- Great Society
The Great Societywas also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas."The Great Society was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United Stateson the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and of racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Dealdomestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt, but differed sharply in types of programs enacted.
Some Great Society proposals were stalled initiatives from
John F. Kennedy's New Frontier. Johnson's success depended on his persuasive skills, coupled with the Democratic landslide in the 1964 election that brought in many new liberals to Congress. Anti-war Democrats complained that spending on the Vietnam Warchoked off the Great Society. While some of the programs have been eliminated or had their funding reduced, many of them, including Medicare, Medicaid, and federal education funding, continue to the present. The Great Society's programs expanded exponentially under the administrations of Richard Nixonand Gerald Ford. [cite book|Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders|pages=98|author=Riley, Jason L.|isbn=978-1-592-40349-3]
Economic and social conditions
New Deal, which was a response to a severe economic calamity, the Great Society emerged during a period of prosperity. President Kennedy proposed a tax cut lowering the top marginal rate by 20%, from 91% to 71%, which was enacted in February 1964#tag:ref|Three months after his assassination.|group="nb" by Lyndon Johnson. Gross National Productrose 10% in the first year of the tax cut, and economic growth averaged a rate of 4.5% from 1961 to 1968. Disposable personal income rose 15% in 1966 alone. Despite the drop in tax rates, federal revenues increased dramatically from $94 billion in 1961 to $150 billion in 1967. As the Baby Boom generation aged, two and a half times more Americans would enter the labor force between 1965 and 1980 than had between 1950 and 1965.
Grave social crises confronted the nation.
Racial segregationpersisted throughout the South. The Civil Rights Movement was gathering momentum, and in 1964 urban riots began within black neighborhoods in New York Cityand Los Angeles; by 1968 hundreds of cities had major riots that caused a severe political backlash. Foreign affairs were generally quiet except for the Vietnam War, which escalated from limited involvement in 1963 to a large-scale military operation in 1968 that overshadowed the Great Society.
Ann Arbor speech
Johnson presented his goals for the Great Society in a speech at the
University of Michiganin Ann Arboron May 22, 1964. Speechwriter Richard N. Goodwinhad coined the phrase "the Great Society," and Johnson had used the expression occasionally before the Michigan speech, but had not emphasized it. In this address, which preceded the election-year party conventions, Johnson described his plans to solve impending problems:
"“We are going to assemble the best thought and broadest knowledge from all over the world to find these answers. I intend to establish working groups to prepare a series of conferences and meetings—on the cities, on natural beauty, on the quality of education, and on other emerging challenges. From these studies, we will begin to set our course toward the Great Society.”" [ [http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/speeches.hom/640522.asp President Johnson's speech at the University of Michigan from the LBJ Library] ]
1965 legislative program and presidential task forces
President Kennedy had employed several task forces composed of scholars and experts to craft New Frontier legislation and to deal with foreign affairs. The reliance on experts appealed to Johnson, in part because the task forces would work in secret and outside of the existing governmental bureaucracy and directly for the
White Housestaff. Almost immediately after the Ann Arbor speech, 14 separate task forces began studying nearly all major aspects of United States society under the guidance of presidential assistants Bill Moyersand Richard N. Goodwin.
The average task force had nine members and generally was composed of governmental experts and academiciansFact|date=September 2008. Only one of the task forces on the 1965 legislative program addressed foreign affairs (foreign economic policy); the rest were charged with domestic policy (agriculture, anti-recession policy, civil rights, education, efficiency and economy, health, income maintenance policy, intergovernmental fiscal cooperation, natural resources, pollution of the environment, preservation of natural beauty, transportation, and urban problems).
After task force reports were submitted to the White House, Moyers began a second round of review. The recommendations were circulated among the agencies concerned and were evaluated by new committees composed mostly of government officials. Experts on relations with Congress were also drawn into the deliberations to get the best advice on persuading the Congress to pass the legislation. In late 1964 Johnson reviewed these initial Great Society proposals at his ranch with Moyers and Budget Director
Kermit Gordon. Many of them were included in Johnson’s State of the Union address delivered on January 7, 1965.
The task-force approach, combined with Johnson's electoral victory in 1964 and his talents in obtaining congressional approval, were widely credited with the success of the legislation agenda in 1965. Critics later cited the task forces as a factor in a perceived elitist approach to Great Society programs. Also, because many of the initiatives did not originate from outside lobbying, some programs had no political constituencies that would support their continued funding.
1964 election and the Eighty-ninth Congress
With the exception of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964[http://finduslaw.com/civil_rights_act_of_1964_cra_title_vii_equal_employment_opportunities_42_us_code_chapter_21 Civil Rights Act of 1964] ] , the Great Society agenda was not a widely discussed issue during the 1964 presidential election campaigns. Johnson won the election with 61% of the vote, the largest percentage since the popular vote first became widespread in 1824, and he carried all but six states. Democrats gained enough seats to control more than two-thirds of each chamber in the Eighty-ninth Congress with a 68-32 margin in the Senate and a 295-140 margin in the House of Representatives. The political realignment allowed House leaders to alter rules that allowed conservative Southern Democratsto kill New Frontier and civil rights legislation in committee, which aided efforts to pass Great Society legislation. In 1965 the first session of the Eighty-ninth Congress created the core of the Great Society. The Johnson Administration submitted eighty-seven bills to Congress, and Johnson signed eighty-four, or 96%, arguably the most successful legislative agenda in American history.Unger, Irwin, 1996: 'The Best of Intentions: the triumphs and failures of the Great Society under Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon': Doubleday, p. 104.]
Historian Alan Brinkley has suggested that the most important domestic achievement of the Great Society may have been its success in translating some of the demands of the civil rights movement into law. Four civil rights acts were passed, including three laws in the first two years of Johnson's presidency. The
Civil Rights Act of 1964[http://finduslaw.com/civil_rights_act_of_1964_cra_title_vii_equal_employment_opportunities_42_us_code_chapter_21 Civil Rights Act of 1964] ] forbade job discrimination and the segregation of public accommodations. The Voting Rights Act of 1965assured minority registration and voting. It suspended use of literacy or other voter-qualification tests that had sometimes served to keep African-Americans off voting lists and provided for federal court lawsuits to stop discriminatory poll taxes. It also reinforced the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [http://finduslaw.com/civil_rights_act_of_1964_cra_title_vii_equal_employment_opportunities_42_us_code_chapter_21 Civil Rights Act of 1964] ] by authorizing the appointment of federal voting examiners in areas that did not meet voter-participation requirements. The Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965abolished the national-origin quotas in immigration law. The Civil Rights Act of 1968banned housing discrimination and extended constitutional protections to Native Americans on reservations.
War on Poverty
The most ambitious and controversial part of the Great Society was its initiative to end poverty. The Kennedy Administration had been contemplating a federal effort against poverty. Johnson, who as a teacher had observed extreme poverty in
Texasamong Mexican-Americans, launched an "unconditional war on poverty" in the first months of his presidency with the goal of eliminating hunger and deprivation from American life. The centerpiece of the War on Povertywas the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, which created an Office of Economic Opportunity(OEO) to oversee a variety of community-based antipoverty programs. The OEO reflected a fragile consensus among policymakers that the best way to deal with poverty was not simply to raise the incomes of the poor but to help them better themselves through education, job training, and community development. Central to its mission was the idea of "community action," the participation of the poor in framing and administering the programs designed to help them.
The War on Poverty began with a $1 billion appropriation in 1964 and spent another $2 billion in the following two years. It spawned dozens of programs, among them the
Job Corps, whose purpose was to help disadvantaged youth develop marketable skills; the Neighborhood Youth Corps, the first summer jobs established to give poor urban youths work experience and to encourage them to stay in school; Volunteers in Service to America(VISTA), a domestic version of the Peace Corps, which placed concerned citizens with community-based agencies to work towards empowerment of the poor; the Model Cities Programfor urban redevelopment; Upward Bound, which assisted poor high school students entering college; legal services for the poor; the Food Stampsprogram; the Community Action Program, which initiated local Community Action Agenciescharged with helping the poor become self-sufficient; and Project Head Start, which offered preschool education for poor children.
The most important educational component of the Great Society was the
Elementary and Secondary Education Actof 1965, designed by Commissioner of Education Francis Keppel. It was signed into law on April 11, 1965, less than three months after it was introduced. It ended a long-standing political taboo by providing significant federal aid to public education, initially allotting more than $1 billion to help schools purchase materials and start special education programs to schools with a high concentration of low-income children. The Act established Head Start, which had originally been started by the Office of Economic Opportunity as an eight-week summer program, as a permanent program.
Higher Education Act of 1965increased federal money given to universities, created scholarships and low-interest loans for students, and established a National Teachers Corpsto provide teachers to poverty stricken areas of the United States. It began a transition from federally funded institutional assistance to individual student aid.
Bilingual Education Actof 1968 offered federal aid to local school districts in assisting them to address the needs of children with limited English-speaking ability until it expired in 2002 [ [http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/T7obit.htm The Bilingual Education Act ] ] .
Social Security Act of 1965authorized Medicare and provided federal funding for many of the medical costs of older Americans. [ [http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=99 Social Security Act Amendments (1965)] ] The legislation overcame the bitter resistance, particularly from the American Medical Association, to the idea of publicly-funded health careor "socialized medicine" by making its benefits available to everyone over sixty-five, regardless of need, and by linking payments to the existing private insurance system.
In 1966 welfare recipients of all ages received medical care through the
Medicaidprogram. Medicaid was created on July 30, 1965 through Title XIX of the Social Security Act. Each state administers its own Medicaid program while the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) monitors the state-run programs and establishes requirements for service delivery, quality, funding, and eligibility standards.
Arts and cultural institutions
National endowments for arts and humanities
In September 1965, Johnson signed the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act into law, creating both the
National Endowment for the Artsand National Endowment for the Humanitiesas separate, independent agencies. Lobbying for federally funded arts and humanities support began during the Kennedy Administration. In 1963 three scholarly and educational organizations—the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), the Council of Graduate Schools in America, and the United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa—joined together to establish the National Commission on the Humanities. In June 1964 the commission released a report that suggested that the emphasis placed on science endangered the study of the humanities from elementary schools through postgraduate programs. In order to correct the balance, it recommended "the establishment by the President and the Congress of the United States of a National Humanities Foundation." In August 1964, Congressman William Moorheadof Pennsylvania proposed legislation to implement the commission's recommendations. Support from the White House followed in September, when Johnson lent his endorsement during a speech at Brown University. In March 1965, the White Houseproposed the establishment a National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities and requested $20 million in start-up funds. The commission's report had generated other proposals, but the White House's approach eclipsed them. The administration's plan, which called for the creation of two separate agencies each advised by a governing body, was the version approved by Congress. Richard Nixonlater dramatically expanded funding for NEH and NEA. [ [http://www.neh.gov/nehat40/founding/ How NEH got its start] ]
After the First National Conference on Long-Range Financing of Educational Television Stations in December 1964 called for a study of the role of noncommercial education television in society, the
Carnegie Corporationagreed to finance the work of a 15-member national commission. Its landmark report, "Public Television: A Program for Action", published on January 26, 1967, popularized the phrase "public television" and assisted the legislative campaign for federal aid. The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, enacted less than 10 months later, chartered the Corporation for Public Broadcastingas a private, non-profit corporation. The law initiated federal aid through the CPB for the operation, as opposed to the funding of capital facilities, of public broadcasting. The CPB initially collaborated with the pre-existing National Educational Televisionsystem, but in 1969 decided to start the Public Broadcasting Service(PBS). A public radio study commissioned by the CPB and the Ford Foundationand conducted from 1968-1969 led to the establishment of National Public Radio, a public radio system under the terms of the amended Public Broadcasting Act.
Two long-planned national cultural and arts facilities received federal funding that would allow for their completion through Great Society legislation. A National Cultural Center, suggested during the
Franklin RooseveltAdministration and created by a bipartisan law signed by Dwight Eisenhower, was transformed into the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, a living memorial to the assassinated president. Fundraising for the original cultural center had been poor prior to legislation creating the Kennedy Center, which passed two months after the president's death and provided $23 million for construction. The Kennedy Center opened in 1971. [ [http://www.wosu.org/archive/jfk/legacy.php Living Legacy: Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts] ] In the late 1930s the United States Congress mandated a Smithsonian Institutionart museum for the National Mall, and a design by Eliel Saarinenwas unveiled in 1939, but plans were shelved during World War II. An 1966 act of Congress established the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gardenas part of the Smithsonian Institutionwith a focus on modern art, in contrast to the existing National Art Gallery. The museum was primarily federally funded, although New York financier Joseph Hirshhornlater contributed $1 million toward building construction, which began in 1969. The Hirshhorn opened in 1974. [ [http://hirshhorn.si.edu/museum/story_text.html The Hirshhorn Story] ]
The most sweeping reorganization of the federal government since the
National Security Act of 1947was the consolidation of transportation agencies into a cabinet-level Department of Transportation. [ [http://dotlibrary.dot.gov/Historian/history.htm The United States Department of Transportation: A Brief History] ] The department was authorized by Congress on October 15, 1966and began operations on April 1, 1967. The Urban Mass Transportation Actof 1964 provided $375 million for large-scale urban public or private rail projects in the form of matching funds to cities and states and created the Urban Mass Transit Administration(now the Federal Transit Administration). The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966and the Highway Safety Act of 1966 were enacted, largely as a result of Ralph Nader's book " Unsafe at Any Speed".
In 1964 Johnson named Assistant Secretary of Labor
Esther Petersonto be the first presidential assistant for consumer affairs.
Cigarette Labeling Act of 1965 required packages to carry warning labels. Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 set standards through creation of the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Fair Packaging and Labeling Act requires products identify manufacturer, address, clearly mark quantity and servings. Statute also authorizes permits HEW and FTC to establish and define voluntary standard sizes. The original would have mandated uniform standards of size and weight for comparison shopping, but the final law only outlawed exaggerated size claims. Child Safety Act of 1966 prohibited any chemical so dangerous that no warning can make its safe. Flammable Fabrics Act of 1967 set standards for children's sleepwear, but not baby blankets. Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 required inspection of meat which must meet federal standards. Truth-in-Lending Actof 1968 required lenders and credit providers to disclose the full cost of finance charges in both dollars and annual percentage rates, on installment loan and sales. Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968 required inspection of poultry which must meet federal standards. Land Sales Disclosure Act of 1968 provided safeguards against fraudulent practices in the sale of land. Radiation Safety Act of 1968 provided standards and recalls for defective electronic products.
Joseph A. Califano, Jr.has suggested that Great Society's main contribution to the environment was an extension of protections beyond those aimed at the conservation of untouched resources. [http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/1999/9910.califano.html What Was Really Great About The Great Society: The truth behind the conservative myths] by Joseph A. Califano Jr.] Discussing his administration's environmental policies, Lyndon Johnsonsuggested that " [t] he air we breathe, our water, our soil and wildlife, are being blighted by poisons and chemicals which are the by-products of technology and industry. The society that receives the rewards of technology, must, as a cooperating whole, take responsibility for [their] control. To deal with these new problems will require a new conservation. We must not only protect the countryside and save it from destruction, we must restore what has been destroyed and salvage the beauty and charm of our cities. Our conservation must be not just the classic conservation of protection and development, but a creative conservation of restoration and innovation." At the behest of Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall, the Great Society included several new environmental laws to protect air and water. Environmental legislation enacted included:
* Clear Air, Water Quality and Clean Water Restoration Acts and Amendments
Wilderness Actof 1964,
Endangered Species Preservation Actof 1966,
National Trails System Actof 1968,
Wild and Scenic Rivers Actof 1968,
Land and Water Conservation Actof 1965,
Solid Waste Disposal Actof 1965,
Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Actof 1965,
National Historic Preservation Actof 1966,
Aircraft Noise Abatement Actof 1968, and
National Environmental Policy Actof 1969.
The legacies of the Great Society
Several observers have noted that funding for many Great Society programs, particularly the poverty initiatives, became difficult beginning in 1968, chiefly due to the
Vietnam Warand Johnson's desire to maintain a balanced budget. Many Great Society initiatives, especially those that benefited the middle class, continue to exist in some form. Civil rights laws remain on the books in amended versions. Some programs, like Medicare and Medicaid, have been criticized as inefficient and unwieldy, but enjoy wide support and have grown considerably since the 1960s. [ [http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=32459 Harris Poll Finds Public Support for Medicare, Medicaid, Other Health Care Programs, USA] ] Federal funding of public and higher education has expanded since the Great Society era and has maintained bipartisan support. Federal funding for culture initiatives in the arts, humanities, and public broadcasting have repeatedly been targets for elimination, but have survived.
The War on Poverty
Interpretations of the War on Poverty remain controversial. The Office of Economic Opportunity was dismantled by the Nixon and Ford administrations, largely by transferring poverty programs to other government departments. Funding for many of these programs were further cut in President
Ronald Reagan's first budget in 1981. Alan Brinkleyhas suggested that the gap between the expansive intentions of the War on Poverty and its relatively modest achievements fueled later conservative arguments that government is not an appropriate vehicle for solving social problems. Alan Brinkley, "Great Society" in "The Reader's Companion to American History", Eric Foner and John Arthur Garraty eds., ISBN 0-395-51372-3, Houghton Mifflin Books, p. 472] The poverty programs were heavily criticized by conservatives like Charles Murray, who denounced them in his 1984 book "Losing Ground" as being ineffective and creating an underclass of lazy citizens. One of Johnson's aides, Joseph A. Califano, Jr., has countered that, "from 1963 when Lyndon Johnsontook office until 1970 as the impact of his Great Society programs were felt, the portion of Americans living below the poverty line dropped from 22.2 percent to 12.6 percent, the most dramatic decline over such a brief period in this century." The poverty rate for blacks fell from 55 percent in 1960 to 27 percent in 1968. [ [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=372 The Great Society and the Drive for Black Equality] ]
Thomas Sowellargues that the Great Society programs only contributed to the destruction of African American families, saying "the black family, which had survived centuries of slavery and discrimination, began rapidly disintegrating in the liberal welfare state that subsidized unwed pregnancy and changed welfare from an emergency rescue to a way of life." [ [http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=3864 War on Poverty Revisited] Thomas Sowell, August 17, 2004] Professor William L. Andersonalso criticized the War on Poverty, noting the increase of dependency on the government as being harmful to the lower classes. [ [http://www.lewrockwell.com/anderson/anderson207.html The Poverty and Poison of Paul Krugman] William L. Anderson, February 25, 2008]
Irving Kristoland other critics of Great Society programs founded a politics and culture journal " The Public Interest" in 1965. While most of these critics had been anti-communist liberals, their writings were skeptical of the perceived social engineering of the Great Society. Often termed neoconservatives, they are credited with laying the groundwork for the conservative movement of the 1980s and 1990s.Francis Fukuyama, "America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy", ISBN 0-300-11399-4, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 18-19.]
* John A. Andrew "Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society": I.R. Dee, 1998 ISBN 1-56663-184-X
* Eli Ginzberg and Robert M. Solow (eds.) "The Great Society: Lessons for the Future" ISBN 0-465-02705-9 [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=57028660 (1974), 11 chapters on each program, by experts]
* Jeffrey W. Helsing "Johnson's War/Johnson's Great Society: the guns and butter trap" Praeger Greenwood 2000 ISBN 0-275-96449-3
* Marshall Kaplan and Peggy L. Cuciti; "The Great Society and Its Legacy: Twenty Years of U.S. Social Policy" Duke University Press, 1986 ISBN 0-8223-0589-5
* Barbara C. Jordan and Elspeth D. Rostow (editors) "The Great Society: a twenty year critique": Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs 1986 ISBN 0-89940-417-0
* Gordon, Kermit (ed.) "Agenda for the Nation", The Brookings Institution. (1968)
* Lyndon B. Johnson "My Hope for America": Random House, 1964 ISBN 1-121-42877-0
*Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, eds. "The Great Society And The High Tide Of Liberalism" (2005)
* Charles Murray "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980": Basic Books; 10th Anniv edition (February 1995) ISBN 0-465-04231-7
* Irwin Unger "The Best of Intentions: the triumphs and failures of the Great Society under Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon": Doubleday, 1996 ISBN 0-385-46833-4
* [http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/speeches.hom/640522.asp President Johnson's speech at the University of Michigan from the LBJ Library]
* [http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Lesson_104_LBJ.htm Social Studies help on the Great Society]
* [http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/13/documents/lbj/ Johnson's Great Society speech on CNN]
* [http://www.pbs.org/johngardner/chapters/4.html John Gardner Architect of the Great Society on PBS]
* [http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture27.html University of Wisconsin notes on the Great Society]
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