Emergency Quota Act


Emergency Quota Act

The Emergency Quota Act, also known as the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, the Per Centum Law, and the Johnson Quota Act (ch. 8, 42 Stat. 5 of May 19, 1921) restricted immigration into the United States. Although intended as temporary legislation, the Act "proved in the long run the most important turning-point in American immigration policy"[1] because it added 2 new features to American immigration law: numerical limits on immigration from Europe and the use of a quota system for establishing those limits.

The Act restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910.[2] Based on that formula, the number of new immigrants admitted fell from 805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 in 1921-22.[3]

Contents

Summary

Similar legislation had been proposed several times before without success. The resumption of immigration and the widespread unemployment that followed the end of World War I lent strength to the anti-immigration movement.

The act was passed without a recorded vote in the U.S. House of Representatives and by a vote of 78-1 in the U.S. Senate. James Alexander Reed, a Democrat from Missouri, cast the sole dissenting vote.[4]

The Act restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910. The use of such a National Origins Formula continued until 1965.

The average annual inflow of immigrants prior to 1921 was 175,983 from Northern and Western Europe, and 685,531 from other countries, principally Southern and Eastern Europe. In 1921, immigration was 198,082 from Northern and Western Europe, and 158,367 from principally Southern and Eastern Europe (including other countries), being shown as a drastic reduction in immigration levels from other countries, principally Southern and Eastern Europe.

Professionals were to be admitted without regard to their country of origin. The Act set no limits on immigration from Latin America.

The Act was soon revised by the Immigration Act of 1924.

See also

References

  1. ^ John Higham, Strangers in the Land (1963), 311
  2. ^ Divine, Robert A. (2007) America, Past and Present, 8th ed., 736
  3. ^ Robert K. Murray, The 103rd Ballot: Democrats and the Disaster in Madison Square Garden (NY: Harper & Row, 1976), 7
  4. ^ "Senate Vote #21 (May 3, 1921)". govtrack.us. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/vote.xpd?vote=s67_1-21&sort=vote. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 

Further reading

  • Nathan Miller, New World Coming. Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 2003
  • John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism. 2nd ed. New York: Atheneum, 1963. (First edition published by Rutgers University Press in 1955)

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Emergency Quota Act — Der Emergency Quota Act (deutsch: „Not Quotengesetz“) war ein Gesetz, das in den Vereinigten Staaten 1921 auf Bundesebene in Kraft trat, um die Einwanderung, die nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg stark zugenommen hatte, zu begrenzen. Das Gesetz, das am… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Immigration Act of 1924 — President Coolidge signs the immigration act on the White House South Lawn along with appropriation bills for the Veterans Bureau. John J. Pershing is on the President s right. The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the… …   Wikipedia

  • Magnuson Act — For the United States federal law dealing with consumer warranties, see Magnuson–Moss Warranty Act. The Magnuson Act also known as the Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943 was immigration legislation proposed by U.S. Representative (later… …   Wikipedia

  • Chinese Exclusion Act — This article is about the former U.S. law. For the similar Canadian law, see Chinese Immigration Act of 1923. The first page of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on… …   Wikipedia

  • REAL ID Act — of 2005 Full title To establish and rapidly implement regulations for State driver s license and identification document security standards, to prevent terrorists from abusing the asylum laws of the United States, to unify terrorism related… …   Wikipedia

  • Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 — The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (Pub.L. 82 414, 66 Stat. 163, enacted June 27, 1952), also known as the McCarran–Walter Act, restricted immigration into the U.S. and is codified under Title 8 of the United States Code.… …   Wikipedia

  • DREAM Act — The DREAM Act (acronym for Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors) is an American legislative proposal first introduced in the Senate on August 1, 2001[1] and most recently reintroduced there on May 11, 2011. This bill would provide… …   Wikipedia

  • Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act — The Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act, or NACARA, is a U.S. law passed in 1997 that provides various forms of immigration benefits and relief from deportation to certain Nicaraguans, Cubans, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, nationals …   Wikipedia

  • Naturalization Act of 1795 — Declaration of Intention for Albert Einstein. The United States Naturalization Act of January 29, 1795 (1 Stat. 414) repealed and replaced the Naturalization Act of 1790. The …   Wikipedia

  • Naturalization Act of 1790 — The original United States Naturalization Law of March 26, 1790 (1 Stat. 103) provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.