- Parental leave
Parental leave is an employee benefit that provides paid or unpaid time off work to care for a child or make arrangements for the child's welfare. Often, the term parental leave includes maternity, paternity, and adoption leave. Often the minimum benefits are stipulated by law.
Variation in international law
In most countries, paid parental leave (typically maternity leave) is available for those who have worked for their current employer for a certain period of time. National laws vary widely according to the politics of each jurisdiction.
Only four countries have no national law mandating paid time off for new parents: Liberia, Papua New Guinea, Swaziland, and the United States. In the U.S., the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) mandates up to 12 weeks of (potentially unpaid) job-protected leave, including parental leave, for many American workers. Subnational laws also vary; for example the U.S. state of California does mandate paid family leave, including parental leave for same-sex partners.
Legal requirements for parental leave benefits do not always reflect actual practice. In some countries with relatively weak requirements, individual employers choose to provide benefits beyond those required by law. In some countries, laws requiring parental leave benefits are widely ignored in practice.
Benefits in a selection of countries
A large majority of countries provide more than 10 paid weeks maternity leave. Only four provide none.
Central European countries are the most dedicated countries in the world regarding parental leave. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, it is standard that mothers stay at home for 3 years with every child. All mothers can decide to take 2, 3 or 4 years of maternity leave. It is also possible for the fathers to take the leave instead of the mothers but it is not common. For the whole period mothers are supported by the state. Also, in Slovakia the standard duration of parental leave is 3 years; for a handicapped child it is up to 6 years. The state pays support of 256 Euros per month for the child's first 2 years. After this period it is 164.22 Euros per month. A similar model is also used in Austria where mothers can choose between 1 and 3 years.
Sweden is one country which provides generous parental leave: all working parents are entitled to 16 months paid leave per child, the cost being shared between employer and the state. To encourage greater paternal involvement in child-rearing, a minimum of 2 months out of the 16 is required to be used by the "minority" parent, in practice usually the father, and some Swedish political parties on the political left argue for legislation to oblige families to divide the 16 months equally between both parents. Norway also has similarly generous leave. In Estonia mothers are entitled to 18 months of paid leave, starting up to 70 days before due date. Fathers are entitled to paid leave starting from the third month after birth (paid leave is however available to only one parent at a time).
In the UK, all female employees are entitled to 52 weeks of maternity (or adoption) leave, 39 weeks of which is paid, rising to 52 weeks paid from April 2010, with the first six weeks paid at 90% of full pay and the remainder at a fixed rate. Most employers offer a more generous policy. Annual leave continues to accrue throughout the maternity leave period. A spouse or partner of the woman (including same-sex relationships) may request a two week paid (at a fixed rate) paternity leave. Both the mother and her partner can additionally request non-paid parental leave, which can be for up to 4 weeks annually, with a current limit of 13 weeks.
Country Paid maternity leave Paid maternity (% of annual) Paid paternity leave Unpaid maternity leave Unpaid paternity leave Restrictions Albania 1 year 80% before birth and 150 days, 50% for the rest 62% Austria 16 weeks 100% 31% between 1 and 3 years depending on chosen payment (percentage of last income for one year; ca. €436/month for three years) Belarus 126 days 100% 35% Belgium 15 weeks 82% for 30 days, 75% thereafter 77% 10 day (3 days are compulsory) 7 days but 82% paid out by health insurance fund Bulgaria 1 year 100%; 2nd year at min salary 130% father or a grandparent can take the maternity leave instead of the mother 6 months to be used until the child turns 8 6 months to be used until the child turns 8 Cyprus 16 weeks 75% 23% Czech Republic 28 weeks (6-8 weeks before birth) ~70%; & parental leave up to 2/3/4 years of age of the child (approx. 633/422/211$ a month). Can be taken by either of the parents or by both at the same time (but only one will receive the monetary support). 38% Denmark 52 weeks. 18 to be taken by the mother, 2 weeks by the father, the rest as they see fit. 100% 2 weeks of the 52 weeks paid leave is reserved for the father. Estonia 140 days (100%), 154 days in the case of multiple birth or medical complications 38% 14 days, expires after 6 months after child's birth 3 years Finland 105 days 80%, followed by share of 158 days with father 58% 18 days, can share 158 days with mother after maternity leave Until child turns 3 Until child turns 3 France 16 weeks (100%) rising to 26 weeks (100%) for third child 31% 3 days + 11 consecutive days Share of 104 weeks (2 years) with father Share of 104 weeks (2 years) with mother Germany 14 weeks (100%) 6 before birth, 12/14 months (65%, but not more than 1.800 Euro/month) (14 only for single mothers) 84% 12/14 months (65%, but not more than 1.800 Euro/month) (14 only for single fathers) Share of 156 weeks (3 years) with father Share of 156 weeks (3 years) with mother Must have public health insurance for part of paid leave, rest of paid leave paid by employer Greece 119 days 100% 33% Hungary 24 weeks 100%, plus gets all paid leaves accumulated under the 3 years unpaid maternity leave, which means a 2-4 months paid leave at the end of this period. 46% Five days; can share with mother (after child is over 1 year old) 3 years Iceland 90 days 80% (based on total salary over a 12 month period ending 6 months before the birth). Max. monthly payment for 2008: Íkr535,700 (around €4,500, $6,500 at exchange rates in August 2008); min. monthly payment for 2008: Íkr103,869 (around €870, $1,250)
+ 90 days to be shared freely between the parents
39% As for the mother 13 weeks 13 weeks Parents must have been working for a period of 6 months prior to taking the leave. Parental leave can be taken at any time during the first 18 months of the baby's life. Ireland 26 weeks (6 months) (100%) 50% 0 16 (4 months) weeks that can be shared with father 16 (4 months) weeks that can be shared with mother Italy 22 weeks (5 months) (80%) 2 before birth 34% 13 weeks (3 months) (80%) Maximum 26 weeks (6 months) (total for both parents maximum 44 weeks (10 months)) Maximum 30 weeks (7 months) (total for both parents maximum 44 weeks (10 months)) For paid leave, job contract must include social contributions (INPS) Latvia 112 days, 100% 31% 10 calendar days Liechtenstein 8 weeks 80% 12% Lithuania 1 year 100% or 2 years: 52 weeks 70% and 52 weeks 40% (either mother or father can take it or take the leave in shifts) 100% or 110% 1 month Luxembourg 16 weeks 100% 31% Malta 14 weeks 100% 27% 2 days 100% Netherlands 16 weeks 100% 31% 2 days 100% 26 weeks 26 weeks Unpaid leave for children under 8. For unpaid leave a parent has to have worked for an employer for over 1 year. The government gives all parents that use unpaid parental leave, through tax breaks, 50% of the national minimum wage. Employers have the possibility to provide a payment on their own discretion. Payment for parental leave can also be set at the collective labour agreements. Norway 56 weeks (13 months) (80%) or 46 weeks (10.5 months) (100%) - mother must take at least 3 weeks immediately before birth and 6 weeks immediately after birth, father must take at least 12 weeks (the so-called "daddy quota") - the rest can be shared between mother and father. 86% 10 weeks of the 56/46 weeks paid leave is reserved for the father. If he does not take these 10 weeks, they will be lost as they can not be transferred to the mother. The mother can also take an extra full year of unpaid leave after the paid period ends. The father can also take an extra full year of unpaid leave after the paid period ends. In addition, the father is entitled to take two weeks unpaid leave directly before or after birth (many fathers are paid for these weeks by their employers). To gain the right to paid leave for herself and the father, the mother must have worked for 6 of the last 10 months before birth, or the leave is unpaid (except for a lump sum benefit from the government) Poland 16–18 weeks 100% 35% 7 days 100% (14 days since 2011) up to 3 years, may be split. Portugal 120 days 100% or 150 days 80% 33% 15 days 100% Five days plus two weeks. Of the maternity leave, 6 weeks is compulsory. The father may take the rest of the time the mother would have been entitled to. Romania 126 days (42 compulsory to be taken after birth) paid 85% + 85%, but not lower than 600 RON and not more than 4000 RON, until the baby reaches 2 years of age (3 for a disabled baby). 85% 126 days, instead of the mother, paid 85% + 85%, but not lower than 600 RON and not more than 4000 RON, until the baby reaches 2 years of age (3 for a disabled baby) OR Five days plus 10 more days if the father has taken a child care course (these 10 days are given only once, so not for every child). All 15 days must be taken within the first 8 weeks since the birth of the baby. Must have worked 12 months in the previous year. Russia 140-194 days (before birth: 70 days, or 84 days if multiple pregnancy; after birth: 70 days, or 86 days in case of complications, or 110 days if multiple birth) 100% but not less the minimum salary multiplied by "north region value" (1 to 2.0) if they work full-time (40 hours or legal maximum);
followed by: up to 18 months after birth - 2,194.33-13,833.33 RUB for the first child, 4,388.67-13,833.33 RUB for any subsequent child, but not exceeding 100% and not less the summary minimum multiplied by "north region value" (could be shared with father, grandparents, guardians or actual caregivers of the child). In radiation-risk zones is doubled (there is no special restriction) and paid up to 36 month.
53% instead of the mother: up to 18 months after birth - 2,194.33-13,833.33 RUB for the first child, 4,388.67-13,833.33 RUB for any subsequent child, but not exceeding 100% and not less the summary minimum multiplied by "north region value" up to 18 months (1.5–3 years after birth), could be shared with father, grandparents, guardians or actual caregivers of the child up to 18 months (1.5–3 years after birth), could be shared with mother, grandparents, guardians or actual caregivers of the child 50 additional rub are to be paid by employer outside the 100% period from the year 2011 is cumulative payments from the 2 previous year and divided by 730; the payments are limited to minimum salary if the mother/caregivers didn't work or get the payment ill for any 6 month Slovenia 12 months 100% 100% 11 days Spain 16 weeks 100% 31% 15 days: the day of birth and the next day. The rest, 13 days: anytime during the maternity leave of the mother. Up to 15 days of the mother's leave can be taken by the father (if the father takes all 15 days, the mother only has 97 days to take off instead of the full 4 months (112 days)) Up to 3 years. Sweden 480 days (16 months) (77.6% (80% of 97%) up to a ceiling the first 390 days, 90 days at flat rate) - shared with father (dedicated 60 days) 82% 480 days (16 months) (77.6% (80% of 97%) up to a ceiling the first 390 days, 90 days at flat rate) - shared with mother (dedicated 60 days) + 10 working days in connection with the child's birth The first 18 months (at maximum) individually, by postponing the shared paid period. The first 18 months (at maximum) individually, by postponing the shared paid period. The 480 days can be distributed until the child turns 8 or finishes first year of schooling, which ever accurs latest. Switzerland 16 weeks (100%), 8 weeks mandatory 31% 3 days None None Pregnant women can't be fired Turkey 16 weeks 66.7% 21% Three days paternity leave in the public sector 12 months Ukraine 126 days 100% 35% United Kingdom Currently 39 weeks paid, due to rise to 52 weeks paid from April 2010, although delayed indefinitely (6 weeks at 90% of full pay and remainder at a flat rate (as of 2009 = £123.06) or 90% of your salary if that is less than the flat rate). This is the statutory minimum; most employers often provide more generous arrangements. 10.3% + flat rate of £123.06/week after week 6 2 weeks at a fixed amount (as of March 2009 = £123.06)
4 weeks per year (non-paid and a max of 13 weeks) via a Parental leave request if they have at least one year's continuous employment
13 weeks unpaid (maternity or adoption) for total a of 52 weeks (paid and non-paid)
4 weeks per year (non-paid and a max of 13 weeks) via a Parental leave request if they have at least one year's continuous employment
None. Though note that a spouse or partner can request up to 4 weeks non-paid Parental leave annually (max 13 weeks) if they have at least one year's continuous employment The person requesting Maternity/Adoption or Paternity leave person must have worked for their current employer for at least 26 weeks before the 15th week before the due date (and received a salary that is higher than a fixed minimum). They must give the employer notice before the 15th week before the child is due.
In 2000, parental leave was greatly expanded in Canada from 10 weeks to 35 weeks divided as desired between two parents. This is in addition to 15 weeks maternity leave. In most situations, a combination of maternity and parental benefits can be received up to a combined maximum of 50 weeks. In Canada maternity and parental leave is paid for by the Employment Insurance system.
Country Paid maternity leave Paid paternity leave Unpaid maternity leave Unpaid paternity leave Restrictions Antigua/Barbuda 13 weeks 60% Argentina 90 days 100% Two days Aruba 12 weeks 100% Bahamas 13 weeks 60% One week family-related leave Paid maternity leave may only be taken once every 36 months Barbados 12 weeks 100% Belize 12 weeks 80% Bolivia 12 weeks 100% of national min. wage + 70% of wages above min. wage Brazil 120 days 100%, salary partially tax-deductible for employers 5 days (Article 10, Paragraph 1, of Temporary Constitutional Provisions Act of Brazilian Constitution) Canada 55% up to $468/week for 50 weeks (15 weeks maternity + 35 weeks parental leave shared with father) 55% up to $468/week for 35 weeks parental leave (shared with mother) 2 weeks
Quebec, 70% up to $834.61/week for 25 weeks, then 55% up to $655.76/week for 25 weeks. As with the federal plan, there are 32 weeks of parental leave that can be shared with father. In addition, fathers are eligible for 5 weeks paid leave at a rate of up to 70% of their income or 3 weeks paid leave at a rate of 75% of their income.
Chile 18 weeks 100% Article 66 indicates 1 day paid; Law N° 20.047 (2005) increased paternity leave to 4 days paid leave. (edward gonzalez-acosta, The New School) Colombia 12 weeks 100% Law 755 (2002) appended a paragraph to Article 236 of the Labor Code to indicate that fathers have a leave of 4–8 days. (edward gonzalez-acosta, The New School) Costa Rica 4 months 100% Cuba 18 weeks 100% Dominica 12 weeks 60% Dominican Republic 12 weeks 100% Ecuador 12 weeks 100% El Salvador 12 weeks 75% Grenada 3 months 100% (2 months), 60% for 3rd month Guatemala 84 days 100% Two days at birth of child Guyana 13 weeks 70% Haiti 12 weeks 100% for 6 weeks Honduras 10 weeks 100% for 84 days Jamaica 12 weeks 100% for 8 weeks Mexico 12 weeks 100% Nicaragua 12 weeks 60% Panama 14 weeks 100% Paraguay 12 weeks 50% for 9 weeks Two days Peru 90 days 100% Saint Lucia 3 months 65% Trinidad/Tobago 13 weeks 60%-100% United States 0 weeks (CA: 6 weeks 55%, NJ 6 weeks 66%, WA 5 weeks $250/week; pregnancy treated as disability: HI 58%, NY 50%, RI formula.) 0 weeks (CA: 6 weeks 55%, NJ 6 weeks 66%, WA 5 weeks $250/week) 12 weeks 12 weeks Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 includes all public agencies and private companies with 50 or more employees within 75 miles. Employee must have worked for covered employer for at least 12 months prior, and at least 1250 hours in previous 12 months. Other restrictions apply. See Paid Family Leave (California) for details in CA. Uruguay 12 weeks 100% Three days paternity leave for civil servants Venezuela 18 weeks 100%
Country Paid maternity leave Paid paternity leave Unpaid maternity leave Unpaid paternity leave Restrictions Algeria 14 weeks 100% 3 days Angola 3 months 100% Benin 14 weeks 100% Botswana 12 weeks 25% Burkina Faso 14 weeks 100% Burundi 12 weeks 50% Cameroon 14 weeks 100% Up to 10 days paid leave for family events concerning workers' home Central African Republic 14 weeks 50% Chad 14 weeks 50% Up to 10 days paid leave for family events concerning workers' home Comoros 14 weeks 100% Congo 15 weeks 100% Cote d'Ivoire 14 weeks 100% Up to 10 days paid leave for family events concerning workers' home Democratic Republic of the Congo 14 weeks 67% Djibouti 14 weeks 50% (100% for public employees) 10 days family-related leave Egypt 90 days (approx. 13 weeks) 100% Equatorial Guinea 12 weeks 75% Eritrea 60 days unknown Ethiopia 90 days (approx. 12 weeks) 100% Five days of unpaid leave in the event of exceptional or serious events Gabon 14 weeks 100% Up to 10 days paid leave for family events concerning workers' home The Gambia 12 weeks 100% Ghana 12 weeks 100% Guinea 14 weeks 100% Guinea-Bissau 60 days (approx. 8.5 weeks) 100% Kenya 2 months 100% 2 weeks Lesotho 12 weeks unknown Libya 90 days (approx. 13 weeks) 50% Madagascar 14 weeks 100% 10 days of unpaid leave for family events Mali 14 weeks 100% Mauritania 14 weeks 100% Mauritius 12 weeks 100% Morocco 14 weeks 100% Mozambique 60 days (approx. 8.5 weeks) 100% Namibia 12 weeks Social Security - 70% / Employee - 30% Niger 14 weeks 50% Nigeria 12 weeks 50% Rwanda 12 weeks 67% Two days Sao Tome/Principe 60 days (approx. 8.5 weeks) 100% 10 days Senegal 14 weeks 100% Seychelles 14 weeks flat rate for 10 weeks Four days of paid leave for "compassionate reasons" Somalia 14 weeks 50% South Africa 4 months Up to 60% dependent on income Three days paid family responsibility leave Sudan 8 weeks 100% Swaziland 12 weeks Togo 14 weeks 100% Up to ten days of paid leave for "family events directly related to home" Tunisia 30 days (approx. 4 weeks) 67% 1 day (private sector), 2 days (public sector) Uganda 60 working days (approx. 8.5 weeks) 100% 4 working days 100% United Republic of Tanzania 12 weeks 100% 5 days fully paid paternity leave Paid maternity leave may only be taken once every 36 months Zambia 12 weeks 100% Zimbabwe 90 days (approx. 12 weeks) 100%
Australia will be introducing an 18 week paid maternity leave scheme starting in 2011. It is to be publicly funded, and to provide the federal minimum wage (currently AUS $596.78 a week) rather than a percentage of the primary caregiver's salary. It will not be available to families wherein the primary caregiver has an annual salary above $150,000.
Country Paid maternity leave Paid paternity leave Unpaid maternity leave Unpaid paternity leave Restrictions Afghanistan 90 days 100% Azerbaijan 126 days 100% Australia 18 weeks at federal minimum wage (Around $596/week) 18 weeks at federal minimum wage (Around $596/week) Up to 52 weeks unpaid shared with father. Up to 1 week unpaid taken at time of birth. Up to an additional 51 weeks if not taken at the same time as the mother, and for the purposes of providing primary care. Employer has right to refuse. The 52 weeks are shared between the parents, and all leave must be completed before the child's first birthday. Bahrain 45 days 100% Bangladesh 16 weeks (8 weeks before delivery and 8 weeks after delivery) 100% In case of third (+) time mom, who has two or more babies alive already. Cambodia 90 days 50% 10 days special leave for family events China 90 days 100% Fiji 84 days Flat rate Hong Kong 10 weeks 80% India 12 weeks 100% Does not apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Prohibits employers from allowing women to work within six weeks after giving birth. A female employee is eligible only if she worked for the employer at least 80 days during the 12-month period preceding the date of expected delivery. In the case of a stillbirth or miscarriage, six weeks of paid leave is required instead. Female employees of the Central Government of India receive 180 days of leave. Indonesia 3 months 100% Two days' paid when wife gives birth Iran 6 months 100% Iraq 62 days 100% Israel 14 weeks 100%. The weeks from 6th to 14th can be taken by the father. Can take the paid leave instead of the mother starting from the 6th week (up to 14 weeks) 1 year Japan 14 weeks 60% 1 year 1 year When parents take turns, the total period may be extended 2 months (but no longer than 1 year for each parent).  Jordan 10 weeks 100% Korea, Republic of 90 days 100% 1 year (400US$ per a month paid by Employment Insurance) until the child is 3 years old 1 year (400US$ per a month paid by Employment Insurance) until the child is 3 years old Kuwait 70 days 100% Lao People's Democratic Republic 3 months 70% Lebanon 7 weeks 100% 1 day 100% Malaysia 60 days 100% Mongolia 120 days 70% Myanmar 12 weeks 66.7% Six days of "casual leave" that can be used by fathers to assist their spouses at the time of confinement Nepal 52 days 100% New Zealand 14 weeks @ up to NZ$441.62/week 38 weeks Fathers can share unpaid (extended) leave with the mother of the child. Pakistan 45 days prior to confinement and 45 days after the confinement under rule 13 of the Revised Leave Rules, 1980. But it is 60 days for Armed Forces Nursing Service (AFNS)100% Papua New Guinea 12 weeks 0% Philippines 60 days 100%, applicable also to miscarriages. 78 days 100% for C-section delivery. 7 days 100% parental leave per year for solo parents until the child is 18, or indefinitely if the child has a disability. Seven days paid paternity leave for married workers. 7 days 100% parental leave per year for solo parents until the child is 18, or indefinitely if the child has a disability. Maternity and paternity leave benefits are up to the 4th pregnancy only. Qatar 50 days 100% for civil servants Saudi Arabia 10 weeks 50% or 100% One day Singapore 16 weeks 100% Leave is restricted to married women whose children are Singapore citizens (at least one parent is a Singapore citizen) Solomon Islands 12 weeks 25% Sri Lanka 12 weeks 100% (84 working days), 84 days 50% 03 days 100% 84 days Syrian Arab Republic 50 days 70% Thailand 90 days 100% for 45 days then 50% for 45 days United Arab Emirates 45 Days 100% Vietnam 4–6 months 100% Yemen 60 days 100%
As international organizations are not subject to the legislation of any country, they have their own internal legislation on parental leave.
Organization Paid maternity leave Paid paternity leave Unpaid maternity leave Unpaid paternity leave Restrictions United Nations 16 weeks 100% (however, no fewer than 10 weeks must be after delivery, even if the pre-delivery leave was longer due to a late birth) 4 weeks 100% (or 8 weeks for staff members serving at locations where they are not allowed to live with their family) The fact that a staff member is or will be on parental leave cannot be a factor in deciding contract renewal. To ensure that this is enforced, if a contract ends while the staff member is on parental leave, the contract must be extended to cover the duration of such leave.
- Baby Bonus
- Paid family leave
- Sick leave
- Time bind
- Work-life balance
- UK labour law
- US labor law
- ^ a b "Employment Relations Research Series No. 80, p. 96,". Department of Business Enterprise & Regulation (2007) (ed.): Internal Review of Leave Policies and Related Research 2007. berr.gov.uk. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file40677.pdf.
- ^ paidfamilyleave.org
- ^ "Information on Swedish parental leave". forsakringskassan.se. http://www.forsakringskassan.se/.
- ^ "Paternity leave and pay: UK Directgov". http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Moneyandworkentitlements/WorkAndFamilies/Paternityrightsintheworkplace/DG_10029398. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- ^ "Parental leave: Directgov UK". http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Moneyandworkentitlements/WorkAndFamilies/Parentalleaveandflexibleworking/DG_10029416. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- ^ eesti.ee, accessed 06-22-2007.
- ^ "Information on Icelandic parental leave". althingi.is. http://www.althingi.is/lagas/132a/2000095.html.
- ^ consultant.ru
- ^ starting at 2011 could be only 13,825.40
- ^ buhgalteria.ru
- ^ at 2011 could be only 13,825.40 due to the calculation rule, but old keep the higher
- ^ lge.gov.uk
- ^ Service Canada Employment Insurance (EI) and maternity, parental and sickness benefits
- ^ Service Canada
- ^ Service Canada
- ^ a b paidfamilyleave.org
- ^ paidfamilyleave.org
- ^ "Budget 2009-10: Expense Measures", http://www.budget.gov.au/2009-10/content/bp2/html/bp2_expense-13.htm, Australian Government
- ^ Maternity Benefits Act, 1961. Section 1. VakilNo1. 12 December 1961.
- ^ Maternity Benefits Act, 1961. Section 4. VakilNo1. 12 December 1961.
- ^ a b Lotiya, Palak. "Maternity benefits – A mode of dignifying motherhood". Paycheck.in. Indian Institute of Management.
- ^ "Recommendations of the Sixth Central Pay Commission relating to enhancement of the quantum of Maternity Leave and introduction of Child Care Leave in respect of Central Government employees". Department of Personnel & Training. Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions. Government of India. 11 September 2008.
- ^ mhlw.go.jp
- ^ "UN legislation on maternity and paternity leave". http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/337/76/doc/N0533776.DOC?OpenElement.
- BBC article on proposed parental leave in Germany designed to halt the decline in the birth rate and male/female workplace inequality - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4852040.stm
- BBC article on declining birth rate in Italy - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4739154.stm
- BBC article on declining birth rate in Poland and new schemes designed to increase it - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4852924.stm
- BBC article on success of Norway's parental leave scheme - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4786160.stm
- BBC guide to parenthood policies in Europe - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4837422.stm (n.b. In this BBC article parental leave means unpaid leave)
- Trends in Maternity Leave for First-Time Mothers in the U.S. - http://fycs.ifas.ufl.edu/news/2006/05/family-album-radio-trends-in-maternity.html
- TUC page about maternity rights in the UK - http://www.worksmart.org.uk/rights/what_time_off_work_am_i_entitled
- Center for Law and Social Policy on need for reform in the US: http://www.clasp.org/publications/getting_punched_fullnotes.pdf
- Canadian Labour Standards Government website - http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/lp/spila/wlb/wppp/02leave_benefits.shtml
- International Network on Leave Policy and Research
- Parental Leave in 21 Countries
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
parental leave — ➔ leave * * * parental leave UK US noun [U] HR, WORKPLACE ► time that an employee is given by an employer to look after a new baby, a sick child, etc.: »I had to take holidays when my son was sick because there was no parental leave. »Only 3% of… … Financial and business terms
parental leave — A period of unpaid leave available to a parent who has completed one year s employment, to care for a child under the age of five (or a disabled child under the age of 18). Eligible employees can take up to 13 weeks parental leave for each child; … Law dictionary
parental leave — n. temporary leave from work granted to a parent of a newborn … English World dictionary
parental leave — a leave of absence from a job for a parent to care for a new baby. * * * paˌrental ˈleave 8 [parental leave] noun uncountable time when a parent is allowed to be away from work to care for a child • paid/unpaid parental leave • … Useful english dictionary
parental leave — N UNCOUNT Parental leave is time away from work, usually without pay, that parents are allowed in order to look after their children. [BUSINESS] Parents are entitled to 13 weeks parental leave … English dictionary
parental leave — noun A leave of absence from a job for a parent to take care of a baby. Both my husband and I are on a 3 month parental leave while we look after our newborn baby. See Also: maternity leave, paternity leave … Wiktionary
parental leave — paren′tal leave′ n. a leave of absence for a parent to care for a new baby … From formal English to slang
parental leave — a leave of absence from a job for a parent to care for a new baby. * * * … Universalium
parental leave — pa.rental leave n [U] time that a parent is allowed to spend away from work with his or her baby … Dictionary of contemporary English
parental leave — UK / US noun [uncountable] a period of time away from work that is allowed to a parent to care for a baby or child … English dictionary