- Batch distillation
Batch distillationcite book|author=Kister, Henry Z.|title=
Distillation Design|edition=1st Edition |publisher=McGraw-Hill|year=1992|id=ISBN 0-07-034909-6] refers to the use of distillationin batches, meaning that a mixture is distilled to separate it into its component fractions before the distillation still is again charged with more mixture and the process is repeated. This is in contrast with continuous distillationwhere the feedstock is added and the distillate drawn off without interruption.
Batch distillation has always been an important part of the production of seasonal, or low capacity and high-purity
chemicals. It is a very frequent separationprocess in the pharmaceutical industry and in wastewatertreatment units.
The simplest and most frequently used batch distillation configuration is the batch rectifier, including the
alembicand pot still.The batch rectifier consists of a pot (or reboiler), rectifying column, a condenser, some means of splitting off a portion of the condensed vapour (distillate) as reflux, and one or more receivers.
The pot is filled with liquid mixture and heated. Vapour flows upwards in the rectifying column and condenses at the top. Usually, the entire condensate is initially returned to the column as
reflux. This contacting of vapour and liquid considerably improves the separation. Generally, this step is named start-up. After some time, a part of the overhead condensate is withdrawn continuously as distillate and it is accumulated in the receivers, and the other part is recycled into the column as reflux.
Owing to the differing vapour pressures of the distillate, there will be a change in the overhead distillation with time, as early on in the batch distillation the components with a lower vapour pressure will be evaporated first. As the supply of the material is limited and lighter components are removed, the relative fraction of heavier components will increase as the distillation progresses.
The other simple batch distillation configuration is the batch stripper. The batch stripper consists of the same parts as the batch rectifier. However, in this case, the charge pot is located above the stripping column.
During operation (after charging the pot and starting up the system) the high boiling constituents are primarily separated from the charge mixture. The liquid in the pot is depleted in the high boiling constituents, and enriched in low boiling ones. The high boiling product is routed into the bottom product receivers. The residual low boiling product is withdrawn from the charge pot. This mode of batch distillation is very seldom applied in industrial processes.
Middle vessel column
A third feasible batch column configuration is the middle vessel column. The middle vessel column consists of both a rectifying and a stripping section and the charge pot is located at the middle of the column.
Generally, the feasibility studies of batch distillation are based on analyses of the following maps:
* still path map
* distillate path map
* different column profile maps
During the feasibility studies, the following basic simplifying assumptions are made:
* infinite number of equilibrium stages
* infinite reflux ratio
* negligible tray hold-up in the two column sections
* quasi-steady state in the column
* constant molar overflow
Bernot "et al."Bernot C., M. Doherty, M. and M. F. Malone, "Patterns of composition change in multicomponent batch distillation", Chem. Eng. Sci., 45, 1207, (1990)] used the batch distillation regions to determine the sequence of the fractions. According to Ewell and Welch, [Ewell, R. H. and L. M. Welch, "Rectification in Ternary Systems Containing Binary Azeotropes", Industrial Engineering Chemistry, 37, 1224,(1945)] a batch distillation region gives the same fractions upon rectification of any mixture lying within it. Bernot "et al." examined the still and distillate paths for the determination of the region boundaries under high number of stages and high reflux ratio, named maximal separation. Pham and Doherty in pioneering work [Pham, H. N. and M. F. Doherty, "Design and synthesis of heterogeneous azeotropic distillations II. Residue curve maps", Chem. Eng. Sci., 45, 1987-1843, (1990)] described the structure and properties of residue curve maps for ternary heterogeneous azeotropic mixtures. In their model, the possibility of the
phase separationof the vapour condensed is not taken into consideration yet. The singular points of the residue curve maps determined by this method were used to assign batch distillation regions by Rodriguez-Donis "et al." [Rodriguez-Donis I, V. Gerbaud and X. Joulia, "Feasibility of Heterogeneous Batch Distillation Processes", AIChE Journal, 48 (6), 1168, (2002)] [Rodriguez-Donis Y., J. A. Equijarosa, V. Gerbaud and X. Joulia, "Heterogeneous Batch-extractive Distillation of Minimum Boiling Azeotropic Mixtures", AIChE Journal, 49 (12), 3074, (2003)] and Skouras "et al". [Skouras S., V. Kiva and S. Skogestad, "Feasible separations and entrainer selection rules for heteroazeotropic batch distillation", Chemical Engineering Science, 60, 2895, (2005)] [Skouras S., S. Skogestad and V. Kiva, "Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation", AIChE Journal, 51 (4), 1144-1157, (2005)] Modla "et al."Modla G., P. Lang, B. Kotai and K. Molnar, "Batch Heteroazeotropic Rectification of a Low Relative Volatility Mixture under Continuous Entrainer Feeding", AIChE Journal, 49 (10), 2533, (2003)] pointed out that this method may give misleading results for the minimal amount of entrainer. Lang and Modla [* Lang P. and Modla G., "Generalised method for the determination of heterogeneous batch distillation regions", Chem. Eng. Sci., 61, 4262-4270, (2006)] extended the method of Pham and Doherty and suggested a new, general method for the calculation of residue curves and for the determination of batch distillation regions of heteroazeotropic distillation.
Lelkes "et al." [Lelkes Z., P. Lang, P. Moszkowicz, B. Benadda and M. Otterbein, "Batch extractive distillation: the process and the operational policies", Chem. Eng. Sci., 53,1331 (1998)] published a feasibility method for the separation of minimum boiling point azeotropes by continuously entrainer feeding batch distillation. This method has been applied for the use of a light entrainer in the batch rectifier and stripper by Lang "et al." (1999) [ Lang, P., Lelkes Z., Otterbein M., Benadda B., Modla G. ”Feasibility studies for batch extractive distillation with a light entrainer”, Comp. Chem. Eng., 23, S93-S96, (1999).] and it applied for maximum azeotropes by Lang "et al". [Lang P., G. Modla, B. Benadda and Z. Lelkes, "Homoazeotropic Distillation of Maximum Azeotropes in a Batch Rectifier with Continuous Entrainer Feeding: I. Feasibility Studie", Comp. Chem. Eng., 24, 1465, (2000)] Modla "et al." extended this method for batch heteroazeotropic distillation under continuous entrainer feeding.
* Hilmen Eva-Katrine, "Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures:Tools for Analysis and Studies on Batch Distillation Operation", Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Chemical Engineering, (2000).
*cite journal | last = Beychok | first = Milton | title = Algebraic Solution of McCabe-Thiele Diagram | journal = Chemical Engineering Progress | date = May 1951
* [http://petrochemical.gronerth.com/linkus.php?link=22 Batch distillation program online] Batch distillation of the hydrocarbon compounds.
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