E-2 Hawkeye


E-2 Hawkeye

infobox Aircraft
name = E-2 Hawkeye
type = Airborne Early Warning and Control
manufacturer = Grumman Northrop Grumman




caption = A US Navy E-2C Hawkeye flies over NAS Point Mugu, California, during a training exercise.
designer =
first flight = 1960
introduced = January avyear|1964
retired =
status =
primary user = United States Navy
more users = French Navy Egyptian Air Force Japan Air Self-Defense Force
produced =
number built =
unit cost = US$80 million
variants with their own articles = C-2 Greyhound

The Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is an American all-weather, aircraft carrier-based tactical Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft. The twin turboprop aircraft was designed and developed in the 1950s by Grumman for the United States Navy as a replacement for the E-1 Tracer. The aircraft has been progressively updated with the latest variant, the E-2D, first flying in 2007.

The aircraft was nicknamed "Super Fudd" [Koppmann, George C. "Carrier Airborne Early Warning". George C. Koppmann (LT, USNR - inactive)home page. [http://www.caew.info/] Retrieved: 13 December 2006.] because it replaced "Willy Fudd" (the E-1 Tracer). In the present day, it is most commonly nicknamed the "Hummer" due to the distinctive sound of its twin turboprop engines.

Design and development

In United States service, the Hawkeye provides all-weather airborne early warning and command and control functions for the carrier battle group. Additional missions include surface surveillance coordination, strike and interceptor control, search and rescue guidance and communications relay. An integral component of the carrier air wing, the E-2C uses computerized sensors to provide early warning, threat analysis and control of counteraction against air and surface targets. It is a high-wing aircraft with stacked antennae elements contained in a 24-foot (7.3 m) rotating dome above the fuselage.

The continuous improvements in early airborne radars by 1956 led to the concept of an airborne early warning and command and control aircraft. The first aircraft to perform this mission was the Grumman E-1 Tracer (a variant of the S-2 Tracker anti-submarine aircraft), which saw service from 1954 to the 1970s. The E-1's successor, the E-2 Hawkeye, was the first carrier-based aircraft designed from the outset for the all-weather airborne early warning and command and control function.

The original E-2C, known as the Group 0, became operational in 1973 and has been through several upgrade programs since then. The first of these was the E-2C Group I which replaced the older APS-125 radar and T56-A-425 engines with the improved APS-139 and T56-A-427. This version was soon followed by the further improved Group II which now featured the APS-145 radar. The Group II has been incrementally upgraded with new navigation systems, displays and computers culminating in the E-2C Hawkeye 2000 variant (sometimes referred to as Group III, although the term is no longer used as an official designation). The Hawkeye 2000 features the APS-145 radar with a new mission computer and CIC (Combat Information Center) workstations (Advanced Control Indicator Set or ACIS), and carries the U.S. Navy’s new CEC (cooperative engagement capability) data-link system. It is also fitted with a larger capacity vapor cycle avionics cooling system. A variant of the Group II with the upgrades to the mission computer and CIC workstations is referred to as the MCU/ACIS. All Group II aircraft have had their 1960s vintage computer-processors replaced by a mission computer with the same functionality but built using more modern computer technology. This is referred to as the GrIIM RePr (Group II Mission Computer Replacement Program, pronounced "grim reaper"). In 2007 and 2008 a hardware and software upgrade package is being added to Hawkeye 2000 aircraft that allows faster processing, double current trackfile capacity, and access to satellite information networks. Hawkeye 2000 cockpits are also being upgraded to include solid-state glass displays, upgraded weather detection systems, and GPS-approach capability. Testing for in-flight refueling modifications is also being conducted.

E-2D Advanced Hawkeye

The latest version of the E-2, the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, is currently under development and the first two aircraft, "Delta One" and "Delta Two" are in flight testing. The E-2D features an entirely new avionics suite, including the new APY-9 radar, radio suite, mission computer, integrated satellite communications capability, flight management system, improved engines, a new "glass" cockpit and the ability to refuel in-flight. The APY-9 features an Active Electronically Scanned Array (electronically steered) radar in its rotodome. The E-2D will include provisions for either pilot to act as a Tactical 4th Operator, and have access to the full range of mission functions available to the CIC crew. First flight was 3 August 2007, with Initial Operational Capability (IOC) expected in 2011. [Northrop Grumman Press Release, 3 August 2007.]

Operational history

Since replacing the E-1 in 1964, the Hawkeye has been the "eyes of the fleet." Since its combat debut during the Vietnam conflict, the E-2 has served the US Navy around the world. Hawkeyes (from VAW-123 "Screwtops" aboard the USS "America") directed F-14 fighters flying combat air patrol during Operation El Dorado Canyon, the two-carrier battle group joint strike against terrorist-related Libyan targets in 1986. More recently, E-2Cs provided the command and control for successful operations during the Gulf War, directing both land attack and combat air patrol missions over Iraq and providing control for the shoot-down of two Iraqi MiG-21 aircraft by carrier-based F/A-18s in the early days of the war. E-2 aircraft also have worked extremely effectively with US law enforcement agencies in drug interdictions.

During Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom all 10 Hawkeye squadrons flew overland sorties. They provided critical battle management for attack of enemy ground targets, close-air-support coordination, combat search and rescue control, airspace management, as well as datalink and communication relay for both land and naval forces. During Hurricane Katrina three Hawkeye squadrons were deployed in support of urban relief efforts including Air Traffic Control responsibilities spanning three states, and control of Coast Guard and National Guard helicopter rescue units.

Hawkeye 2000s first deployed in 2003 aboard USS "Nimitz" with VAW-117 "Wallbangers" and CVW-11. The U.S. Navy Hawkeyes have now been upgraded with eight bladed props as part of the NP2000 program; the first squadron to cruise with the new propellers was VAW-124 "Bear Aces". The latest version can track more than 2,000 targets simultaneously (while at the same time, detecting 20,000 simultaneously) to a range greater than 400 miles (650 km) and simultaneously guide 40–100 air to air intercepts or air to surface engagements.

In late 2006, the US announced that it intended to sell three P-3C Orions equipped with the E-2C Hawkeye 2000 system to the Pakistan Navy. These aircraft will provide Pakistan with search surveillance, and control capability in support of maritime interdiction operations. [ [http://www.dsca.osd.mil/pressreleases/36-b/2007/Pakistan_07-03.pdf "Possible Sale to Pakistan of three P-3 aircraft with the E-2C HAWKEYE 2000(AEW) Suite"] 7 December 2006 in PDF format] Though once considered being replaced by Common Support Aircraft, the original plan failed to materialize, and E-2 will continue its role as the primary AEW aircraft in USN in the near future.

Variants

;W2F-1 : Original designation of the Hawkeye, changed to E-2A in 1962.;E-2A : Initial production version, was W2F-1 before 1962.;TE-2A : Two E-2As converted as crew trainers.;YC-2A : Two E-2As converted as prototypes of the C-2 Greyhound;E-2B : As E-2A but fitted with improved computing, enlarged outer fins and provision for inflight refueling. Conversions from E-2A.;YE-2C : Two E-2As converted as E-2C prototypes.;E-2C : As the E-2B but with all new electronics, surveillance radar and search radar, 63 built. In "plus-models" the E-2C also has an upgraded power-plant.;E-2C Hawkeye 2000 : It is a new upgrade version of E-2C.;E-2D : Currently in flight test. It will feature an entirely new avionics suite, improved engines, a new "glass cockpit" and the ability to refuel in-flight. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is expected in 2011. ;E-2K : The same as E-2C Hawkeye 2000. Republic of China (Taiwan) named it E-2K. ;E-2T : E-2C variant for Republic of China (Taiwan).

Operators

;ROC-TW
*Republic of China Air Force operate 4 E-2T and 2 E-2K. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/e-2t.htm E-2 Hawkeye] ]
**78 Squadron;EGY
*Egyptian Air Force operates 6 planes, conversion to E-2 Hawkeye 2000 standard in progress, due to completion by end of 2008;FRA
*Aviation Navale is the only operator other than the US Navy to employ Hawkeyes on board aircraft carriers.
**4 Flotille operates 3 E-2C, and is seeking a fourth;ISR
*Israeli Air Force operated four aircraft until 1994. It was the first to install in-flight refuelling equipment. Three of four Israeli Hawkeyes were sold to Mexico in 2002 after an upgrade package installation, one was handed over to the Israeli Air Force Museum.
**192 Squadron;JPN
*Japan Air Self-Defense Force
**601 Hikotai operates 13 E-2C;MEX
*Mexican Navy received three E-2C from Israel.;SIN
*Republic of Singapore Air Force
**111 Squadron operates 4 E-2c;USA
*United States Navy
**VAW-77 "Night Wolfs"
**VAW-78 "Fighting Escargot" (Defunct)
**VAW-88 "Cottonpickers" (Defunct)
**VAW-110 "Firebirds" (Defunct)
**VAW-111 "Graybirds" (Defunct)
**VAW-112 "Golden Hawks"
**VAW-113 "Black Eagles"
**VAW-114 "Hormel Hawgs" (Defunct)
**VAW-115 "Liberty Bells"
**VAW-116 "Sun Kings"
**VAW-117 "Wallbangers"
**VAW-120 "Greyhawks"
**VAW-121 "Bluetails"
**VAW-122 "Steeljaws" (Defunct)
**VAW-123 "Screwtops"
**VAW-124 "Bear Aces"
**VAW-125 "Tigertails"
**VAW-126 "Seahawks"
**VAW-127 "Seabats" (Defunct)

*United States Coast Guard
**CGAW-1 [ [http://www.mysnafu.com/alert30/cgaw1.htm "CGAW-1 and Airfac Norfolk" article] ] (Defunct)

pecifications (E-2C)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop

crew= 5 (2 pilots, 3 naval flight officers - combat information center officer, air control officer, radar operator)
capacity=
length main= 57 ft 7 in
length alt= 17.56 m
span main= 80 ft 7 in
span alt= 24.58 m
height main= 18 ft 4 in
height alt= 5.58 m
area main= 700 ft²
area alt= 65 m²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 37,678 lb
empty weight alt= 17,090 kg
loaded weight main= 55,000 lb
loaded weight alt= 23,391 kg
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main= 55,000 lb
max takeoff weight alt= 23,391 kg
engine (prop)= Allison T56-A-425 or -427
type of prop= turboprop
number of props= 2
power main= 5100 shp (-427)
power alt= 3,800 kW
max speed main= 375 mph
max speed alt= 604 km/h
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
range main= 1,605 mi
range alt= 2,583 km
ceiling main= 30,800 ft
ceiling alt= 9,390 m
climb rate main= 2,515 ft/min
climb rate alt= 13 m/s
loading main= 72.7 lb/ft²
loading alt= 355 kg/m²
power/mass main= 0.19 hp/lb
power/mass alt= 0.32 kW/kg
armament=
avionics=

ee also

aircontent
related=
* E-1 Tracer
* C-2 Greyhound
similar aircraft=
* Fairey Gannet
* Yakovlev Yak-44
* E-3 Sentry
* Airawat
sequence=
E-1 - E-2 -
E-3 -
E-4 -
E-5
lists=
see also=

Accidents

*2007 Harry S. Truman E2C crash

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Winchester, Jim, ed. "Military Aircraft of the Cold War" (The Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2006. ISBN 1-84013-929-3.

Neubeck, Ken "E-2 Hawkeye Walk Around", Squadron/Signal Publications, 2008, ISBN 0-89747-555-0.

External links

* [http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=1100&tid=700&ct=1 E-2 fact file] and [http://www.history.navy.mil/planes/e2.htm E-2C Hawkeye history page on US Navy site]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/e-2.htm E-2 page on GlobalSecurity.org]
* [http://www.janes.com/aerospace/military/news/idr/idr060630_1_n.shtml "Advanced Hawkeye promises quantum leap in US Navy's AEW capability"] , Jane's, 30 June, 2006
* [http://www.irconnect.com/noc/press/pages/news_releases.html?d=124332 "Northrop Grumman E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Completes First Flight", Northrop Grumman, 3 August 2007]
* [http://www.alabordache.com/marine/espacemarine/aeronavale/patmar/hawkeye/ Marine nationale - Hawkeye on Alabordache.fr] fr icon
* [http://www.netmarine.net/aero/aeronefs/hawkeye/photos.htm Gallery of photographs of the French E-2C Hawkeye on NetMarine.net] fr icon


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