- Wade-Davis Bill
The Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 was a program proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator
Benjamin Wadeof Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davisof Maryland. In contrast to President Abraham Lincoln's more lenient Ten percent plan, the bill made re-admittance to the Union almost impossible (or at least without a great moral defeat for the South) since it required a majority in each Southern state to swear the Ironclad oathto the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy. The bill passed both houses of Congress on July 2, 1864, but was pocket vetoed by Lincoln and never took effect. Therefore considered as a dead bill. The Radical Republicans were outraged that Lincoln didn't sign the bill. They thought that since they were in the same political party as Lincoln, Lincoln would sign the bill however he did not because he did not want revenge on the south for rebelling instead he wanted to mend the union and carry out the Ten Percent Plan. Unfortunately Lincoln was assassinated in Ford's Theater in Washington D.C. by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln was never able to carry out the Ten Percent Plan however the following president Andrew Johnson did.
The Wade-Davis Bill emerged from a plan introduced in the Senate by
Ira Harrisof New York in February, 1863. It proposed to base Reconstruction in traditional concepts of federalismand republicanism. The Wade-Davis Bill was also important for national and congressional power. Although federally imposed conditions of reconstruction retrospectively seem logical, there was a widespread belief that southern Unionism would return the seceded states to the Union after the South's military power was broken. This belief was not fully abandoned until 1863.
Lincoln feared the bill would sabotage his own reconstruction activities in states like
Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, all of which had seceded but were under the control of a loyal minority. Wade-Davis would also jeopardize state-level emancipation movements in loyal border states like Missouriand, especially, Maryland. Worst of all, the bill threatened to destroy the delicate political coalitions that Lincoln had begun to construct between northern and southern moderates. Lincoln therefore killed the bill with a pocket veto and it was not resurrected.
Davis was a bitter enemy of Lincoln because Lincoln was not harsh enough on the South. Davis and Wade issued a manifesto "To the Supporters of the Government" on August 4, 1864, that accused Lincoln of using reconstruction to secure electors in the South who would “be at the dictation of his personal ambition,” condemned his efforts to usurp power from Congress, and implicitly recommended dumping him from the Republican ticket. Lincoln survived their attacks and greatly strengthened his position with a landslide victory in the election, and the passage of the 13th Amendment in February, 1865. He marginalized the Radicals in terms of shaping Reconstruction policy; after Lincoln's death and the failures of
Andrew Johnson, the Radicals took control of reconstruction policy in 1866.
* Belz, Herman. "Henry Winter Davis and the Origins of Congressional Reconstruction" "Maryland Historical Magazine" 1972 67(2): 129-143. ISSN 0025-4258
* Belz, Herman. "Emancipation and Equal Rights: Politics and Constitutionalism in the Civil War Era" 1978
* Belz, Herman. "Reconstructing the Union: Theory and Policy during the Civil War" 1969
* Benedict, Michael Les. "A Compromise of Principle: Congressional Republicans and Reconstruction, 1863–1869" 1974
* Harris, William C. "With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union" 1997, pp 123–70.
* Hesseltine, William B.; "Lincoln's Plan of Reconstruction" 1960
* Hyman; Harold M. "A More Perfect Union: The Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the Constitution" 1973
* [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/sgml/moa-idx?notisid=ABP2287-0038-89&type=boolean&slice=1&&&q1=Nicolay&rgn1=Author&op2=And&rgn2=Author&op3=And&rgn3=Author&year1=1815&year2=1926&searchSummary=70%20matching%20%20journal%20articles&size=50&layer=third&coll=serial1 Nicolay and Hay, "Abraham Lincoln: A History. The Wade-Davis Manifesto" (1889)] "The Century" pp 414-21
* [http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/inside.asp?ID=61&subjectID=3 Mr. Lincoln and Freedom: Wade-Davis Bill]
* [http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-wfsection+article+articleid-329.html 1864: Wade-Davis Bill - American Historical Documents All American Patriots]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Wade-Davis Bill — (1864) Measure passed by the U.S. Congress to set Reconstruction policy. It was cosponsored by Sen. Benjamin Wade and Rep. Henry W. Davis (1817–65) to counter Pres. Abraham Lincoln s lenient plans for readmitting Southern states after the… … Universalium
Davis, Henry Winter — ▪ American politician born Aug. 16, 1817, Annapolis, Md., U.S. died Dec. 30, 1865, Baltimore, Md. Maryland unionist during the secession crisis, harsh critic of Abraham Lincoln, and coauthor of the congressional plan for Reconstruction during… … Universalium
wade — /wayd/, v., waded, wading, n. v.i. 1. to walk in water, when partially immersed: He wasn t swimming, he was wading. 2. to play in water: The children were wading in the pool most of the afternoon. 3. to walk through water, snow, sand, or any… … Universalium
Wade, Benjamin F. — ▪ American politician in full Benjamin Franklin Wade born Oct. 27, 1800, Springfield, Mass., U.S. died March 2, 1878, Jefferson, Ohio U.S. senator during the Civil War whose radical views brought him into conflict with presidents Abraham… … Universalium
Davis — /day vis/, n. 1. Alexander Jackson, 1803 92, U.S. architect. 2. Benjamin Oliver, 1877 1970, U.S. military officer: first black Army brigadier general. 3. his son, Benjamin Oliver, Jr., born 1912, U.S. military officer: first black Air Force… … Universalium
Wade — /wayd/, n. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Barkley Charles Wade Hampton Wade Roe v. Wade Wade Benjamin Franklin Wade Davis Bill * * * … Universalium
Wade, Benjamin F(ranklin) — born Oct. 27, 1800, Springfield, Mass., U.S. died March 2, 1878, Jefferson, Ohio U.S. politician. He practiced law in Ohio before serving in the U.S. Senate (1851–69), where he opposed the extension of slavery and the Kansas Nebraska Act. In the… … Universalium
Wade O. Martin, Jr. — Wade Omer Martin, Jr. (April 18, 1911 – August 6, 1990) was the Democratic Secretary of State of Louisiana under five governors, having served from 1944 to 1976. Though originally part of the Long faction, Martin quarreled with Governor Earl Kemp … Wikipedia
Bill Parcells — Date of birth August 22, 1941 (1941 08 22) (age 70) Place of birth Englewood, New Jersey Position(s) Head Coach, Vice President College Wichita State Awards 1994 AP NFL Coach of Year 1986 AP NFL Coach of Year 1986 Sporting News NFL Coach of… … Wikipedia
Bill Dodd — Infobox Officeholder name=William Joseph Bill Dodd image size= caption=Standard political photograph (1960s) used by candidate Bill Dodd office=Louisiana State Representative (Allen Parish) term start=1940 term end=1948 preceded=David Cole… … Wikipedia