- John Masters
Masters was the son of a
Lieutenant-Colonelwhose family had a long tradition of service in the Indian Army. He was educated at Wellington and Sandhurst. On graduating from Sandhurst in 1933, he was seconded to the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry(DCLI) for a year before electing to serve with the 2nd Battalion of the 4th Prince of Wales's Own Gurkha Rifles. He saw service on the North-West Frontier and was rapidly given a variety of appointments within the battalion and its regimental depot, becoming the battalion's Adjutantin early 1939.
World War IIhis battalion was sent to Basrain Iraq, during the brief Anglo-Iraqi War. Masters subsequently served in Iraq, Syriaand Persia. In early 1942, he attended the Indian Army Staff College at Quetta. Here he met the wife of a fellow officer and began an affair. They were later to marry. This caused a small scandal at the time.
After Staff College he first served as
Brigade Majorin Indian 114th Infantry Brigadebefore being "poached" by "Joe" Lentaigne, another officer from 4th Gurkhas, to be Brigade Major in Indian 111th Infantry Brigade, a Chinditformation. From March, 1944, the brigade served behind the Japanese lines in Burma. On the death of General Orde Wingateon April 24, Lentaigne became the Chindits' overall commander and Masters commanded the main body of 111 Brigade.
In May, the brigade was ordered to hold a position code-named ‘Blackpool’ near
Mogaungin Northern Burma. The position was attacked with great intensity for seventeen days and eventually the brigade was forced to withdraw. Masters had to order the medical orderlies to shoot 19 of his own men, casualties who had no hope of recovery or rescue. Masters later wrote about these events in the second volume of his autobiography, "The Road Past Mandalay".
After briefly commanding the 3rd battalion of his regiment, Masters subsequently became GSO1 (the Chief of Staff) of Indian 19th Infantry Division until the end of the war. After a spell as a staff officer in GHQ India in
Delhi, he then served as an instructor at the British Army Staff College at Camberley, but later left the army and moved to the United States, where he attempted to set up a business promoting walking tours in the Himalayas, one of his hobbies. The business was not a success and, to make ends meet, he decided to write of his experiences in the army. When his novels proved popular, he became a full-time writer. In later life, Masters and his wife Barbara moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. He died in 1983 from complications following heart surgery. His family and friends scattered his ashes from an aeroplane over the mountain trails he loved to hike. General Sir Michael Rose, the former UN commander in Bosnia, is a stepson of Masters.
"John Masters; A Regimented Life" by John Clay was published by Michael Joseph in 1992. Now out of print, it is a sympathetic but not uncritical biography. According to Clay, Master’s possessed a strong and sometimes domineering personality, and could be impatient with weakness or incompetence. He could also be extremely warmhearted and generous. His outgoing and boisterous personality flourished during his long residence in the United States, with its greater social freedoms. Masters was impatient with the literary establishment, which faulted his Indian novels as unsympathetic to Indians, and he was impatient with editors who wanted to remove the rough edges from his characters. Masters strove for accuracy and realism, resenting it when people mistook his characters' views as his own. He was extremely hard-working and meticulously well-organized, both as a soldier and a novelist. Clay speculates that Masters may have been driven to achieve by rumors that his family was not pure English, but Anglo-Indian or Eurasian. In 1962 Masters learned what he had apparently long suspected, that he did indeed have a distant Indian ancestor.
Clay's biography provides details that Masters omitted from the three volumes of autobiography he wrote: "Bugles and a Tiger" (1956); "Road Past Mandalay" (1961); and "Pilgrim Son" (1971). They are nevertheless extremely revealing. "Bugles and a Tiger," which details Masters's time at Sandhurst and service on India's northwest frontier on the eve of World War II, is among the finest portraits of the profession of arms ever written. "Road Past Mandalay" deals mostly with the Burma campaign in World War II, while "Pilgrim Son" chronicles his career as a writer.
Literary Works and controversy over them
Treatment of India and the British Raj
Apart from the autobiographical works (mentioned above), Masters is also known for his
historical novels set in India. Seven of these portray members of successive generations of the Savage family serving in the British Army in India in an attempt to trace the history of the British in India through the life of one family. In chronological order of events (but not in order of publication) these novels are:
Coromandel!" (A 17th century English lad runs away to sea, ends up in India).
The Deceivers" (An English officer goes undercover to root out the ritual murders of Thuggee).
Nightrunners of Bengal" (The Sepoy Mutinyof 1857).
The Lotus and the Wind" ( The Great Gameof British and Russian spies on the Northwest Frontier).
Far, Far the Mountain Peak" ( Mountaineeringand World War I).
Bhowani Junction" (Britain's exodus and the Partition of India).
To the Coral Strand" (Ex-officer refuses to go gracefully after Indian independence).
"The Deceivers" was filmed in 1988 and starred
Pierce Brosnan. The best-known film is probably " Bhowani Junction", which concerns the Partition of Indiaand the Anglo-Indiancommunity. It starred Ava Gardner. Four of the novels (D, NB, LW, BJ) were adapted for an 18-part serial in BBC Radio 4's Classic Serial slot, being broadcast from October 1984 to January 1985.
One of Masters' last Indian novels, "The Venus of Konpara", is notable for the fact that its principal characters are Indians. The Savage family play no role in the storyline, though it is hinted that a minor unidentified character is a family member. It is set in the nineteenth century during the Raj, but explores the history of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian identities in the country.
Unsurprisingly, considering the subject, Masters' works are not without their critics, many of whom simply reflect their own thinking about British imperialism rather than addressing the literary quality of Masters' work. Those who are hostile to the Empire criticise his work as revisionist - without specifying what is being "revised" - or as uncritical of the Empire. Typical are the observations of one
Ronald Brydon: "For us, the saga of the Savages, heroes and conquistadors of the Raj, was a political pornography in which we savoured the illicit sensualities of imperialism." [http://www.poetrymagazines.org.uk/magazine/record.asp?id=10161]
Others have detected a greater sophistication in Masters' dealings with the British Empire. [http://www.hindu.com/mp/2004/09/13/stories/2004091300440200.htm] Both "
Nightrunners of Bengal" and " The Ravi Lancers" contain sympathetic portrayals of Indian nationalists, and portray irreconcilable tensions between British and Indian characters that mirror the conflicts of the Raj in a manner comparable to E.M. Forster's " A Passage to India". The descendent of the hero of the former novel (who is in practice manifestly the same character) experiences the Partition of Indiawith a resigned detachment and later undergoes a deep personal crisis which ends with his staying on in independent India rather than returning to Britain. It is interesting to note that one Indian novelist remarked that while Kipling understood India, John Masters understood Indians.
Masters's trilogy of "Now God Be Thanked", "Heart of War" and "In The Green Of The Spring" may be considered his Magnum Opus, covering the changes to various segments of British society wrought by the upheavals of
World War I. "The Ravi Lancers" is also set in the First World War, but concerns the exploits of an Indian regiment, the commander of which is related to the Savage family.
Another recurrent theme in Masters' work is
In the fifties and sixties his books sold in large numbers, particularly "Bhowani Junction" (which was also translated to various other languages). Some of his works are now out of print.
Nightrunners of Bengal" (1951)
The Deceivers" (1952)
The Lotus and the Wind" (1953)
Bhowani Junction" (1954)
* "Coromandel!" (1955)
* "Bugles and a Tiger" (1956)
* "Far, Far the Mountain Peak" (1957)
* "Fandango Rock" (1959)
The Venus of Konpara" (1960)
* "The Road Past Mandalay" (1961)
* "To the Coral Strand" (1962)
* "Trial at Monomoy" (1964)
* "Fourteen Eighteen" (1965)
* "The Breaking Strain" (1967)
* "Casanova" (1969)
* "The Rock" (1970)
* "Pilgrim Son: A Personal Odyssey" (1971)
The Ravi Lancers" (1972)
* "Thunder at Sunset" (1974)
* "The Field Marshal's Memoirs" (1975)
* "The Himalayan Concerto" (1976)
* "Now, God Be Thanked" (1979)
* "Heart of War" (1980)
* "By the Green of the Spring" (1981)
* "High Command" (1983)
* "Man of War" (1983)
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