 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMOldLookList/tdh5106.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  11. ^ a b "GM T6H-4521 Production". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/t6h4521.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  12. ^ "MCI Classic Production List". Alan Gryfe. http://www.angelfire.com/ca/TORONTO/builders/mciTC.html. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "OBI Bus Industries Series I - Production List". Alan Gryfe. http://www.angelfire.com/ca/TORONTO/builders/orion1.html. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  14. ^ "Nova LFS-102 Production List (incomplete)". Unknown. http://www.angelfire.com/ca/TORONTO/builders/novaLFS.html. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  15. ^ "GMC S8H-5304 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/s8h534a.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  16. ^ "AMG Model 9635 Production List". A.J. Reinschmidt. Archived from buslist/AMG9635.html the original on 27 October 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20091027111830/http://www.geocities.com/ca.. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  17. ^ "GMC RTS-03 T8H-603 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/RTSII/t8h603.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  18. ^ buslist/RTS_II/8H603.html "GMC RTS-2 T8H-603 Production List". Bus Rosters on the Web. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20091027122625/http://www.geocities.com/ca. buslist/RTS_II/8H603.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  19. ^ "GMC RTS-02 T8H-603 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/RTSII/t8h603.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  20. ^ "GMC RTS T8J-604 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/RTSII/t8J604.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  21. ^ a b "Mack C-49 Production List". A.J. Reinschmidt. Archived from buslist/MC_49.html the original on 27 October 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20091027093726/http://www.geocities.com/ca.. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  22. ^ A. J. Reinschmidt (18). buslist/MC_49.html "Mack C-49 Roster on the Web" (in English). Bus Rosters on the Web. http://www.oocities.org/ca. buslist/MC_49.html. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  23. ^ "GMC TDH-5301 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/tdh5301.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  24. ^ a b c "GMC TDH-5304 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/tdh5304.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  25. ^ "GMC T6H-5306 Production List". Ohio Museum of Transportation. http://www.omot.org/roster/GMList/t6h5306.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  26. ^ "New Flyer Industries - Production List". Alan Gryfe. http://www.angelfire.com/ca/TORONTO/builders/nfilist.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  27. ^ Kristopans, Andre. "Ikarus 416-436 Production List". Bus Rosters on the Web. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20091027093740/http://www.geocities.com/~buslist/Delivery/Ikarus_DL.html. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  28. ^ "Nova TC40-102A Production List". Unknown. http://www.angelfire.com/ca/TORONTO/builders/novaTC.html. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g NFTA Regional Route Map. Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority. 1975. 
  30. ^ http://www.tmdinc.net/nftametro/NFTA_BoardPresentation_012510_v8.pdf[dead link]
  31. ^ Robert J McCarthy (16 February 2010). "Metro Rail trains undergo a rebirth - NFTA subway cars being refurbished" (in English). Buffalo News: p. A1. 
  32. ^ Lakamp, Patrick (21 September 1999). "Blue and Gray, with Splash of Red, Selected as New Colors for Metro Bus, Rail Fleet". Buffalo News: p. A6. 
  33. ^ Ahlstrom, Harold (date unknown). The Last Decade of Buffalo Trolleys. National Railway Historical Society - Buffalo Chapter. p. 18. 
  34. ^ a b c Bregger, D. David (25 February 2008) (in English). Buffalo's Historic Streetcars and Buses (Images of America: New York). Arcadia Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7385-5750-2. 
  35. ^ "Buffalo Transit System Shuts Down, First in US". New York Times. Associated Press. 2 April 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/04/02/nyregion/buffalo-transit-system-shuts-first-in-us.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  36. ^ Robert J McCarthy (10 April 1992). "NFTA Revamping Routes, Schedules as Revenue Drops" (in English). Buffalo News (NY) (Local News): p. Not given. 
  37. ^ Sharon Linstedt (3 March 1993). "NFTA Plans Ad Blitz on Bus Route Overhaul" (in English). Buffalo News (NY) (Local News): p. Not given. 
  38. ^ "Can't Get There From Here". Time Magazine. 19. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,984137-1,00.html. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  39. ^ Feinberg, Leslie (26 April 2001). "Anti-racist boycott gains strength & support". Workers World. http://www.workers.org/ww/2001/bflo0426.php. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  40. ^ Gene Warner; Herbeck, Dan (26 October 1999). "Crash Kills Metro Bus Driver, Injures 5". Buffalo News: p. A1. 
  41. ^ Lakamp, Patrick (14 March 2000). "Truck Driver Pleads Guilty in Fatality". Buffalo News: p. B1. 
  42. ^ Lakamp, Patrick (4 February 2000). "Truck in Fatal Crash Shouldn't Have Been on Road". Buffalo News: p. A1. 
  43. ^ Michelmore, Bill (20 December 2007). "Transit Hub to Open Friday (23 December 2007)". Buffalo News (Local News): p. B1. 
  44. ^ "Niagara News Briefs" (in English). Buffalo News (Local): p. D3. 23 May 2008. 
  45. ^ Williams, Fred (11 September 2008). "Bus issue continues at plaza, Quaker Crossing owner affirms ban" (in English). Buffalo News (Local News): p. B1. 
  46. ^ Fink, James (28 January 2008). "Unions Sign on with NFTA" (in English). Business First - Buffalo (Business First - Buffalo). 
  47. ^ Miner, Dan (29 January 2008). "NFTA: Unions get contracts" (in English). Niagara Gazette. http://niagara-gazette.com/local/x681298254/NFTA-Unions-get-contracts/print. Retrieved 14 May 2011. "The agreements mean that all 13 NFTA unions are under contract." 
  48. ^ "ATU - Locals Index Page". Amalgamated Transit Union (ATU). Archived from the original on May 29, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090529013927/http://www.atu.org/content/pages/locals_index_page/. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 

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